Back
 EPE  Vol.13 No.1 , January 2021
Real-Time Operation of Microgrids
Abstract: Microgrid (MG) systems effectively integrate a generation mix of solar, wind, and other renewable energy resources. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and the unpredictable weather conditions contribute largely to the unreliability of microgrid real-time operation. This paper investigates the behavior of microgrid for different intermittent scenarios of photovoltaic generation in real-time. Reactive power coordination control and load shedding mechanisms are used for reliable operation and are implemented using OPAL-RT simulator integrated with Matlab. In an islanded MG, load shedding can be an effective mechanism to maintain generation-load balance. The microgrid of the German Jordanian University (GJU) is used for illustration. The results show that reactive power coordination control not only stabilizes the MG operation in real-time but also reduces power losses on transmission lines. The results also show that the power losses at some substations are reduced by a range of 6% - 9.8%.
Cite this paper: Al-Agtash, S. , Alkhraibat, A. , Hashem, M. and Al-Mutlaq, N. (2021) Real-Time Operation of Microgrids. Energy and Power Engineering, 13, 51-66. doi: 10.4236/epe.2021.131004.
References

[1]   Che, L., Zhang, X., Shahidehpour, M., Alabdulwahab, A. and Al-Turki, Y. (2016) Optimal Planning of Loop-Based Microgrid Topology. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 8, 1771-1781.
https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2015.2508058

[2]   Prete, C. and Hobbs, B. (2016) A Cooperative Game Theoretic Analysis of Incentives for Microgrids in Regulated Electricity Markets. Applied Energy, 169, 524-541.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.01.099

[3]   Gregoratti, D. and Matamoros, J. (2015) Distributed Energy Trading: The Multiple-Microgrid Case. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 62, 2551–2559.
https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2014.2352592

[4]   Considine, T., Cox, W. and Cazalet, E. (2012) Understanding Microgrids as the Essential Architecture of Smart Energy. Proceedings of Grid-Interop Forum, 1, 1-14.

[5]   Yoldaş, Y., Önen, A., Muyeen, S., Vasilakos, A. and Alan, Ì. (2017) Enhancing Smart Grid with Microgrids: Challenges and Opportunities. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 72, 205-214.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.01.064

[6]   Almutairy, I. (2016) A Review of Coordination Strategies and Techniques for Overcoming Challenges to Microgrid Protection. Proceedings of Smart Grid (SASG), Jeddah, 6-8 December 2016, 1-4.
https://doi.org/10.1109/SASG.2016.7849681

[7]   Guo, F., Wen, C., Mao, J. and Song, Y. (2015) Distributed Secondary Voltage and Frequency Restoration Control of Droop-Controlled Inverter-Based Microgrids. IEEE Transactions on industrial Electronics, 62, 4355-4364.
https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2014.2379211

[8]   Guerrero, J., Chandorkar, M., Lee, T. and Loh, P. (2013) Advanced Control Architectures for Intelligent Microgrids Part I: Decentralized and Hierarchical Control. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 60, 1254-1262.

[9]   Bouzid, A., Sicard, P., Paquin, J. and Yamane, A. (2016) A Robust Control Strategy for Parallel-Connected Distributed Generation Using Real-Time Simulation. Proceedings of 2016 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG), Vancouver, 27-30 June 2016, 1-8.

[10]   Elsied, M., Oukaour, A., Youssef, T., Gualous, H. and Mohammed, O. (2016) An Advanced Real Time Energy Management System for Microgrids. Energy, 114, 742-752.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.08.048

[11]   Farzinfar, M., Jazaeri, M., Nair, N. and Razavi, F. (2014) Stability Evaluation of MicroGrid Using Real-Time Simulation. Proceeedings of 2014 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference, Perth, 28 September-1 October 2014, 1-6.
https://doi.org/10.1109/AUPEC.2014.6966592

[12]   Acharya, S., El Moursi, M., Al-Hinai, A., Al-Sumaiti, A. and Zeineldin, H. (2018) A Control Strategy for Voltage Unbalance Mitigation in an Islanded Microgrid Considering Demand Side Management Capability. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 10, 2558-2568.
https://doi.org/10.1109/PESGM40551.2019.8974068

[13]   Kekatos, V., Wang, G., Conejo, A. and Giannakis, G. (2014) Stochastic Reactive Power Management in Microgrids with Renewables. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 30, 3386-3395.
https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2014.2369452

[14]   Sheikh, S., Iqbal, S., Kazim, M. and Ulasyar, A. (2019) Real-Time Simulation of Microgrid and Load Behavior Analysis Using FPGA. Proceedings of 2019 International Conference on Computing, Mathematics and Engineering Technologies, 30-31 January 2019, 1-5.
https://doi.org/10.1109/ICOMET.2019.8673431

[15]   Jacob, M., Neves, C. and Vukadinović, D. (2020) Short Term Load Forecasting. In: Forecasting and Assessing Risk of Individual Electricity Peaks, Springer, Berlin, 15-37.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28669-9_2

[16]   Chen, S., Gooi, H. and Wang, M. (2012) Sizing of Energy Storage for Microgrids. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 3, 142-151.
https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2011.2160745

[17]   Aryuanto, S., Lomi, A. and Mulayanto, W. (2011) Modeling of Wind Energy System with MPPT Control. Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Bandung, 17-19 July 2011.

[18]   Ni, K.X., Wei, Z.B., Yan, H., Xu, K.Y., He, L.J. and Cheng, S. (2019) Bi-Level Optimal Scheduling of Microgrid with Integrated Power Station Based on Stackelberg Game. Proceeding of 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Green Building and Smart Grid, Yichang, 6-9 September 2019.

[19]   The 3DMicrogrid Project [2017-2020].
https://www.3dmicrogrid.com/home.html

[20]   Do, D., Kothari, D. and Kalam, A. (1995) Simple and Efficient Method for Load Flow Solution of Radial Distribution Networks. International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 17, 335-346.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0142-0615(95)00050-0

[21]   Qian, M., Liu, Y., Chen, N., Zhu, L., Zhao, D. and Jiang, D. (2015) A Static Reactive Power Coordination Control Strategy of Solar PV Plant Considering Voltage and Power Factor. Proceedings of International Conference on Renewable Power Generation, Beijing, 17-18 October 2015, 1-6.
https://doi.org/10.1049/cp.2015.0536

[22]   Wang, H., Kraiczy, M., Wende-von, B., Kämpf, E., Ernst, B., Schmidt, S. and Braun, M. (2017) Reactive Power Coordination Strategies with Distributed Generators in Distribution Networks. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Large-Scale Grid Integrated Renewable Energy India, New Delhi, 6-8 September 2017.

 
 
Top