JBCPR  Vol.8 No.4 , December 2020
Motivational Strategies to Improve Artisan’s Productivity in the Construction Industry in Ghana
Abstract: Motivation is a strategy adopted by organisational managers to improve organisational performance. Most researchers have found different factors that affect the motivation on a different level. The aim of the survey was to examine the motivational strategies for improving productivity among artisans in the construction companies in the Eastern Region and the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional research design utilising the quantitative approach. A purposive random sampling technique was employed to choose 90 workers to participate in the study. A structured questionnaire was utilised to gather information from respondents. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) were used to analyse the data collected. Results from the survey showed that artisans see motivation as very significant in their workplace. The study found that empowerment, quality of life, and monetary incentive have significant relation with motivation and effective use of such strategies could assist construction industry practitioners to enhance craftsmen performance. The study contributes to a few pieces of literature existing in construction motivational strategies. The findings point to the fact that industrial players should pay more attention to the motivational strategies to assist artisans’ function effectively in their work environment.
Cite this paper: Gyamfi, T. , Nana-Addy, E. and Gyadu-Asiedu, W. (2020) Motivational Strategies to Improve Artisan’s Productivity in the Construction Industry in Ghana. Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, 8, 285-301. doi: 10.4236/jbcpr.2020.84019.

[1]   Kpamma, E.Z. (2009) The Practice of Lean Thinking at the Pre-Contract Stage of Building Construction Projects by Selected Ghanaian Firms. Unpublished MSc Thesis, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi.

[2]   Alinaitwe, H.M. (2009) Prioritizing Lean Construction Barriers in Uganda's Construction Industry. Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 14, 15-30.

[3]   Yankov, L. and Kleiner, B.H. (2001) Human Resources Issues in the Construction Industry. Management Research News, 24, 101-105.

[4]   Arnold, J. and Schoonman, W. (2002) Maintaining and Enhancing Motivation as a Contribution to Organizational Effectiveness. In: Robertson, I.T., Callinan, M. and Bartram, D., Eds., Organizational Effectiveness: The Role of Psychology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, 159-180.

[5]   Hughes, R.L., Ginett, R.C. and Curphy, G. J. (2009) Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, New York, 368-436.

[6]   Latham, G.P. and Ernst, C.T. (2006) Keys to Motivating Tomorrow’s Workforce. Human Resource Management Review, 16, 181-198.

[7]   Whitmore, J. (2009) Coaching for Performance. 4th Edition, Nicholas Brealey Publishing, London, 106-111.

[8]   Dwivedula, R. and Bredillet, C.N. (2010) Profiling Work Motivation of Project Workers. International Journal of Project Management, 28, 158-165.

[9]   Project Management Institute (2008) A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. 4th Edition, Project Management Institute, Newtown Square, 22-32, 215-242, 417-420.

[10]   Currie (1972) Employee Motivation: Motivation in the Workplace-Theory and Practice.

[11]   Asare-Bediako, K. (2002) Professional Skills in Human Resource Management. Kasbed Ltd., Accra.

[12]   Amadi, A.O. (1991) Recipe for Productivity Improvement. Proceedings of the First National Conference on Productivity, Macmillan, 1-3 December 1987, 98-106.

[13]   Emery, R.C. (2009) A Cause-Effect-Cause Model for Sustaining Cross-Functional Integration. Business Process Management Journal, 15, 93-108.

[14]   Shadare, O.A. and Ayo, H.T. (2000) Influence of Work Motivation, Leadership Effectiveness and Time Management of Employees Performance in Some Selected Industries in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, 16, 7-17

[15]   Cox, R.F., Issa, R.R.A and Frey, A. (2006) Proposed Subcontractor-Based Employee Motivational Model. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 132, 152-163.

[16]   Doloi, H (2007) Twinning Motivation, Productivity and Management Strategy in Construction Projects. Journal of Engineering Management, 19, 30-40.

[17]   Jiliang, D. (2005) Motivation of Construction Engineers in Yunnan, China, Thesis (M. Eng.), Asian Institute of Technology, Pathum Thani.

[18]   Ng, S.T., Skitmore, R.M., Lam, K.C., and Poon, A.W. (2004) Demotivating Factors Influencing the Productivity of Civil Engineering Projects. International Journal of Project Management, 22, 139-146.

[19]   Chan, A.P.C. (2003) Motivation of the Project Manager. Proceedings of CIB W65, Trinidad, 15-22 September 2003, 931-942.

[20]   Smithers, G.L. and Walker, D.H.T. (2000) The Effect of the Workplace on Motivation and Demotivation of Construction Professionals. Construction Management and Economics, 18, 833-841.

[21]   Erez, M. and Eden, D. (2001). Introduction—Trends Reflected in Work Motivation in the Context of a Globalizing Economy. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., New Jersey, 1-8.

[22]   Schrader, C.R. (1972) Motivating Construction Craftsmen. Journal of the Construction Division, 98, 257-273.

[23]   Hazeltine, C.S. (1976) Motivation of Construction Workers. Journal of the Construction Division, 102, 497-509.

[24]   Shoura, M.M. and Singh, A. (1998) Motivation Parameters for Engineering Managers Using Maslow’s Theory. Journal of Management and Engineering, 15, 44-55.

[25]   Ofori, G. (2018) Ghana’s Construction Industry, Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: Towards Greater Professionalism: Maiden Annual Construction Industry Lecture. International Conference Centre, Accra.

[26]   Ghana Statistical Services (2018) National Accounts.

[27]   Dadzie, J., Abdul-Aziz, and Kwame, A. (2012) Performance of Consultants on Government Projects in Ghana: Client and Contractor Perspective. International Journal of Business and Social Research, 2, 256-267.

[28]   Twumasi-Ampofo, K., Osei-Tutu, E., Decardi-Nelson, I. and Ofori, P.A. (2013) A Model for Reactivating Abandoned Public Housing Projects in Ghana. Civil and Environmental Research, 6, 6-16.

[29]   Asamoah, R.O. and Decardi-Nelson, I. (2014) Promoting Trust and Confidence in the Construction Industry in Ghana through the Development and Enforcement of Ethics. Information and Knowledge Management, 4, 63-68.

[30]   Djokoto, S., John, D. and Ohemeng-Ababio, E. (2014) Barriers to Sustainable Construction in the Ghanaian Construction Industry: Consultants’ Perspective. Journal of Sustainable Development, 7, 134-143.

[31]   Ofori, G. (2012) Developing the Construction Industry in Ghana: The Case for a Central Agency. National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge.

[32]   Badu, E., Edwards, P. and Owusu-Manu, D. (2012) Trade Credit and Supply Chain Delivery in the Ghanaian Construction Industry: Analysis of Vendor Interactions with Small to Medium Enterprises. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 10, 360-379.

[33]   Adu Gyamfil, T., Pratt, I. and Nana-Addy, E. (2018) Assessing the Effect of Risk on Public and Private Construction Projects Performance in Ghana: Consultant Perspective. International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 7, 185-192.

[34]   Kazaz, A., Manisali, E. and Ulubeyli, S. (2008) Effect of Basic Motivational Factors on Construction Workforce Productivity in Turkey. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 14, 95-106.

[35]   Coates, J.F. and Jennifer, J. (2004) Construction Work Place Creativity: Employment Relation Today. Spring. Construction Projects. International Journal of Project Management, 32, 52-69.

[36]   Woodman, R.W., Sawyer, J.E. and Griffin, R.W (1993) Toward a Theory of Organizational Creativity. Academy of Management Review, 18, 293-321.

[37]   Amabile, T.M. (1996) The Motivation for Creativity in Organisations. 9-396-240, Harvard Business School, Boston.

[38]   Gumusluoglu, L. and Ilsev, A. (2009) Transformational Leadership, Creativity, and Organizational Innovation. Journal of Business Research, 62, 461-473.

[39]   DiLiello, T.C. and Houghton, J.D. (2006) Maximizing Organizational Leadership Capacity for the Future: Toward a Model of Self-Leadership, Innovation and Creativity. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, 319-337.

[40]   Aghayar, S. (2003) Designing and Explaining the Pattern of Managers of Caravan Empowerment, Hajj and Charitable Bequests. PhD Dissertation of Management of Human Sources’ Field, Tehran University, Tehran.

[41]   Chiang, C.-F. and Jang, S.C.S. (2008) An Expectancy Theory Model for Hotel Employee Motivation. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27, 313-322.

[42]   Spreitzer, G.M. (1995) Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Dimensions, Measurement, and Validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 1442-1465.

[43]   Light, J.N. (2004) The Relationships and Effects of Employee Involvement, Employee Empowerment and Employee Satisfaction by Job Type in Large Manufacturing Environment. Ph.D. Dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis.

[44]   Shelton, S.T. (2002) Employee, Supervisors and Empowerment in the Public Sector: The Role of Employee Trust. Ph.D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.

[45]   Bonner, S.E. and Sprinkle, G.B. (2002) The Effects of Monetary Incentives on Effort and Task Performance: Theories, Evidence, and a Framework for Research. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 27, 303-345.

[46]   Delfgaauw, J. and Dur, R. (2004) Incentives and Workers’ Motivation in the Public Sector. Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper No. 04-060/1, Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam and Rotterdam.

[47]   Ariely, D., Bracha, A. and Meier, S. (2007) Doing Good or Doing Well? Image Motivation and Monetary Incentives in Behaving Prosocially. No. 2968, Institute for the Study of Labor, Bonn.

[48]   Creswell, J.W. and Creswell, J.D. (2018) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Sage, Los Angeles.

[49]   Babbie, E. (2005) The Basics of Social Research. Thomson/Wadsworth, Belmont.

[50]   De looff, L.A. (1996) Information Systems Outsourcing Decision Making: A Managerial Approach. IGI Publishing, Hershey.

[51]   Nunnally, J.C. and Bernstein, I.H. (1994) Psychometric Theory. 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 286-297.

[52]   Du Plessis, L. (2010) Customer Relationship Management and Its Influence on Customer Loyalty at Liberty Life in South Africa. University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg.

[53]   Aguinis, H. (2009) Performance Management. 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall/Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, London.

[54]   Gefen, D., Rigdon, E.E. and Detmar, S. (2011) Editor’s Comments: An Update and Extension to SEM Guidelines for Administrative and Social Science Research. MIS Quarterly, 35, iii-xiv.

[55]   Hair, J.F., Sarstedt, M., Pieper, T.M. and Ringle, C.M. (2012a) The Use of Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling in Strategic Management Research: A Review of Past Practices and Recommendations for Future Applications. Long Range Planning, 45, 320-340.

[56]   Kaufmann, L. and Gaeckler, J. (2015) A Structured Review of Partial Least Squares in Supply Chain Management Research. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 21, 259-272.

[57]   Peng, D.X.S. and Lai, F.J. (2012) Using Partial Least Squares in Operations Management Research: A Practical Guideline and Summary of Past Research. Journal of Operations Management, 30, 467-480.

[58]   Ringle, C.M., Sarstedt, M., Mitchell, R. and Gudergan, S.P. (2019) Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling in HRM Research. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 31, 1617-1643.

[59]   Ali, F., Rasoolimanesh, S.M., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C.M. and Ryu, K. (2018) An Assessment of the Use of Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) in Hospitality Research. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30, 514-538.

[60]   Sosik, J.J., Kahai, S.S. and Piovoso, M.J. (2009) Silver Bullet or Voodoo Statistics? A Primer for Using the Partial Least Squares Data Analytic Technique in Group and Organization Research. Group and Organization Management, 34, 5-36.

[61]   Ringle, C.M., Sarstedt, M. and Straub, D.W. (2012) Editor’s Comments: A Critical Look at the Use of PLS-SEM in “MIS Quarterly”. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 36, iii-xiv.

[62]   Hair, J.F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C.M. and Mena, J.A. (2012) An Assessment of the Use of Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling in Marketing Research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40, 414-433.

[63]   Nitzl, C. (2016) The Use of Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) in Management Accounting Research: Directions for Future Theory Development. Journal of Accounting Literature, 37, 19-35.

[64]   Hair, J.F., Risher, J.R., Sarstedt, M. and Ringle, C.M. (2019) When to Use and How to Report the Results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review, 31, 2-24.

[65]   Ringle, C.M., Wende, S. and Becker, J.-M. (2015) SmartPLS 3. SmartPLS, Bönningstedt.

[66]   Ringle, C.M., Wende, S. and Will, A. (2005) SmartPLS 2. SmartPLS, Hamburg.

[67]   Garson, G.D. (2016) Partial Least Squares: Regression and Structural Equation Models. Statistical Associates Publishers, Asheboro.

[68]   Gerbing, D.W. and Anderson, J.C. (1988) An Updated Paradigm for Scale Development Incorporating Unidimensionality and Its Assessment. Journal of Marketing Research, 25, 186-192.

[69]   Chin, W.W. (1998) Issues and Opinion on Structural Equation Modelling. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 22, 7-16.

[70]   Hair, J.F., Bush, R.P. and Ortinau, D.J. (2009) Marketing Research: In a Digital Information Environment. 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Cape Town, 690.

[71]   Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M. and Sinkovics, R.R. (2009) The Use of Partial Least Squares Path Modeling in International Marketing. In: Sinkovics, R.R. and Ghauri, P.N., Eds., New Challenges to International Marketing, Vol. 20, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, 277-320.

[72]   Diamantopoulos, A., Siguaw, J.A. and Siguaw, J.A. (2000) Introducing LISREL: A Guide for the Uninitiated. Sage Publications, London.

[73]   Koufteros, X.A. (1999) Testing a Model of Pull Production: A Paradigm for Manufacturing Research Using Structural Equation Modeling. Journal of Operations Management, 17, 467-488.

[74]   Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J. and Anderson, R.E. (2010) Multivariate Data Analysis. 7th Edition, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River

[75]   DeVellis, R.F. (2012) Scale Development: Theory and Applications. Vol. 26, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

[76]   Gaskins, J. (2013) Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

[77]   Ning, Y. (2014) Quantitative Effects of Drivers and Barriers on Networking Strategies in Public. International Journal of Project Management, 32, 286-297.