JWARP  Vol.12 No.12 , December 2020
Evaluation of “C” Values to Head Loss and Water Pressure Due to Pipe Aging: Case Study of Uni-Central Sarawak
Abstract: Samarahan has transformed from a small village into education hub for the past 2 decades. Rapid development and population growth had led to speedy growth in water demand. The situation is getting worse as the pipes are deteriorating due to pipe aging. Therefore, there is a need to study the adequacy of water supply and relationships among roughness coefficient (C) values in Hazen Williams’ Equation with head loss and water pressure due to pipe aging at Uni-Central, a residential area located at Samarahan Sarawak. Investigations were carried out with Ductile Iron, Abestos Cement and Cast Iron pipes at age categories of 0 - 10 years, 10 - 30 years, 30 - 50 years, 50 - 70 years and >70 years. Six critical nodes named as A, B, C, D, E and F were identified to study the water pressure and head loss. Model was developed with InfoWorks Water Supply (WS) Pro software. The impact of pipe aging and materials to water pressure and head loss was not significant at Nodes A, B, C and F. However, max water pressure at Nodes D and F were only reaching 6.30 m and 7.30 m, respectively for all investigations. Therefore, some improvement works are required. Results also show that Asbestos Cement pipe has the least impact on the head loss and water pressure, followed by Ductile Iron pipe and lastly Cast Iron pipe. Simulation results also revealed that older pipes have higher roughness coefficients, indicated with lower “C” values, thus increase the head loss and reduce the water pressure. In contrast, as “C” values increased, head loss will be reduced and water pressure will be increased.
Cite this paper: Kuok, K. , Chiu, P. and Ting, D. (2020) Evaluation of “C” Values to Head Loss and Water Pressure Due to Pipe Aging: Case Study of Uni-Central Sarawak. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 12, 1077-1088. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2020.1212064.

[1]   Kuok, K.K., Harun, S. and Chiu, P.C. (2011) A Review of Integrated River Basin Management for Sarawak River. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 7, 276-285.

[2]   Zainudin, S.R., Mustafa, K.A., Austin, D., Helmy, J. and Lingkeu, D.A. (2012) Urban Trees Diversity in Kuching North City and UNIMAS, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak. Universiti Putra Malaysia Press, Serdang.

[3]   Kueh, S.M. and Kuok, K.K. (2016) Precipitation Downscaling Using the Artificial Neural Network BatNN and Development of Future Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves. Climate Research, 68, 73-89.

[4]   The Star Online (2014) Minister Advises Residents to Use Water Wisely Despite Rain Relief.

[5]   Jacimovic, N., Stamenic, M., Kolendic, P., Dordevic, D., Radanov, B. and Vladic, L. (2015) A Novel Method for the Inclusion of Pipe Roughness in the Hazen-Williams Equation. FME Transactions, 43, 35-39.

[6]   Abbott, M.B. and Minns, A.W. (2017) Computational Hydraulics. Routledge, Abingdon.

[7]   Innovyze (2020) InfoWorks WS Pro: Improve Customer Service and Reduce Costs Advanced Hydraulic Modeling Software for Faster, More Rubust Analysis and Management of Water Supply Networks.

[8]   Water World Magazine (2009) Computers, Software and Automation: InfoWorks WS Assists Water Planning in Italian Alps. PennWell Corporation, Houston.

[9]   Mrdja, Z. (2007) Modeling Software Removes Guesswork from Water Utility Management. PennWell Corporation, Houston.

[10]   Popovic, A. (2007) Modeling Software Aids Belgrade's Water Supply. PennWell Corporation, Houston.

[11]   Marinkovic, V. (2007) Water System Modeling Helps Determine Goals for Serbian Suburb. PennWell Corporation, Houston.

[12]   Sonaje, N.P. and Joshi, M.G. (2015) Review of Modeling and Application of Water Distibution Networks (WDN) Softwares. International of Technical Research Applications, 3, 174-178.

[13]   Kuok, K.K., Mah, Y.S., Imteaz, M.A., and Kueh, S.M. (2016) Comparison of Future Intensity Duration Frequency Curve by Considering the Impact of Climate Change: Case Study for Kuching City. International Journal of River Basin Management, 14, 47-55.

[14]   Sarawak Population (2016) Official Website of Sarawak Government.

[15]   Kuok, K.K. and Bessaih, N. (2007) Artificial Neural Networks (ANNS) for Daily Rainfall Runoff Modelling. The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia, 68, 31-42.

[16]   KWB (2016) Water Pressure Chart for Uni-Central, Kota Samanrahan, Kuching Water Board.

[17]   Malaysian Water Association (1994) MWA Design Guidelines for Water Supply Systems. The Malaysian Water Association, Malaysia.

[18]   Innovyze (2019) InfoWorks WS Pro v 4.0 [Computer Software]. Portland (HQ), OR United States 6720 SW Macadam Ave 150.