Back
 AS  Vol.11 No.12 , December 2020
A Gender Analysis on the Participation and Choice of Improved and Local Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by Farmers in Cameroon
Abstract: Men and women farmer participation and choice of variety could guide breeding and drive the adoption of different haricot bean varieties. Thus, understanding how gender influences participation and choice of bean cultivation and marketing is fundamental. The study sought to analyse how socio-cultural norms determine women and men, participation and choice of variety for cultivation and sale in Cameroon’s West region. A mixed-method was used in collecting data from men and women farmers in six subdivisions in the West region of Cameroon in 2019. Result reveals that women provide most of the labour on haricot bean production than men, who are more involved in selling to national and regional markets. Participation and role were driven by socio-cultural norms of what is expected of men and women in a society where women provide food and men income for household upkeep. Women preferred varieties that were less labour intensive and food taste for household consumption while men went for labour intensive as long as they were market-oriented and high yielding. Thus, breeders should develop varieties that are mostly preferred by women, which meet the market and household demand.
Cite this paper: Siri, B. , Nchanji, E. and Tchouamo, I. (2020) A Gender Analysis on the Participation and Choice of Improved and Local Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by Farmers in Cameroon. Agricultural Sciences, 11, 1199-1216. doi: 10.4236/as.2020.1112079.
References

[1]   Food and Agriculture Organization (2011) The State of Food and Agriculture: Women in Agriculture: Closing the Gender Gap for Development. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.

[2]   Kebede, E. (2020) Grain Legumes Production and Productivity in Ethiopian Smallholder Agricultural System, Contribution to Livelihoods and the Way Forward. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 6, Article ID: 1722353.
https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2020.1722353

[3]   Siri, B.N., Etchu, K.A., Manka, S.N., Emoh, S.B., Atemkeng, M.F and Nounamo, L. (2016) Assesing Preference of Released Improved Haricot Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by Farmers in the Western Highlands of Cameroon. International Journal of Development Research, 6, 8317-8322.

[4]   Buruchara, R., Chirwa, R., Sperling, L., Sperling, L., Mukankusi, C., Rubyogo, J.C., et al. (2011) Development and Delivery of Bean Varieties in Africa: The Pan-Africa Bean Research Alliance (PABRA) Model. African Crop Science Journal, 19, 227-245.

[5]   Nakazi, F., Njuki, J., Ugen, M.A., Aseete, P., Katungi, E., Birachi, E., et al. (2017) Is bean Really a Women’s Crop? Men and Women’s Participation in Bean Production in Uganda. Agriculture & Food Security, 6, Article No. 22.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s40066-017-0102-z

[6]   Paudel Khatiwada, S., Deng, W., Paudel, B., Khatiwada, J.R., Zhang, J. and Wan, J. (2018) A Gender Analysis of Changing Livelihood Activities in the Rural Areas of Central Nepal. Sustainability, 10, 4034.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114034

[7]   World Bank Group (2018) Breaking Down the Barriers to Regional Agricultural Trade in Central Africa. World Bank, Washington DC.
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/30397

[8]   Food and Agriculture Organization (2020) Statistics 2020.
http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#compare

[9]   Haggblade, S. and Dewina, R. (2010) Staple Food Prices in Uganda. Prepared for the Comesa Policy Seminar on “Variation in Staple Food Prices: Causes, Consequence, and Policy Options”, Maputo, 25-26 January 2010, 1-15.
https://doi.org/10.22004/AG.ECON.58553

[10]   Endeley. J.B. (1989) Strategies and Programs for women in Agricultural Sector in Africa. In: Von Braunmuuuhl, C., Ed., Women in the Development Process, DSE, Berlin, 29-42.

[11]   Njuki, J., Kaaria, S., Chamunorwa, A. and Chiuri, W. (2011) Linking Smallholder Farmers to Markets, Gender and Intra-Household Dynamics: Does the Choice of Commodity Matter? The European Journal of Development Research, 23, 426-443.
https://doi.org/10.1057/ejdr.2011.8

[12]   Takuji, W.T., Harry, W.M., Moses, S., Kizito, M. and Patrick, O. (2016) Evolution and Impacts of Groundnut Research and Development in Malawi: An Ex-Post Analysis. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 11, 139-158.
https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2015.10167

[13]   Doss, C.R. (2001) Designing Agricultural Technology for African Women Farmers: Lessons from 25 Years of Experience. World Development, 29, 2075-2095.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(01)00088-2

[14]   Carney, J. and Watts, M. (1990) Manufacturing Dissent: Work, Gender and the Politics of Meaning in a Peasant Society. Africa, 60, 207-241.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1160333

[15]   Carney, J. and Watts, M. (1991) Disciplining Women? Rice, Mechanization, and the Evolution of Mandinka Gender Relations in Senegambia. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 16, 651-681.
https://doi.org/10.1086/494698

[16]   Dolan, C. (2001) The ‘Good Wife’: Struggles over Resources in the Kenyan Horticultural Sector. The Journal of Development Studies, 37, 39-70.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00220380412331321961

[17]   Kumar, S.K. (1994) Adoption of Hybrid Maize in Zambia: Effects on Gender Roles, Food Consumption, and Nutrition. Research Report No. 100, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC.

[18]   Fischer, E. and Qaim, M. (2012) Linking Smallholders to Markets: Determinants and Impacts of Farmer Collective Action in Kenya. World Development, 40, 1255-1268.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.11.018

[19]   Orr, A., Tsusaka, T., Kee-Tui, S.H. and Msere, H. (2016) What Do We Mean by ‘Women’s Crops’? Commercialisation, Gender and the Power to Name. Journal of International Development, 28, 919-937.
https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.3224

[20]   Forsythe, L., Posthummus, H. and Martin, A. (2016) A Crop of One’s Own? Women’s Experiences of Cassava Commercialization in Nigeria and Malawi. Journal of Gender, Agriculture and Food Security, 1, 110-128.

[21]   Padmanabhanan, M.A. (2004) The Making and Unmaking of Gendered Crops in Northern Ghana. Paper Presented at Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, Berlin, 5-7 October 2004, 21.

[22]   Chayal, K., Dhaka, B.L. and Suwalka, R.L. (2010) Analysis of Role Performed by Women in Agriculture. Humanity and Social Sciences Journal, 5, 68-72.

[23]   Carr, E.R. (2008) Men’s Crops and Women’s Crops: The Importance of Gender to the Understanding of Agricultural and Development Outcomes in Ghana’s Central Region. World Development, 36, 900-915.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2007.05.009

[24]   Emeya, S. (2014) Role of Women in Agricultural Activities in Abua-Odual Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. World Rural Observations, 6, 1-6.

[25]   Alene, A.D., Manyong, V.M., Omanya, G., Mignouna, H.D., Bokanga, M. and Odhiambo, G. (2008) Smallholder Market Participation under Transactions Costs: Maize Supply and Fertilizer Demand in Kenya. Food Policy, 33, 318-328.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2007.12.001

[26]   Nakazi, F. and Sserunkuuma, D. (2013) Factors Affecting the Decision and Extent of Rice-Milling before Sale among Ugandan Farmers. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 3, 576-583.
http://dx.doi.org/10.22004/ag.econ.198235

[27]   Bellemare, M.F. and Barrett, C.B. (2006) An Ordered Tobit Model of Market Participation: Evidence from Kenya and Ethiopia. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 88, 324-337.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8276.2006.00861.x

[28]   Yengoh, G.T. (2012) Determinants of Yield Differences in Small-Scale Food Crop Farming Systems in Cameroon. Agriculture & Food Security, 1, Article No. 19.

[29]   Aslihan, A. (2019) How Old Is the Average Farmer in Today’s Developing World?
https://www.ifad.org/en/web/latest/blog/asset/41207683

[30]   Mugonolaa, B., Deckersa, J., Poesena, J., Isabiryec, M. and Mathijsa, E. (2013) Adoption of Soil and Water Conservation Technologies in the Rwizi Catchment of South Western Uganda. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 11, 264-281.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14735903.2012.744906

[31]   Klapper, L.F. and Parker, S.C. (2011) Gender and the Business Environment for New Firm Creation. World Bank Research Observer, 26, 237-257.
https://doi.org/10.1093/wbro/lkp032

[32]   Siri, B.N., Tchouamo, I.R. and Nchanji, E.B. (2020) Gender Analysis of Farmers’ Perception of Improved Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties in the West Region of Cameroon. International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research, 8, 107-115.

[33]   Nchanji, E.B. (2017) The Piper Calls the Tune: Changing Roles of Northern Ghanaian Women in Agriculture. Agriculture for Development, 32.

[34]   Nchanji, E.B. and Bellwood-Howard, I. (2016) Traditional Provisioning Responsibilities of Women in Northern Ghana. In: Segal, M.T. and Demos, V.P., Eds., Gender and Food: From Production to Consumption and After, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, London, 41-64.
https://doi.org/10.1108/S1529-212620160000022013

[35]   Akter, S., Rutsaert, P., Luis, J., Htwe, N.M., San, S.S., Raharjo, B. and Pustika, A. (2017) Women’s Empowerment and Gender Equity in Agriculture: A Different Perspective from Southeast Asia. Food Policy, 69, 270-279.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2017.05.003

 
 
Top