AS  Vol.11 No.12 , December 2020
Incorporation of Crop Residues into Soil: A Practice to Improve Soil Chemical Properties
Abstract: Crop residues have the potential to enhance soil fertility, but this is dependent on their biochemical properties. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition, and nutrients release patterns of selected crop residues (corn stalk, rice straw, millet straw and sorghum stalk). Thus, 20 g of each crop residue were put in litter bags and placed in a plastic pot containing 10 kg of soil with a moisture content of 40% - 60%. Five replications were considered per type of residue and some samples were taken every 4 weeks. Results showed that crop residues got a pH varying between 5.09 and 6.5. The lowest C content (33.11%) and nitrogen (0.27%) were measured in sorghum stalk when the highest C content (47.6%) and nitrogen content (0.55%) were registered in corn stalk. The highest phosphorus content (0.58%) was got in corn stalk. Potassium content was higher in millet straw than in others. The highest calcium content (0.37%) and magnesium (0.29%) were found in rice straw. There was an increase of soil chemical composition after crop residues burial. Significant increase in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus content was noted in soil at week 4 with the highest at week 16. At the end of the experiment, the highest C content (53.1%) and the highest nitrogen content (0.88%) in the soil were observed after burial of rice straw. The highest phosphorus content (0.82%) registered in the soil was got with millet straw. Nutrient release efficiency of crop residues occurred in the following order: rice straw > millet straw > sorghum stalk > corn stalk. This study has demonstrated that rice straw and millet straw released nutrients faster and this is beneficial for early planted crops, while sorghum stalk and corn stalk released nutrients slowly which is appropriate for long-term availability of plant nutrients.
Cite this paper: Coulibaly, S. , Touré, M. , Kouamé, A. , Kambou, I. , Soro, S. , Yéo, K. and Koné, S. (2020) Incorporation of Crop Residues into Soil: A Practice to Improve Soil Chemical Properties. Agricultural Sciences, 11, 1186-1198. doi: 10.4236/as.2020.1112078.

[1]   Brown, G.G., Edwards, C.A. and Brussaard, L. (2004) Soil Macrofauna in SE Mexican Pastures and the Effect of Conversion from Native to Introduced Pastures. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, 103, 313-327.

[2]   Bhadauria, T. and Saxena, K.G. (2009) Role of Earthworms in Soil Fertility Maintenance through the Production of Biogenic Structures. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, 2010, Article ID: 816073.

[3]   Levêque, C.H. (1994) Environnement et Diversité du Vivant. Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie, Paris, 128 p.

[4]   Food and Agriculture Organization and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (2017) Données Forestières de Base Pour la REDD+ en Côte d’Ivoire: Cartographie de la Dynamique Forestière de 1986 à 2015. Abidjan, 18 p.

[5]   Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2011) Save & Grow—A Policymakers Guide to the Sustainable Intensification of Smallholder Crop Production. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 116.

[6]   Louppe, D. and Ouattara, N’K. (2016) Etude sur l’Exploitation Forestière et les Contraintes d’une Gestion Durable des Forêts dans le Domaine Rural en Côte d’Ivoire. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Bonn, 67 p.

[7]   He, M.M., Li, W.H., Liang, X.Q., Wu, D.L. and Tian, G.M. (2009) Effect of Composting Process on Phytotoxicity and Speciation of Copper, Zinc and Lead in Sewage Sludge and Swine Manure. Waste Management, 29, 590-597.

[8]   Cambardella, C.A., Russell, A. and Richard, T.L. (2003) Compost Mineralization in Soil as a Function of Composting Process Conditions. European Journal of Soil Biology, 39, 117-127.

[9]   Erenstein, O. (2002) Crop Residue Mulching in Tropical and Semi-Tropical Countries: An Evaluation of Residue Availability and Other Technological Implications. Soil and Tillage Research, 67, 115-133.

[10]   Nottidge, D.O., Ojeniyi, S.O. and Asawalam, D.O. (2005) A Comparative Effect of Plant Residue and NPK Fertilizer on Nutrient Status and Yield of Maize in a Humid Ultisol. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science, 15, 1-8.

[11]   Hegde, D.M. (1998) Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Productivity and Soil Fertility in Pearl Millet-Wheat Cropping System. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 43, 580-587.

[12]   Deshmukh, M.R., Jain, H.C., Duhoon, S.S. and Goswami, U. (2002) Integrated Nutrient Management in Sesame Fir Kymore Plateau Zone of M.P. Journal of Oilseeds Research, 19, 73-75.

[13]   Scagnozzi, A., Saviozzi, A., Levi-Minzi, R. and Riffaldi, R. (1997) Nutrient Release from Decomposing Crop Residues in Soil: A Laboratory Experiment. The American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 12, 10-13.

[14]   Bauder, J. (2000) Decomposition Rate of Cereal Straw as Affected by Soil Placement. Cereal Crop Residues and Plant Nutrients, Montana State University Communications Services.

[15]   Campbell, C.A., Janzen, H.H., Paustian, K., Greegorich, E.G., Sherrod, L., Liang, B.C. and Zentner, R.P. (2005): Carbon Storage in Soils of the North American Great Plains: Effect of Cropping Frequency. Agronomy Journal, 97, 349-363.

[16]   Dagnogo, F., Coulibaly, S.S., Konaté, D, and Fofana, L., (2018) Low Productivity of Onion in Côte d’Ivoire: Causes and Recommendations. International Journal of Agriculture & Environmental Science, 5, 49-56.

[17]   Borowik, A. and Wyszkowska, J. (2016) Soil Moisture as a Factor Affecting the Microbiological and Biochemical Activity of Soil. Plant, Soil and Environment, 62, 250-255.

[18]   Fosu, M., Kuhne, R.F. and Vlek, P.L. (2007) Mineralization and Microbial Biomass Dynamics during Decomposition of Four Leguminous Residues. Journal of Biological Sciences, 7, 632-637.

[19]   Ferraz, G.P., Frear, C., Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R., Englund, K. and Garcia-Perez, M. (2016) Hot Water Extraction of Anaerobic Digested Dairy Fiber for Wood Plastic Composite Manufacturing. BioResources, 11, 8139-8154.

[20]   Xie, J.X., Li, Y., Zhai, C.X., Li, C.H. and Lan, Z.D. (2009) CO2 Absorption by Alkaline Soils and Its Implication to the Global Carbon Cycle. Environmental Geology, 56, 953-961.

[21]   Anguria, P., Chemining’wa, G.N., Richard, N., Onwonga, R.N. and Ugen, M.A. (2017) Decomposition and Nutrient Release of Selected Cereal and Legume Crop Residues. Journal of Agricultural Science, 9, 108-119.

[22]   Hoorman, J.J. (2010) Understanding Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling: SAG-16, Agriculture and Natural Resources. Ohio State University, Ohio.

[23]   Cattanio, J.H., Kuehne, R. and Vlek, P.L.G. (2008) Organic Material Decomposition and Nutrient Dynamics in a Mulch System Enriched with Leguminous Trees in the Amazon. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 32, 1073-1086.

[24]   Baggie, I., Rowell, D.L, Robinson, J.S. and Warren, G.P. (2005) Decomposition and Phosphorus Release from Organic Residues as Affected by Residue Quality and Added Inorganic Phosphorus. Agroforestry System, 63, 125-131.

[25]   Yan, F., Schubert, S. and Mengel, K. (1996) Soil pH Increase Due to Biological Decarboxylation of Organic Anions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 28, 617-624.

[26]   Ritchie, G.S.P. and Dolling, P.J. (1985) The Role of Organic Matter in Soil Acidification. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 23, 569-576.

[27]   Helyar, K.R. and Porter, W.M. (1989) Soil Acidification, Its Measurements and the Processes Involved. In: Robson, A.D., Ed., Soil Acidity and Plant Growth, Academic Press, Sydney, 61-101.

[28]   Hoyt, P.B. and Turner, R.C. (1975) Effects of Organic Materials Added to Very Acid Soils on pH, Aluminum, Exchangeable NH4, and Crop Yields. Soil Science, 119, 227-237.

[29]   Bessho, T. and Bell, L.C. (1992) Soil and Solution Phase Changes and Mung Bean Response during Amelioration of Aluminium Toxicity with Organic Matter. Plant Soil, 140, 183-196.

[30]   Pocknee, S. and Sumner, M.E. (1997) Cation and Nitrogen Contents of Organic Matter Determine Its Soil Liming Potential. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 61, 86-92.

[31]   Tang, C. and Yu, Q. (1999) Impact of Chemical Composition of Legume Residues and Initial Soil pH on pH Change of a Soil after Residue Incorporation Plant and Soil, 215, 29-38.

[32]   Liu, X., Herbert, S.J., Hashemi, A.M., Zhang, X. and Ding, G. (2006) Effects of Agricultural Management on Soil Organic Matter and Carbon Transformation. Plant Soil and Environment, 52, 531-543.

[33]   Feichtinger, F., Erhart, E. and Hartl, W. (2004) Net N-Mineralization Related to Soil Organic Matter Pools. Plant Soil and Environment, 50, 273-276.

[34]   Onemli, F. (2004) The Effects of Soil Organic Matter on Seedling Emergence in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Plant Soil and Environment, 50, 494-499.

[35]   Alvarez, R. (2005) A Review of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Conservation Tillage Effects on Soil Organic Carbon Storage. Soil Use and Management, 21, 38-52.

[36]   Chan, K.Y., Heenan, D.P. and So, H.B. (2003) Sequestration of Carbon and Changes in Soil Quality under Conservation Tillage on Light-Textured Soils in Australia: A Review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 43, 325-334.

[37]   Azmal, A.K.M., Marumoto, T., Shindo, H. and Nishiyama, M. (1997) Changes in Microbial Biomass after Continuous Application of Azolla and Rice Straw in Soil. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 43, 811-818.

[38]   Singh, R.K., Sharma, G.K., Kumar, P., Singh, S.K. and Singh, R. (2019) Effect of Crop Residues Management on Soil Properties and Crop Productivity of Rice-Wheat System in Inceptisols of Seemanchal Region of Bihar. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 37, 1-6.

[39]   Cortez, J., Garnier, E., Perez-Haguindeguy, N., Debussche, M. and Gillon, D. (2007) Plant traits, Litter Quality, and Decomposition in a Mediterranean Oldfield Succession. Plant and Soil, 296, 19-34.

[40]   Ogidi, E.G.O., Okore, I.K. and Dike, J.C. (2018) Correlation Analysis of Nutrient Soil-Plant Content and Bud Take Success in Hevea. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agriculture Science, 6, 116-123.