Back
 CUS  Vol.8 No.4 , December 2020
Building the Foundations of Collaboration: From Housing Development to Community Renewal
Abstract: While collaborative governance and planning are seen as an improvement on technocratic “top-down” approaches, they are often criticized for exacerbating power imbalances, failing to be inclusive and/or impartial, and for ignoring historical conflict. This paper aims to investigate how strong foundations for collaborative housing renewal may be built so as to facilitate broader community renewal ambitions. Using qualitative methods and based on two case studies of housing renewal projects in communities described as “deprived”, we found the informal but foundational phase was critical in mitigating contextual and historical factors that had often led to marginalization during more formal negotiations. The foundations for the housing renewal work involved building trust and credibility, collective community capability, a “grounded” agenda and a mandate. We argue that these foundations should not be seen as informal and therefore optional; rather they fundamentally shape formal processes of collaboration and can be used to address tensions between participative and representative democracy.
Cite this paper: Karaminejad, Z. , Vallance, S. and Montgomery, R. (2020) Building the Foundations of Collaboration: From Housing Development to Community Renewal. Current Urban Studies, 8, 599-622. doi: 10.4236/cus.2020.84033.
References

[1]   ACRC (2001). Working through the Agenda. Minutes of Aranui Community Renewal Committee 19 June 2001. Christchurch.

[2]   Agger, A., & Lofgren, K. (2008). Democratic Assessment of Collaborative Planning processes. Planning Theory, 7, 145-164.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1473095208090432

[3]   Andranovich, G. (1995). Achieving Consensus in Public Decision Making: Applying Interest-Based Problem Solving to the Challenges of Intergovernmental Collaboration. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 31, 429-445.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886395314003

[4]   Ansell, C., & Gash, A. (2008). Collaborative Governance in Theory and Practice. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18, 543-571.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/mum032

[5]   Babbie, E. R. (2016). The Practice of Social Research (14th ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning.

[6]   Balderacchi, C. (2016). Problems and Contradictions of Participatory Democracy: Lessons from Latin America. Contemporary Politics, 22, 164-177.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13569775.2016.1153282

[7]   Booher, D. E. (2004). Collaborative Governance Practices and Democracy. National Civic Review, 93, 32-46.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ncr.69

[8]   Bortel, G., & Gruis, V. (2019). Innovative Arrangements between Public and Private Actors in Affordable Housing Provision: Examples from Austria, England and Italy. Urban Science, 3, 52-56.
https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3020052

[9]   Boyd, F. (2011). The Evolution of a State-Funded Subdivision—A Case study: Aranui and Wainoni. Master Thesis, Lincoln: Lincoln University.
https://researcharchive.lincoln.ac.nz/handle/10182/4398

[10]   Brisbois, M. C. (2015). Natural Resource Industries and the State in Collaborative Approaches to Water Governance: A Power-Based Analysis. Doctoral Thesis, Canada: University of Waterloo.
https://uwspace.uwaterloo.ca/handle/10012/9569

[11]   Buanes, A., Jentoft, S., Karlsen, G. R., Maurstad, A., & Søreng, S. (2004). In Whose Interest? An Exploratory Analysis of Stakeholders in Norwegian Coastal Zone Planning. Ocean & Coastal Management, 47, 207-223.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2004.04.006

[12]   Cowie, P. (2017). Performing Planning: Understanding Community Participation in Planning through Theatre. Town Planning Review, 88, 401-422.
https://doi.org/10.3828/tpr.2017.26

[13]   Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (2nd ed.). California: Sage Publications.

[14]   Czischke, D., Carriou, C., & Lang, R. (2020). Collaborative Housing in Europe: Conceptualizing the Field. Housing Theory and Society, 37, 1-9.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14036096.2020.1703611

[15]   Dantec, C. A. L., & DiSalvo, C. (2013). Infrastructuring and the Formation of Publics in Participatory Design. Social Studies of Science, 43, 241-264.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0306312712471581

[16]   Dryzek, J. S. (1994). Discursive Democracy: Politics, Policy, and Political Science. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

[17]   Emerson, K., & Nabatchi, T. (2015). Evaluating the Productivity of Collaborative Governance Regimes: A Performance Matrix. Public Performance & Management Review, 38, 717-747.
https://doi.org/10.1080/15309576.2015.1031016

[18]   Emerson, K., Nabatchi, T., & Balogh, S. (2012). An Integrative Framework for Collaborative Governance. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 22, 1-29.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/mur011

[19]   English, M. R. (2000). Who Are the Stakeholders in Environmental Risk Decisions—How Should They Be Involved. Risk, 11, 243-254.

[20]   Etemad, G. (2013). Evaluating Navvab Project and the Consequences. Tehran, Iran: Maani.

[21]   Fallahi, A. (2007). Lessons Learned from the Housing Reconstruction Following the Bam Earthquake in Iran. The Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 22, 26-35.

[22]   Flyvbjerg, B. (2001). Making Social Science Matter: Why Social Inquiry Fails and How It Can Succeed Again. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511810503

[23]   Forester, J. (1999). The Deliberative Practitioner: Encouraging Participatory Planning Processes. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

[24]   Futrell, R. (2003). Technical Adversarialism and Participatory Collaboration in the US Chemical Weapons Disposal Program. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 28, 451-482.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0162243903252762

[25]   Gray, B. (1989). Collaborating: Finding Common Ground for Multiparty Problems. San Francisco, CA: Jossy-Bass.

[26]   Gunton, T. I., & Day, J. C. (2003). The Theory and Practice of Collaborative Planning in Resource and Environmental Management. Environments, 31, 5-20.

[27]   Habermas, J. (1984). The Theory of Communicative Action. Boston, MA: Beacon press.

[28]   Healey, P. (1997). Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies. London, England: Macmillan Press Ltd.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-25538-2

[29]   Healey, P. (2010). Making Better Places: The Planning Project in the Twenty-First Century. London: Macmillan International Higher Education.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-01379-8

[30]   Hillier, J. (2003). Agon’izing over Consensus: Why Habermasian Ideals Cannot Be Real. Planning Theory, 2, 37-59.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1473095203002001005

[31]   HNZC (2000). Background Information for Preliminary Scoping Workshop: Housing New Zealand Corporation. Housing New Zealand Corporation.

[32]   Howat, K. (2001). Aranui Youth Forum. Aranui Community Trust Incorporated Society.

[33]   Huxham, C. (2003). Theorizing Collaboration Practice. Public Management Review, 5, 401-423.
https://doi.org/10.1080/1471903032000146964

[34]   Innes, J. E., & Booher, D. E. (1999). Consensus Building and Complex Adaptive Systems: A Framework for Evaluating Collaborative Planning. Journal of the American planning association, 65, 412-423.
https://doi.org/10.1080/01944369908976071

[35]   Innes, J. E., & Booher, D. E. (2003). Collaborative Policymaking: Governance through Dialogue. In Deliberative Policy Analysis: Understanding Governance in the Network Society (pp. 33-59). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511490934.003

[36]   Innes, J. E., & Booher, D. E. (2010). Planning with Complexity: An Introduction to Collaborative Rationality for Public Policy. Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge.
https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203864302

[37]   Jiménez, A. C. (2014). The Right to Infrastructure: A Prototype for Open Source Urbanism. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 32, 342-362.
https://doi.org/10.1068/d13077p

[38]   Kapucu, N., & Garayev, V. (2011). Collaborative Decision-Making in Emergency and Disaster Management. International Journal of Public Administration, 34, 366-375.
https://doi.org/10.1080/01900692.2011.561477

[39]   Karaminejad, Z. & Moosavi, J. (2012). Participatory Project of Urban Renewal of Distressed Areas in Tehran City (Case Study: Moghadam Neighbourhood). Arad Consulting Engineers.

[40]   Kelly, S. (2001). Community Needs Analysis towards Aranui Community Renewal.

[41]   Koontz, T. M., & Newig, J. (2014). From Planning to Implementation: Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches for Collaborative Watershed Management. Policy Studies Journal, 42, 416-442.
https://doi.org/10.1111/psj.12067

[42]   Lane, M. B. (2005). Public Participation in Planning: An Intellectual History. Australian Geographer, 36, 283-299.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00049180500325694

[43]   Laurian, L., & Shaw, M. M. (2008). Evaluation of Public Participation: The Practices of Certified Planners. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 28, 293-309.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456X08326532

[44]   Leach, W. D. (2006). Collaborative Public Management and Democracy: Evidence from Western Watershed Partnerships. Public Administration Review, 66, 100-110.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2006.00670.x

[45]   Lewandowsky, S., Mann, M. E., Brown, N. J., & Friedman, H. (2016). Science and the Public: Debate, Denial, and Skepticism. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 4, 537-553.
https://doi.org/10.5964/jspp.v4i2.604

[46]   Margerum, R. D. (2002). Collaborative Planning: Building Consensus and Building a Distinct Model for Practice. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 21, 237-253.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456X0202100302

[47]   McCarthy, J. (2016). Partnership, Collaborative Planning and Urban Regeneration. London: Routledge.
https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315599588

[48]   Memon, A., Duncan, R., & Spicer, A. (2012). The Hurunui Waiau Zone Implementation Programme as a Collaborative Planning Process: A Preliminary Review. Christchurch, New Zealand: Environment Canterbury.

[49]   Modise, L. J. (2017). The Notion of Participatory Democracy in Relation to Local Ward Committees: The Distribution of Power. In die Skriflig, 51, 1-8.
https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2248

[50]   Montgomery, R. (2016). State Intervention in a Post-War Suburban Public Housing Project in Christchurch, New Zealand. Articulo-Journal of Urban Research, 13, 1-13.

[51]   Mouffe, C. (2000). The Democratic Paradox. London, England: Verso.

[52]   Neuman, L. W. (2011). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches (7th ed.). Essex, England: Pearson Education Limited.

[53]   O’Flynn, J., & Wanna, J. (2008). Collaborative Governance: A New Era of Public Policy in Australia? Canberra, Australia: ANU E Press.
https://doi.org/10.26530/OAPEN_458884

[54]   O’Leary, R., & Bingham, L. B. (2007). Conclusion: Conflict and Collaboration in Networks. International Public Management Journal, 10, 103-109.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10967490601185799

[55]   Papadopoulos, Y. (2012) The Democratic Quality of Collaborative Governance. In D. Levi-Faur (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Governance (pp. 512-526). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199560530.013.0036

[56]   Parvin, P. (2020). The Participatory Paradox: An Egalitarian Critique of Participatory Democracy. Journal of Representative Democracy, 56, 1-23.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00344893.2020.1823461

[57]   Purbani, K. (2017). Collaborative Planning for City Development. A Perspective from a City Planner. Scientific Review Engineering and Environmental Sciences, 26, 136-147.
https://doi.org/10.22630/PNIKS.2017.26.1.12

[58]   Purcell, M. (2009). Resisting Neoliberalization: Communicative Planning or Counter-Hegemonic Movements? Planning Theory, 8, 140-165.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1473095209102232

[59]   Purdy, J. M. (2012). A Framework for Assessing Power in Collaborative Governance Processes. Public Administration Review, 72, 409-417.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2011.02525.x

[60]   Rasoolimanesh, M., Jaafar, M., & Badarulzaman, N. (2013). Urban Planning and Management System in Iran: A Review and Assessment. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 18, 220-229.

[61]   Rogers, T., Howard-Pitney, B., Feighery, E. C., Altman, D. G., Endres, J. M., & Roeseler, A. G. (1993). Characteristics and Participant Perceptions of Tobacco Control Coalitions in California. Health Education Research, 8, 345-357.
https://doi.org/10.1093/her/8.3.345

[62]   Roy, P. (2015). Collaborative Planning—A Neoliberal Strategy? A Study of the Atlanta BeltLine. Cities, 43, 59-68.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2014.11.010

[63]   Saarikoski, H. (2000). Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as Collaborative Learning Process. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 20, 681-700.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-9255(00)00059-7

[64]   Schrader, B. (2005). We Call It Home: A History of State Housing in New Zealand. Auckland, New Zealand: Reed.

[65]   Statistics New Zealand (2001).
http://nzdotstat.stats.govt.nz.

[66]   Stivers, C. (2009). The Ontology of Public Space: Grounding Governance in Social Reality. American Behavioural Scientist, 52, 1095-1108.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764208327677

[67]   Szemzo, H., Geroházi, é., Droste, C., & Soetanto, D. (2019). Towards a Collaborative Housing Initiative: The Role of Local Authorities. Built Environment, 45, 398-415.
https://doi.org/10.2148/benv.45.3.398

[68]   Taylor, N. (1998). Urban Planning Theory since 1945. London, England: Sage Publications.

[69]   Vallance, S., Dupuis, A., Thorns, D., & Edwards, S. (2017). Temporary Use and the Onto-Politics of “Public” Space. Cities, 70, 83-90.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2017.06.023

[70]   Warner, J. F. (2006). More Sustainable Participation? Multi-Stakeholder Platforms for Integrated catchment Management. Water Resources Development, 22, 15-35.
https://doi.org/10.1080/07900620500404992

[71]   Weber, E. P. (2003). Bringing Society Back in: Grassroots Ecosystem Management, Accountability, and Sustainable Communities. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/1672.001.0001

[72]   Whatmore, S. J., & Landstrom, C. (2011). Flood Apprentices: An Exercise in Making Things Public. Economy and Society, 40, 582-610.
https://doi.org/10.1080/03085147.2011.602540

[73]   Yin, R. K. (2009). Case Study Research: Design and Methods (4th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.

 
 
Top