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 JACEN  Vol.10 No.1 , February 2021
Mitigation Rice Yield Scaled Methane Emission and Soil Salinity Stress with Feasible Soil Amendments
Abstract: Sea level rise and saline water intrusion have been affecting land use and crop production especially rice in the coastal areas of major rice growing countries including Bangladesh. The upward trend in salinity intrusion has been hampering crop production, particularly rice cultivation in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Therefore, an experiment was conducted on rice planted saline soils under the Nethouse at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to improve the properties of salt affected soils for rice cultivation as well as controlling methane (CH4) emissions with feasible soil organic amendments and recommended inorganic fertilizers. The experimental treatments were arranged under 25 mM NaCl, 50 mM NaCl and 75 mM NaCl salinity levels with different combinations of NPKSZn, biochar, phosphogypsum and Trichocompost. It was found that CH4 emission rates were suppressed with phospho-gypsum and biochar amendments within the salinity level 25 mM to 50 mM, beyond this salinity level (at 75 mM), soil amendments were not effective to control CH4 emissions. From panicle initiation to grain ripening stages treatment T4 (100% NPKSZn + 75 mM NaCl stress) showed the highest CH4 emission rate, while lower CH4 emission rate was recorded in T5 (100% NPKSZn + 25 mM NaCl stress + Phospho-gypsum) and T8 treatment (100% NPKSZn + 50 mM NaCl + Phospho-gypsum). In case of seasonal total CH4 emission, Phospho-gypsum was found most effective to mitigate total CH4 emissions followed by biochar and trichocompost amendments in all salinity levels, probably due to the improved soil redox potential status (Eh), decreased electrical conductivity (EC), increased SO42-, NO3- , Mn4+ etc. in the rice rhizosphere. Rice growth and yield components were badly affected by increasing salinity levels. Phospho-gypsum, biochar and trichocompost amendments increased plant height, panicles number/hill, shoot biomass and grain yield/hill at 25 mM NaCl stress condition. However, salinity stress 50 mM to 75 mM severely affected rice growth and yield components, eventhough phospho-gypsum, biochar and trichocompost were applied. Among the amendments, phosphogypsum and biochar significantly decreased yield scaled CH4 emission (GHGI) in salinity levels 25 mM to 75 mM. After harvesting rice, the overall soil properties such as organic matter content, available P, available S, exchangeable K+ and Ca2+, K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+ ratios etc. were increased with the biochar, phospho-gypsum and trichocompost amendments. The highest ratios of K+/Na+ and Ca+/Na+ were found in the extract of saline soil at 25 mM with phospho-gypsum amendments followed by biochar and trichocompost amendments. Furthermore, soil SO42-, NO3- , Mn4+ and Fe3+ contents in rice root rhizosphere were increased in the amended saline soils, which caused significant reduction in seasonal methane emissions. Therefore, it could be concluded that the combined application of phospho-gypsum and biochar with the recommended NPKSZn fertilizers in saline soils may be a good practice for increasing tolerance to salinity in rice by increasing K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+ ratios, while decreasing yield scaled CH4 emission (GHGI) in salinity levels 25 mM to 75 mM.
Cite this paper: Khatun, L. , Ali, M. , Sumon, M. , Islam, M. and Khatun, F. (2021) Mitigation Rice Yield Scaled Methane Emission and Soil Salinity Stress with Feasible Soil Amendments. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 10, 16-36. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2021.101002.
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