JACEN  Vol.10 No.1 , February 2021
Mitigation Rice Yield Scaled Methane Emission and Soil Salinity Stress with Feasible Soil Amendments
Abstract: Sea level rise and saline water intrusion have been affecting land use and crop production especially rice in the coastal areas of major rice growing countries including Bangladesh. The upward trend in salinity intrusion has been hampering crop production, particularly rice cultivation in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Therefore, an experiment was conducted on rice planted saline soils under the Nethouse at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to improve the properties of salt affected soils for rice cultivation as well as controlling methane (CH4) emissions with feasible soil organic amendments and recommended inorganic fertilizers. The experimental treatments were arranged under 25 mM NaCl, 50 mM NaCl and 75 mM NaCl salinity levels with different combinations of NPKSZn, biochar, phosphogypsum and Trichocompost. It was found that CH4 emission rates were suppressed with phospho-gypsum and biochar amendments within the salinity level 25 mM to 50 mM, beyond this salinity level (at 75 mM), soil amendments were not effective to control CH4 emissions. From panicle initiation to grain ripening stages treatment T4 (100% NPKSZn + 75 mM NaCl stress) showed the highest CH4 emission rate, while lower CH4 emission rate was recorded in T5 (100% NPKSZn + 25 mM NaCl stress + Phospho-gypsum) and T8 treatment (100% NPKSZn + 50 mM NaCl + Phospho-gypsum). In case of seasonal total CH4 emission, Phospho-gypsum was found most effective to mitigate total CH4 emissions followed by biochar and trichocompost amendments in all salinity levels, probably due to the improved soil redox potential status (Eh), decreased electrical conductivity (EC), increased SO42-, NO3- , Mn4+ etc. in the rice rhizosphere. Rice growth and yield components were badly affected by increasing salinity levels. Phospho-gypsum, biochar and trichocompost amendments increased plant height, panicles number/hill, shoot biomass and grain yield/hill at 25 mM NaCl stress condition. However, salinity stress 50 mM to 75 mM severely affected rice growth and yield components, eventhough phospho-gypsum, biochar and trichocompost were applied. Among the amendments, phosphogypsum and biochar significantly decreased yield scaled CH4 emission (GHGI) in salinity levels 25 mM to 75 mM. After harvesting rice, the overall soil properties such as organic matter content, available P, available S, exchangeable K+ and Ca2+, K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+ ratios etc. were increased with the biochar, phospho-gypsum and trichocompost amendments. The highest ratios of K+/Na+ and Ca+/Na+ were found in the extract of saline soil at 25 mM with phospho-gypsum amendments followed by biochar and trichocompost amendments. Furthermore, soil SO42-, NO3- , Mn4+ and Fe3+ contents in rice root rhizosphere were increased in the amended saline soils, which caused significant reduction in seasonal methane emissions. Therefore, it could be concluded that the combined application of phospho-gypsum and biochar with the recommended NPKSZn fertilizers in saline soils may be a good practice for increasing tolerance to salinity in rice by increasing K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+ ratios, while decreasing yield scaled CH4 emission (GHGI) in salinity levels 25 mM to 75 mM.
Cite this paper: Khatun, L. , Ali, M. , Sumon, M. , Islam, M. and Khatun, F. (2021) Mitigation Rice Yield Scaled Methane Emission and Soil Salinity Stress with Feasible Soil Amendments. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 10, 16-36. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2021.101002.

[1]   Szabolcs, I. (1989) Salt Affected Soils. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[2]   Maji, B. and Bandyopadhyay, B.K. (1991) Micro-Nutrient Research in Coastal Salt Affected Soils. Journal of Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research, 9, 219-223.

[3]   Nazar, R., Iqbal, N., Massood, A., Syeed, S. and Khan, N.A. (2011) Understanding the Significance of Sulfur in Improving Salinity Tolerance in Plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 70, 80-87.

[4]   SRDI (2010) Saline Soils of Bangladesh. SRMAF Projects, Ministry of Agriculture, Bangladesh, 1-60.

[5]   IPCC (2007) The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Working Paper No. 57, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

[6]   Haque, S.A. (2006) Salinity Problem and Crop Production in Coastal Regions of Bangladesh. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 38, 1359-1365.

[7]   Mishra, B. and Battachargy, R.K. (2001) Varietal Tolerance to Alkalinity in Rice. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Salt Affected Soils, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, 502-507.

[8]   Siringam, K., Jantawang, N., Cha-um, S. and Kirdmanee, C. (2011) Salt Stress Induced Ion Accumulation, Ion Homeostasis, Membrane Injury and Augar Contents in Salt-Sensitive Rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. Indica) Roots under Isoosmotic Conditions. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 1340-1346.

[9]   Surekha, R.P., Mishra, B., Gupta, S.R. and Rathore, A. (2008) Reproductive Stage Tolerance to Salinity and Alkalinity Stresses in Rice Genotypes.

[10]   Rahman, M.S., Haque, M.A. and Islam, M.T. (2015) Salinity Affects Flag Leaf Chlorophyll and Yield Attributes of Rice Genotypes. Journal of Bioscience and Agriculture Research, 4, 80-85.

[11]   Mahdy, A.M. (2011) Comparative Effects of Different Soil Amendments on Amelioration of Saline-Sodic Soils. Journal of Soil and Water Research, 6, 205-216.

[12]   Gupta, R.K. and Abrol, I.P. (1990) Salt-Affected Soils: Their Reclamation and Management for Crop Production. In: Lal, R. and Stewart, B.A., Eds., Advances in Soil Science. Advances in Soil Science, Vol 11, Springer, New York, 223-288.

[13]   Bachelet, D. and Neue, H.U. (1993) Methane Emission from Wetland Rice Areas of Asia. Chemosphere, 26, 219-237.

[14]   Lehmann, J. and Joseph, S. (2009) Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. Earthscan, London, 1-12.

[15]   Clark, G., Dodgshun, N., Sale, P. and Tang, C. (2007) Changes in Chemical and Biological Properties of a Sodic Clay Subsoil with Addition of Organic Amendments. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 39, 2806-2817.

[16]   Zhang, W.M., Meng, J., Wang, J.Y., Fan, S.X. and Chen, W.F. (2013) Effect of Biochar on Root Morphological and Physiological Characteristics and Yield in Rice. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 39, 1445-1451.

[17]   Abrishamkesh, S., Gorji, M., Asadi, H., Bagheri-Marandi, G.H. and Pourbabaee, A.A. (2015) Effects of Rice Husk Biochar Application on the Properties of Alkaline Soil and Lentil Growth. Plant, Soil and Environment, 61, 475-482.

[18]   Ghafoor, A., Murtaza, G., Ahmad, B. and Boers, T.M. (2008) Evaluation of Amelioration Treatments and Economic Aspects of Using Saline-Sodic Water for Rice and Wheat Production on Salt-Affected Soils under Arid Land Conditions. Irrigation and Drainage, 57, 424-434.

[19]   Muhammad, D. and Khattak, R.A. (2011) Wheat Yield and Chemical Composition as Influenced by Integrated Use of Gypsum, Pressmud and FYM in Saline-Sodic Soil. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, 33, 82-86.

[20]   Hori, Inubushi KK, Matsumoto S, Wada H (1993) Competition for Hydrogen between Methane Formation and Sulfate Reduction in the Paddy Soil. Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 1, 572-572.

[21]   Ali, M.A., Lee, C.H., Kim, S.Y. and Kim, P. (2009) Effect of Industrial By-Products Containing Electron Acceptors on Mitigating Methane Emission during Rice Cultivation. Waste Management, 29, 2759-2764.

[22]   Khattak, S.G., Haq, I.U., Malik, A., Khattak, M.J., Naveedullah (2007) Effect of Various Levels of Gypsum Application on the Reclamation of Salt Affected Soil Grown under Rice Followed by Wheat Crop. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 23, 675-680.

[23]   Evelin, H., Kapoor, R. and Giri, B. (2009) Arbuscular mycorrhizal Fungi in Alleviation of Salt Stress: A Review. Annals of Botany, 104, 1263-1280.

[24]   Estrada, B., Aroca, R., Barea, J.M. and Ruiz-Lozano, J.M. (2013) Native Arbuscular mycorrhizal Fungi Isolated from a Saline Habitat Improved Maize Antioxidant Systems and Plant Tolerance to Salinity. Journal of Plant Science, 201-202, 42-51.

[25]   Anonymous (2007) IPM Lab Biopesticide ed. M. B. Meah, IPM Lab, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.

[26]   Ali, M.A., Kim, P.J. and Inubushi, K. (2015) Mitigating Yield-Scaled Greenhouse Gas Emission through Combined Application of Soil Amendments: A Comparative Study between Temperate and Subtropical Rice Paddy Soils. Science of the Total Environment, 529, 140-148.

[27]   Ali, M.A., Lee, C.H. and Kim, P.J. (2007) Effect of Phospho-Gypsum on Reduction of Methane Emission from Rice Paddy Soil. Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, 26, 131-140.

[28]   Theint, E.E., Bellingrath-Kimura, S.D., Oo, A.Z. and Motobayashi, T. (2016) Influence of Gypsum Amendment on Methane Emission from Paddy Soil Affected by Saline Irrigation Water. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 3, Article No. 79.

[29]   Lim, C.H., Kim, S.Y., Jeong, S.T., Kim, G.Y. and Kim, J. (2013) Effect of Salt Concentration on Methane Emission in a Coastal Reclaimed Paddy Soil Condition. Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture, 32, 252-259.

[30]   Supparattanapan, S., Saenjan, Cecile Q, Maeght, J.L. and Olivier, G. (2019) Salinity and Organic Amendment Effects on Methane Emission from a Rain-Fed Saline Paddy Field. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 55, 142-149.

[31]   Abdelgadir, E.M., Oka, M. and Fujiyama, H. (2005) Nitrogen Nutrition of Rice Plants under Salinity. Biologia Plantarum, 49, 99-104.

[32]   Delaune, R.D., Smith, C.J. and Patrick Jr., W.H. (1983) Methane Release from Gulf Coast Wetlands. Tellus, 35B, 8-15.

[33]   Bartlett, K.B., Bartlett, D.S., Harriss, R.C. and Sebacher, D.I. (1987) Methane Emissions along a Salt Marsh Salinity Gradient. Biogeochemistry, 4, 183-202.

[34]   Denier van der Gon, H.A.C. and Neue, H.U. (1994) Impact of Gypsum Application on the Methane Emission from a Wetland Rice Field. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 8, 127-134.

[35]   Islam, M.T., Sharma, P.C., Gautam, R.K., Singh, D., Singh, S., Panesar, B. and Ali, S. (2011) Salt Tolerance in Parental Lines of Rice Hybrids through Physiological Attributes Molecular Markers. International Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 2, 1-7.

[36]   Ali, Y., Aslam, Z., Ashraf, M.Y. and Tahir, G.R. (2004) Effect of Salinity on Chlorophyll Concentration, Leaf Area, Yield and Yield Components of Rice Genotypes Grown under Saline Environment. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 1, 221-225.

[37]   Kaniz, F. and Khan, M.H.R. (2013) Reclamation of Saline Soil Using Gypsum, Rice Hull and Saw Dust in Relation to Rice Production. Journal of Advanced Scientific Research, 4, 1-5.

[38]   Hafez, E.M., Hassan, E.H.A.E.I., Gaafar, I.A. and Seleiman, M.A. (2015) Effect of Gypsum Application and Irrigation Intervals on Clay Saline-Sodic Soil Characterization, Rice Water Use Efficiency, Growth, and Yield. Journal of Agricultural Science, 7, No. 12.

[39]   Girma, B.T., Ali, H.M. and Gebeyaneh, A.A. (2017) Effect of Salinity on Final Growth Stage of Different Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes. Asian Journal of Agricultural Research, 11, 1-9.

[40]   Khan, R., Gurmani, A.R., Khan, M.S. and Gurmani, A.H. (2008) Effect of Gypsum Application on Rice Yield under Wheat Rice System. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology, 4, 535-538.

[41]   Papon, K.D., Murata, Y., Haque, M.A. and Ali, M.A. (2015) Effect of Soil Salinity and Exogenous Proline Application on Rice Growth, Yield, Biochemical and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities. EC Agriculture, 2, 229-240.

[42]   Rahman, A., Nahar, K., Hasanuzzaman, M. and Masayuki, F. (2016) Calcium Supplementation Improves Na+/K+ Ratio, Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems in Salt-Stressed Rice Seedlings. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, 609.

[43]   Wu, G.Q. and Wang, S.M. (2012) Calcium Regulates K+/Na+ Homeostasis in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) under Saline Conditions. Plant, Soil and Environment, 58, 121-127.

[44]   Khan, M.Z., Azom, M.G., Sultan, M.T., Mandal, S., Islam, M.A., Khatun, R., Billah, S.M. and Ali, A.H.M.Z. (2019) Amelioration of Saline Soil by the Application of Gypsum, Calcium Chloride, Rice Husk and Cow Dung. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 8, 78-91

[45]   Shaaban, M., Abid, M. and Abou-Shanab, R.A.I. (2013) Amelioration of Salt Affected Soils in Rice Paddy System by Application of Organic and Inorganic Amendments. Plant, Soil and Environment, 59, 227-233.

[46]   Akhtar, S.S., Andersen, M.N. and Liu, F. (2015) Biochar Mitigates Salinity Stress in Potato. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 201, No. 5.

[47]   Feng, J., Cheng, R., Qul, A.A., Yan, Q.G., Li, Y.G., Jian, B.L., Dong, H., Xian, Q.Z., Xu, L. and Xi, W.S. (2018) Effects of Biochar on Sodium Ion Accumulation, Yield and Quality of Rice in Saline-Sodic Soil of the West of Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Plant, Soil and Environment, 64, 612-618.