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 OJBM  Vol.8 No.6 , November 2020
A Qualitative Study Exploring the Effects of Job Analysis and Organizational Culture toward Job Satisfaction in a Coffee Shop
Abstract: The nature of the food and beverage service industry is a fast paced environment and needs to communicate with each other between employee-employee and employee-customer in order to adapt and understand very fast with the workflow in the workplace. The food and beverage industry are required to generate healthy working environments and conditions for their employees to commit and motivate. The work is one of implications that is able to affect people’s psychological healthiness and life as an employee has their own duty to complete each task given to make the company survive, being controlled by the top management and access to make social interactions with other employees. One of the major challenges is to generate work environments with a high capacity for organizations to learn about the current situation that happened to the company. The company needs to have a planning function which involves strategy to develop a complete set of plans to coordinate and integrate from one activity to another, define an organization’s goals and achieve those objectives.

1. Introduction

The current situation of the business environment had rapidly changed from the previous one and invented the new trends for the company to face demands and challenges at a fast momentum (Pombo & Gomes, 2018). According to the previous study, one of the major challenges is to generate work environments with a high capacity for organizations to learn about the current situation that happened to the company (Guinot et al., 2016). It is either an internal or external effect that might influence the current situations of the company (Yang et al., 2019). The company needs to have a planning function which involves strategy to develop a complete set of plans to coordinate and integrate from one activity to another, define an organization’s goals and achieve those objectives (Robbins & Judge, 2011). Strategic human resource is defined by efficient use of the human capital of the organization to understand the overall goals of the organization and also employees where employees are an organization’s most valuable assets which is a very strategic instrument for a business (Oraman et al., 2011). It is important to implement strategic human resource management to have high potential to succeed in a business such as strategic recruitment is necessary to find the right person to fill the right job and fit to organizational requirements (Griffin, 2018). One of the strategic moves for human resources is job analysis (Azmi, 2019).

According to Waters et al. (2017), job analysis is conducted to determine an individual’s critical skills and expertise needed to work in a specific occupation or career. A job analysis defines the competencies an individual must have for any job position. In the organization, work feels meaningful when it has a worthwhile pursuit for a larger purpose and it gives an opportunity to self-fulfillment (Martela & Pessi, 2018; Simonet & Castille, 2020). Job characteristics like task, knowledge, and social environment are generally considered to affect job performance (Parker et al., 2017; Peiró et al., 2020). In order to maximize performance efficiency, the company needs to design the work which may result in decreasing the employee satisfaction, having difficulties in directing employees in common jobs, increasing the employee being absent and leave from the workforce (Tims et al., 2016). The work is one of implications that is able to affect people’s psychological healthiness and life as an employee has their own duty to complete each task given to make the company survive, being controlled by the top management and access to make social interactions with other employees (Tims et al., 2016).

One of the industries that have those criteria is the food and beverage industry (Daskin, 2019). The food and beverage industry are required to generate healthy working environments and conditions for their employees to commit and motivate (Daskin, 2019). As the nature of the food and beverage service industry is a fast paced environment and needs to communicate with each other between employee-employee and employee-customer in order to adapt and understand very fast with the workflow in the workplace (Attia & Salama, 2018; Cain et al., 2018). Especially coffee shops, the employee needs to understand very well the procedure to brew the coffee to maintain the flavor or pull out the true flavor and gives great services and hospitality to the customers.

Therefore, this research consists five sections such as introduction (which is as the first section of this research), literature review (which is as the second section of this research), methodology (which is as the third section of this research), results (that are as the fourth section of this research) and lastly, conclusion (which is as the fifth section of this research). Introduction is where the researchers briefly explained the scope of this research. Literature review explains the theories and concepts used as the basis of this research. Methodology explains the method and conceptual framework that conducted in this research. Result and discussion explain about the findings of this research. Finally, conclusion concludes the findings of this research.

2. Literature Review

“Human Resource Management” (HRM) is about the way people are being employed, developed and managed in the company (Armstrong & Taylor, 2020). HRM’s objectives are to improve organizational effectiveness through employees but it should concern the way to treat employees in accordance with a set of ethical dimensions and moral values (Armstrong & Taylor, 2020). The company’s HRM may require to support and retain a diverse global workforce while it makes the changes that allow employees to balance the family and career or other responsibilities (DeCenzo et al., 2016). HRM’s procedures and practices are the most suitable way to obtain the right employees meanwhile its principles and procedures for decreasing employee exit opportunity rate and monitoring employees within the company such as job analysis and organizational culture (Ashraf, 2017; Harrison & Bazzy, 2017).

2.1. Job Analysis

A job analysis study offered a lot of information that could be useful in a workplace for identifying to continue education program, developing job requirements, defining incentives systems, developing training programs, and designing job performance also assessing an individual’s performance from job analysis gives a benchmark to determine employee contribution to the organization (Waters et al., 2017). According to McEntire et al. (2006) and Siddique (2004), job analysis is important to an organization as it delivers the value of strategic human resource management in which organizations gain a better understanding of their jobs and their employees. Job analysis is the procedure through which we determine the duties of the positions and the characteristics of the people to hire for them (Anyakoha, 2019; Ashraf, 2017). Job analysis has been called the building block of everything that the personnel department does (Head et al., 2019). Job analysis is a primary tool to collect job-related data (Morgeson et al., 2016). Any job vacancy cannot be filled until and unless the organization has job analysis data (Hailemariam et al., 2019). It is necessary to define these accurately in order to place the right person at the right place and at the right time (Korkmaz et al., 2019). This helps both the employer and employee understand what exactly needs to be delivered and how (Azmi, 2019).

2.2. Organizational Culture

Culture is recognized as a significant factor in biggest companies or successful organizations (Arditi et al., 2017; Warrick, 2017). Organizational culture is described as the environment in which people work and has influenced the way of employees’ act, think and experience in the workplace which can differ between and significantly within the companies or departments (Felipe et al., 2017; Warrick et al., 2016). Organizational culture is a common social structure within an organization that refers to set of common beliefs and assumptions that influences how employee communicate with each other and environment (Balaji et al., 2020; Elsbach & Stigliani, 2018). Organizational culture can bring out the best version of employees and make excellent environments for employees to work in but it also can bring out the worst version in employees and make an environment filled with high work tension and stress (Nazarian et al., 2017; Shahzad et al., 2017; Warrick, 2017).

2.3. Job Satisfaction

Elements of the work environment may be affected by psychological or social aspects, as well as interpersonal and social relationships (Boamah et al., 2018; Solnet et al., 2010). A critical aspect of the working environment is known as perceived organizational support, which was found to have a major effect on employee satisfaction (Bufquin et al., 2017; Hoboubi et al., 2017). Chen et al. (2016), Gjerald and Øgaard (2010), and Valaei and Rezaei (2016) studies found that coworker’s competence positively correlates with employee’s job satisfaction while coworker’s responsibility to deal with the issues on the behalf of the colleagues positively correlates with employee intentions to stay in the organization. According to Kianto et al. (2016), Oraman et al. (2011), and Pang and Lu (2018), there are some of strategic human resource to provide job satisfaction such as incentives helps to motivate and engage employees to improve work performance, giving the right training and development programs to every level of employees, and giving fair rewards systems based on the employees performances and work quality to retain quality employees.

3. Methodology

This research is to investigate the effect of job analysis and organization culture towards job satisfaction using a qualitative research method will be conducted by doing an interview with the employees who are working in one of the coffee shops in Jakarta around “Pasar Minggu” and “Kemang”, south Tangerang around “Bintaro” and Depok around “Cibubur”, Indonesia. The sampling method is purposive and convenience method. The purpose is to collect accurate data directly from the respondents to generate specific and actual data. That coffee shop has 4 branches that are considered as reasonably successful companies. The researchers had to interview 5 respondents that consist of 1 Human Resources Manager, 1 Research and Development Officer, and 3 Baristas where all the employees need to become barista first then they could be promoted to higher position. The reason of the chosen respondents is easier to reach out during this current particular time due to today’s pandemic situation.

All respondents were given twelve interview questions that consisted of four interview questions about job analysis such as training for employees, incentive systems in the company, satisfaction towards job position, and move to different departments (such as “Is there a training program at the company such as going to seminars, training for new employees, or anything else? Please explain in detail.”, “Is there an incentive or job performance system for individual sizes in the company? Please explain in detail.”, “Are you satisfied with the current job or position as determined by the company? Please explain in detail.”, and “Have you ever experienced a move from one division to a different division or from one position to a different position than before in the same company? Please explain in detail.”). Another four interview questions about organizational culture such as friendly work environment between co-workers and top management, organizational culture affecting working environment, organizational culture affecting employees to work as a team job performance (such as “Is there an organizational culture in the company such as a friendly and comfortable work environment from the top management level to employees and customers? Please explain in detail.”, “Does the organizational culture affect the company environment?”, “Does the organizational culture influence you and other colleagues? Please explain in detail.”, and “Is the organizational culture capable of producing the best version of the employees and work environment? Please explain in detail.”). Last four interview questions were about job satisfaction such as satisfaction in current position, promotion offers and support of its employees, company’s effort to retain the employees, and which aspects would make the employees stay in the company (such as “Do you like your current position or job? Please give a reason.”, “Does the company support you in any way such as giving advice, giving promotions, or otherwise? Please explain in detail.”, “Are there any company actions to keep you in the organization such as a fair reward system, attractive training programs, large incentives or something else? Please explain in detail.”, and “Could the elements you mentioned in all of the previous questions satisfy your long stay and work in this organization? Please explain in detail.”). The variables, that included, contribute to the determination which key success factor in job satisfaction and the current condition or requirement to have sustainable job satisfaction for the coffee shop.

4. Result and Discussion

According to the job analysis interview, the company gives basic coffee knowledge, basic barista course, and espresso machine course trained by the senior barista to its new barista and the training program is applied to all departments to train its new employees based on the job position also team building seminar and training is also provided by the company. Incentives are also given by the company due to overtime work and event projects. Based on the results of interview, most of the employees, that was being interviewed, are satisfied with the job position that was given by the company due to its support to the employee by listening to the complaints and providing necessary training for the employee skill fulfillment. In addition, the company provides a career path to those who are determined and show a positive working attitude by giving to those potential employees an opportunity to work in different departments that are more suitable with their skill and desire.

The company’s culture was the main factor that the employees would be comfortable at work. According to the interview, there was no gap in communication between the owners and top management to its subordinates. Superiors and subordinates were working together like coworkers, coordinated, and supported each other and divisions. Working as a team is essential in the food and beverage industry, this type of communication and working style creates a supportive and friendly working environment, would help the employees to work efficiently and dynamically to achieve the company’s goal and also brings a positive brand image to its customers.

Job analysis and organizational culture are affecting job satisfaction for employees. Based on the interview, all the training that has been provided by the company helped the employees to be validated as professional and that became their own satisfaction and pride towards the job and status. Based on the results of interview, most of the employees, that was being interviewed, were satisfied by the job because it is what they are passionate about and the company helped them to be better and provided necessary equipment to develop and explore their skills. Employees appreciation and support, fair incentives, promotion opportunity, and friendly working environment affect job satisfaction and retain employees to work in the company.

5. Conclusion

Job analysis and organizational culture are able to improve job satisfaction for the employees in coffee shops. The employees are also able to stay motivated and passionately work for a long term period. These are two of the keys of success to maximize the job satisfaction which also indicates that human resource management plays an important role to make employees stay satisfied and motivated in coffee shops. Coffee shops need to stay productive to analyze whether the job is suitable to the employee and instill a good work environment and culture to boost job satisfaction. This kind of approach recommends to be conducted repeatedly and for other food and beverage industries especially for coffee shops in order to boost job satisfaction.

Cite this paper: Prayogo, A. , Diza, T. , Prasetyaningtyas, S. and Maharani, A. (2020) A Qualitative Study Exploring the Effects of Job Analysis and Organizational Culture toward Job Satisfaction in a Coffee Shop. Open Journal of Business and Management, 8, 2687-2695. doi: 10.4236/ojbm.2020.86166.
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