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 OALibJ  Vol.7 No.11 , November 2020
Discipline Education from “Natural Person” to “Social Person”
Abstract: The individual is the unity of nature and sociality, and sociality is the essential attribute of the individual. Induced by using high power, speech and school discipline rules of three kinds of external forces that affect the students’ physical behavior, mood, emotion and value faith three kinds of internal factors, so as to make the students on the basis of the “natural person” socialization, into a “social person”, conforming to the need of the society and realize the discipline of education.

1. “Natural Person” and “Social Person”

Man is the unity of nature and society. In sociology, “natural person” with natural attributes refers to a person who has not experienced the socialization process after being separated from the mother body, and a person who only has the natural state of human nature, such as a newborn baby. And “social man” in sociology refers to a person with both natural and social attributes in a complete sense. In other words, natural persons gradually socialize in the process of adapting to the social environment, participating in social life, learning social norms and fulfilling social roles, and then realize themselves, gain social recognition and acquire the qualification of social members. Marxist philosophy believes that the natural attribute of man is the basis of the social attribute, the natural attribute of man permeates the social attribute, and the natural attribute of socialization is the natural attribute that distinguishes man from other animals [1] . As Marx said, “The essence of man is not an abstraction inherent in a single individual. In its reality, it is the sum total of all social relations” [2] . It can be seen that man is the product of social history, and everyone lives in a specific social and historical environment. Therefore, in the unity of man’s natural and social attributes, his essence lies in his sociality. From the perspective of individual development, man is the product of nature first and the existence of society second. The extension and development of man’s natural attribute in his group life not only creates man’s social attribute, but also lays a foundation for the emergence and establishment of humanity. Only by continuously developing the social attributes of human beings on the basis of natural attributes, and realizing the transformation from “natural person” to “social person”, can people better adapt to the society and show the nature of human “sociality”.

The transformation from “natural person” to “social person” is not accomplished in an action, but in the interaction between human and society through the tool of discipline. Foucault understand discipline as “of modern technology, a kind of special power is power intervention, training and monitoring technology of the flesh, the means of making knowledge” [3] , “it through a lasting operation mechanism, to dissect, distribution, combination and arrangement of the human body to the position of human body, posture, careful manipulation, form and behavior to create a group of ‘tame’ flesh” [3] . It can be seen that the purpose of discipline is to cultivate individuals whose behavioral habits meet the needs of society. In a sense, all the education that promotes the socialization of “natural persons” can be called discipline education. It is through discipline education that the transformation from “natural persons” to “social persons” is realized. Discipline education, as a way to promote the socialization of “natural persons”, can play its role to the maximum only with the help of powerful external forces and acting on the internal factors of individuals.

2. External and Internal―External Force of Discipline

Newborn babies as a “natural person” without socialization process, its level of ability and cognitive experience in the original foundation condition, so you need to use force in discipline education to stimulate individual ability and cognitive aspects of nerve impulses, activated by mainland outside and individual social attribute, and implement the “natural person” to “social person”. The external forces here mainly refer to the advantage of high power, the inducement of speech symbols and the constraint of discipline rules.

2.1. The Advantages of High Office

People’s fear of power leads to their unconditional obedience to power. The premise for discipline education to play a role is to control people by virtue of the advantages of high power. The traditional political theory holds that power is the ruling tool of the state and the ruling class USES violence and ideology to suppress, exploit and dominate the ruling class. And modern power no longer rely on violence, is no longer such as destroying, damaging and hinder the oppressive or negative power, but the technical and the power of the positive force, it through the exercise of institutionalization, the discipline of management power, in line with the responsible for life rather than the deprivation of life form, to induce and stimulate the way makes individual voluntary lead, their actions lead to power the desired direction, in order to produce new, obedient, trained “obedient” [4] . It can be said that power is the core force of discipline, which can be implemented and carried out through power.

Teachers and administrators in schools control students with the advantage of high positions of power. Foucault points out that the modern power embodied in a variety of power relationships: one is the level monitoring, by borrowing bentham designed a panoramic view of field construction, teachers, administrators, student leaders and the cadres at all levels in the whole environment of all-round, the whole perspective of mutual surveillance to inspect students’ behavior, to gain the student thought, cognition and values in the hold; The second is the standardized ruling, that is, in any institution of the society, there are its own detailed disciplinary provisions, and there is a small, only effective for internal personnel, not universally binding punishment mechanism, the school through teachers and other figures of high power of the student’s behavior disciplinary ruling, so as to control the behavior of individuals. The third is inspection, which combines the hierarchical monitoring with the standardized ruling. Through examination, assessment and other forms of inspection, the school makes students compare standards and students with each other, and USES the reward and punishment system to guide the socialization process of the inspected. It can be seen that modern power penetrates into every aspect of the school in a way of capillaries, exerting strict control and control over every aspect of the students. Through this micro-power, students are controlled, their natural attributes are constantly suppressed, and their bodies and behaviors are strictly controlled through external supervision, rules and regulations and inspection, so as to promote the continuous development of their social attributes, gradually form socialized behaviors, and become fixed in the form of behavioral habits.

2.2. The Constraint of Discipline Rules

In the school environment we live in, discipline is everywhere, in any school. There is a certain discipline. According to Foucault, discipline is a system of evaluation, “a machine of supervision, screening and reward” [5] . Discipline is the external reliance of the function of power, the basis for the implementation of standardized rulings, and the reference standard for the implementation of monitoring and inspection. Discipline is a special social behavior norm between morality and law. It is the standard reference for individual behavior shaping and correction. Only through discipline, a fixed habit of behavior, can the power of authority be exerted and guaranteed.

First of all, as the goal of student behavior, discipline restricts students’ behavior through the approach of student behavior to the goal behavior, and then makes students produce behaviors in line with social norms. Secondly, only by comparing student behavior with discipline rules can we judge the right and wrong, good and bad of student behavior, and implement reward mechanism for behavior in line with discipline rules, and implement punishment mechanism for behavior that does not comply with the rules. Discipline can promote the formation of individual good behavior habits and the discovery of bad behavior habits. It can be seen that discipline has a guiding role in the development of students’ behavior and a judgment role in the right and wrong of students’ behavior. In school education, discipline is the rules formulated by the school to safeguard the common interests of students and ensure the normal conduct of daily life and work, which must be followed by all members. It plays an important role in the growth of students and is the behavioral requirement for children to enter the society [6] . It restricts the behavior of individual students, classes, societies and even schools in the form of clear provisions, norms and codes of conduct, as well as people’s active inheritance, continuous generation and renewal habits, and plays a role of social control over individuals. Therefore, discipline shapes the behavior of students from an external perspective and through the form of other-law, thus prescribing the development direction of individuals and promoting them to move forward to the development direction required by the society, thus making the “natural person” socialize in behavior habits.

2.3. The Induction of Speech Symbols

The famous philosopher Heidegger once said: “Language is the home of human beings,” home “is a place to accommodate people, but also bound people place. Language is a home and a prison” [7] . Speech is the process of using language, the application and concrete expression of language, and the process and product of people’s application of language in communicative activities. Power, as a relatively abstract force, can only play a corresponding role when it ACTS on practical things, while verbal symbols, as the main tool for the communication and transmission of information, ideas and concepts between people, become the main carrier of power attachment. That is to say, as an abstract object, power can only play its role and show its power with the help of the tool of verbal symbols. Therefore, the implementation of disciplinary education needs to control the receiver by using the purposeful and directed context created by verbal symbol tools.

Verbal signs use language as the medium to instill or change people’s ideas. It can be seen that language, as a kind of technical speech activity, is carefully designed and arranged. Under the control of language, the speaker transmits specific ideas and values to the receiver, so as to achieve practical goals. The premise of the implementation of speech symbol control is to restrict people’s free choice in a closed context, and its purpose is to limit or cut off various sources of information. Then, controlling for controlled desire, personality, values and other background information, through questions, statements, rhetorical means, such as understanding, set on a particular topic, the controlled emotional triggers were analyzed and logical argument, stimulate, suggestion, to repeat, and even deprived of the voice of a controlled way, to transfer some ideas to the other party heads, achieve the goal of control [8] . Therefore, verbal symbols control exist a variety of ways, by these ways to “natural person” state of mind of the state of nature, perception system, physical behavior, thinking and values of all aspects of the control and direction of the induced, after believing that the four stages, judgement, understanding, change, to make the transfer knowledge of what the speaker information and ideas into their own part of the cognitive system, so as to bring up a group of “social person” conforming to the need of the society.

3. From Inside and Outside―The Internal Cause of Discipline

Su Huom linsky said: “the real education is education”, education or external force others only applies to the individual’s own body behavior, internal factors such as emotion and value faith, will be able to activate the individual ego education mechanism, and then by the change of inside and outside, achieve the transition of the “natural person” to “social person”.

3.1. Body Behavior

It is well known that man is made up of mind and body. In daily life, people usually realize their perception of the world and various practical activities first by relying on their body, rather than practicing various social behaviors through their mind. Yan believes that the starting point and foundation of education must also be the body. Through education, children acquire certain disposition tendencies, tastes and abilities, and become “upward”, controllable and well-behaved bodies, thus reproducing social norms. In this sense, we can say that education is the practice of “cultivating the body” [9] . Education aims to shape an abstract person in an idea with obvious value selection and value discrimination. For this purpose, it is more convenient and simple for individuals in the field of education to control and discipline their initial body than to inculcate or reach a consensus on any value [9] . It can be seen that in order to achieve the goal of “human” in the ideal society, the specific existence of human, namely the body, is used as a tool to “trim” the body to achieve the goal. Therefore, the primary location of education should be the body.

As a place of physical discipline, the school has the control and discipline of the body in the three elements of activity, time and space. Most of the students’ activities in school are strictly controlled by the teacher, and the students’ free space is compressed to the limit, so is the students’ free time. Besides the sleep time needed for energy recovery, the rest time is basically controlled by the teacher. Among them, time brings the body into the rhythm of social management, and the influence factors such as the class of teachers and students in the spatial structure, the influence of commercialization and gender work together on the body in the school field, making the body a place of power game, and keeping the body from breaking the rules in the way of spatial regulation. The smooth development of education and teaching activities depends on various forms of physical control [10] . discipline education action of the play, most notably in the space and time of the discipline of the control of the body, through the control of the body to curb “natural person” attribute is not appropriate behavior in today’s social requirements, mandatory or non-mandatory produce conforms to the social expectations of behavior, and then realize the “natural person” from the external behavior of socialization.

3.2. Emotion

In the era of overflowing emotional topics, emotion plays a more and more important role in today’s society. The rationality presented by the means of social propaganda of discipline will reach its limit when the production level is at a certain level, and then it will be regarded as a kind of compulsion and suppression. In order to exert influence on the behavior at the pre-reflective level, neoliberal spiritual politics controls emotions and thus deeply intervenes people, using emotions as resources to create stronger productivity and higher productivity. Emotions are welcomed as free and subjective expressions. Emotions have two functions, one is to feel and the other is to express. Hochschild divides emotions into two categories according to their place of expression: emotions experienced internally in personal life and emotions observed in public, and points out that both are subject to social rules. She believed that emotional models and warning events encountered by individuals in their growth could help individuals from certain emotion ideologies, and such ideologies could be highlighted and symbolized.

In school education, when a student is punished or praised by his teacher for some kind of emotional expression, he gradually forms to control or promote this kind of emotional expression in the classroom. This is the teacher to the students emotional induction role. There are two most common ways of emotional induction: one is through encouragement, praise and other ways to stimulate and induce the emotions of the educatees, release a signal to strengthen the perceptual knowledge of the other side, stimulate the enthusiasm for further communication; The second is to stimulate and induce the educatees’ emotions through punishment, accountability and other means, and release a signal to suppress the expression of certain emotions of the educatees, and teach them to meet the social expectations of the emotional response to produce social requirements of emotion. Through such an emotional induction, the individual successfully acquires the emotional consciousness associated with different behavioral situations, and the sum of these consciences constitutes the most general form of engagement in emotional culture. In this way, the emotional culture of the society constitutes a series of complex concepts of how people should experience and express emotions in different types of situations, and this culture restricts individuals’ emotional feelings and reactions from the perspective of emotional consciousness. In this way, social emotion is gradually manifested and fixed in a certain form in the body of “natural person”, so as to realize the socialization of “natural person”.

3.3. The Spirit of Faith

The final destination of education lies not in body and emotion, but in the mind and spirit of the educatee. It contains the rational elements of cognition, thinking and other spiritual beliefs. Only by embedding “rationality” into the cognitive structure of individuals to control their own emotions and bodies, can education truly realize the discipline of “natural persons”, so that individuals can show the characteristics of “social man” in line with social requirements. The so-called “spiritual belief” mainly refers to people’s spiritual pursuit in the sense of transcendence. It not only points to people’s spiritual destination, but also guides people’s realistic spiritual life, which is the fundamental value standard for people to choose their life type. One is the fundamental view of the relationship between man and the world at the world view level. The second is the love and transcendence of real life on the level of outlook on life [11] . Discipline can realize the real transformation of an individual’s natural attributes from the inside to the outside only when it truly transforms the individual’s spiritual beliefs.

In the education system, the tools and contents controlled by discipline are different for students at different education stages: for junior students, discipline emphasizes the rules of “doing things”, and its control over the body is almost harsh. The higher the grade, the greater the emphasis on “being a man”. That is, the lower the grade, the more physical control, the higher the grade, the more mental control. The most difficult and important aspect to control is the thought, cognition, concept and other spiritual beliefs. The purpose of the disciplinarian to control the disciplined’s body and emotion is to guide the disciplined’s spiritual beliefs. School teachers through various theme class inside and outside practice activities, all kinds of language words context rendering to activate individual spiritual world, the use of performance and speech induction to show its value idea, and guide students to actively participate in to make the individual experience and feelings, and then get the corresponding emotional experience and emotional experience, which enables individuals to produce internal identification of the values, so that the teachers’ values in the student thoughts to take root, sprout and blossom leaf. The ultimate source of teachers’ values is the communist belief recognized by the society, the sustainable development view, the socialist core values, and many stereotypes and standardized ideas that people become on their birthdays in life. Through the influence and guidance of students’ spiritual concept, the students can establish the spiritual belief and cognitive system in line with the mainstream values of the society, so as to realize the socialization of students fundamentally.

It can be seen from the above that the discipline of the school acts on the three internal factors of students’ physical behavior, emotion and value belief with the help of three external forces of high power, speech induction and discipline rules, so as to make students continuously socialize on the basis of “natural person” and become “social person” meeting the needs of the society. However, the author only explains the effect of external forces on individuals from three dimensions, without taking more external factors into consideration.

Cite this paper: Bai, Y.P. (2020) Discipline Education from “Natural Person” to “Social Person”. Open Access Library Journal, 7, 1-8. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1106950.
References

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[2]   Selected Works of Marx and Engels: Vol. 1 (1998) People’s Publishing House, Beijing, p. 60.

[3]   Foucault, M. (1999) Discipline and Punishment. Liu, B.C. and Yang, Y.Y., Trans., Sanlian Bookstore, Beijing, 375, 154.

[4]   Foucault, M. (1979) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Sheridan, A. Trans., Vintage Books, New York.

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[6]   Wang, S. and Yang, J. (2010) School Discipline and Discipline Education from the Pedagogy Perspective. Basic Education, 7, 31-34.

[7]   (Germany) Heidegger (2005) On the Way to Language. Sun, Z.X., Trans., The Commercial Press, Beijing, 146.

[8]   Da, Z.X. (2012) Preliminary Study on the Control of Speech Symbols. Master’s Thesis, Jilin University, Changchun.

[9]   Yan, X.L. (2006) “Meat” and “Spirit” in Education. Ph.D. Thesis, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing.

[10]   Xie, N. (2006) Body in School Daily Life. Chinese Journal of Education, No. 6, 91-94.

[11]   Wang, K.Q. (2002) On Spirit and Spiritual Education—A Reflection on Contemporary Education from the Perspective of Educational Philosophy. Journal of Central China Normal University (Humanities and Social Sciences Edition), No. 3, 18-25.

 
 
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