Back
 AS  Vol.11 No.10 , October 2020
Effect of Leafy and Leafless Greenwood, Softwood and Hardwood Cuttings Success of Garcinia kola (Heckel)
Abstract: Garcinia kola Heckel, called “petit cola” in Côte d’Ivoire and “bitter kola” in Nigeria, is a Non-Timber Forest Product of great socioeconomic importance. Unfortunately, this species is threatened due to overexploitation and deforestation. This study tested the effect of leaf area on stem cuttings to regenerate vegetatively in a non-mist poly-propagator without using exogenous hormones. Three stem cuttings types: greenwood, softwood and hardwood (12 - 15 cm in length) were collected from 24-month years old seedlings. The two top leaves of each cutting type were conserved at different leaf area: 0 cm2, 28.25 cm2, 56.5 cm2, 84.75 cm2 and 113 cm2 (entire leaf area). Observations were made on rooting, sprouting and leafing abilities of cuttings depending to treatments applied. Results showed that all cutting types have presented good ability to shooting and rooting. Cuttings with 113 cm2 leaf areas presented the best rooting (94.44% ± 2.42%) and shouting (95.55% ± 2.42%) percentage and longest primary root length (12.03 ± 0.50 cm). Hardwood, softwood and greenwood cuttings with 113 cm2 leaf area had the best rooting percentage (96.66% ± 3.33%, 96.66% ± 5.77% and 90.00% ± 5.77% respectively). The longest primary root length (13.50 ± 0.97 cm) was observed to greenwood cuttings with 113 cm2 leaf area. Regenerated plants in the forest presented well survival percentage (96.66%). This study shows that it is possible to regenerate entire plants by cuttings without using external hormones in non-mist poly-propagator.
Cite this paper: Dao, J. , Kouakou, K. , Kouakou, C. , Cherif, M. , Ouedraogo, M. , Koffi, K. and Bi, I. (2020) Effect of Leafy and Leafless Greenwood, Softwood and Hardwood Cuttings Success of Garcinia kola (Heckel). Agricultural Sciences, 11, 897-911. doi: 10.4236/as.2020.1110058.
References

[1]   Leakey, R.R.B., Tchoundjeu, Z., Schreckenberg, K., Shackleton, S. and Shackleton, C. (2005) Agroforestry Tree Products (AFTPs): Targeting Poverty Reduction and Enhanced Livelihoods. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 3, 1-23.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14735903.2005.9684741

[2]   Leakey, R.R.B. (2014) Agroforestry—Participatory Domestication of Trees. In: Van Alfen, N., Ed., Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, Elsevier Publishers, San Diego, 253-269.
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-52512-3.00025-5

[3]   Yakubu, F.B., Bolanle, O.J., Ogunade, O.J. and Yahaya, D.K. (2014) Effects of Water Soaking and Light on the Dormancy of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds. European Journal of Forest Research, 2, 17-26.

[4]   Akoègninou, A., Van der Burg, W.J. and Van der Maesen, L.J.G. (2006) Flore Analytique du Bénin. Backhuys Publisher, Wageningen, 476.

[5]   Kouame, N.M.T., Ake, C.B., Mangara, A. and N’Guessan, K. (2016) Analyse de l’intérêt Socio-Economique des graines de Garcinia kola Heckel (Clusiaceae) dans la commune de Koumassi (Abidjan), Côte d’Ivoire. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 10, 2587-2595.
https://doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v10i6.15

[6]   Adegboye, M.F., Akinpelu, D.A. and Okoh, A.I. (2008) The Bioactive and Phytochemical Properties of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seed Extract on Some Pathogens. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7, 3934-3938.

[7]   Oluwatosin, A., Tolulope, A., Ayokulehin, K., Patricia, O., Aderemi, K. and Catherine, F. (2014) Anti-Malarial Potential of Kolaviron a Biflavonoid from Garcinia kola Seeds, against Plasmodium berghei Infection in Swiss Albino Mice. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 7, 97-104.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60003-1

[8]   Braide, V.B. (1991) Antihepatotoxic Biochemical Effects of Kolaviron, a Biflavonoid of Garcinia kola Seeds. Phytotherapy Research, 5, 35-37.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2650050110

[9]   Adesina, S.K., Gbile, Z.O., Odukoya, O.A., Akinwusi, D.D., Illoh, H.C. and Yeola, A.A. (1995) Survey of Indigenous Useful Plants of West Africa with Special Emphasis on Medicinal Plants and Issues Associated with Management. The United Nations Programme on Natural Resources in Africa, 84-85.

[10]   Adejumo, O.E., Ayoola, M.D., Kolapo, A.L., Orimoyegun, V.O. and Olatunji, P.O. (2011) Anti-Sickling Activities of Extracts of Leaf, Seed and Seed Pod of Garcinia kola Heckel. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 5, 48-52.
https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPP10.052

[11]   Kouakou, L.K., Kouakou, C., Koffi, K.K., Dao, J., Beugré, M.M., Baudoin, J.P. and Zoro Bi, I.A. (2016) Effect of Mechanical Scarification and Gibberellins (GA3) on Seed Germination and Growth of Garcinia kola (Heckel). Journal of Applied Biosciences, 103, 9811-9818.

[12]   Amadu, J. and Aida, C.S. (2017) Priority Indigenous Fruit Trees in the African Rainforest Zone: Insights from Sierra Leone. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 64, 745-760.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-016-0397-9

[13]   Codjia, S., Aoudji, A., Koura, K. and Ganglo, J.C. (2018) Systèmes agroforestiers à Garcinia kola Heckel au Sud-Est du Bénin: Distribution géographique, connaissances endogènes et retombées financières. European Scientific Journal, 14, 188-208.
https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2018.v14n12p188

[14]   Cheek, M. (2004) Garcinia kola. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T34715A9884648.

[15]   Ouattara, D., Vroh Bi, T.A., Kpangui, K.B. and N’Guessan, K.E. (2013) Diversité végétale et valeur pour la conservation de la réserve botanique d’Agbaou en création, Centre-ouest, Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of Animal &Plant Sciences, 20, 3034-3047.

[16]   Agyili, J., Sacande, M., Koffi, E. and Peprah, T. (2007) Improving the Collection and Germination of West African Garcinia kola Heckel Seeds. New Forest, 34 , 269-279.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-007-9054-7

[17]   Koffi, E.K., N’Guessan, A.K., Kouame, C.N., Kouassi, M.K. and Kahia, J.W. (2015). Possibility of Using the Intermediate Mature Stage of Garcinia kola Heckel Seeds to Shorten the Germination Time. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 10, 4762-4769.
https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2015.9995

[18]   Dadjo, C., Nyende, A.B., Kahia, J. and Assogbadjo, A.E. (2019) Effect of Storage Temperature and Dormancy Breaking Pre-Treatments on Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Garcinia kola (Heckel): A Threatened Medicinal Fruit Tree in Benin. Forest Science and Technology, 15, 173-179.
https://doi.org/10.1080/21580103.2019.1646673

[19]   Mudge, K.W. and Brennan, E.B. (1999) Clonal Propagation of Multipurpose and Fruit Trees Used in Agroforestry. In: Buck, L.E., Lassoie, J.P. and Fernandes, E.C.M., Eds., Agroforestry in Sustainable Agricultural Systems, CRC Press, New York, 157-190.

[20]   Yakubu, F.B., Adejoh, O.P., Ogunade, J.O. and Igboanugo, A.B.I. (2014) Vegetative Propagation of Garcinia kola (Heckel). World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 10, 85-90.

[21]   Kouakou, K.L., Dao, J.P., Kouassi, K.L., BeugrE, M.M., KonE, M., Baudoin, J.P. and Zoro Bi, I.A. (2016) Propagation of Garcinia kola (Heckel) by Stem and Root Cuttings. Silva Fennica, 50, Article ID: 1588.
https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1588

[22]   Tomlinson, P.B. (1990) The Structural Biology of Palms. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 477.

[23]   Sunderland, T.C.H. (2001) The Taxonomy, Ecology and Utilisation of African Rattans (Palmae: Calamoideae). Doctor of Phylosophy (PhD), University College London, London, 357.

[24]   Leakey, R.R.B. (2014) Plant Cloning: Macropropagation. In: Van Alfen, N., Ed., Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, Elsevier Publishers, San Diego, 349-359.
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-52512-3.00223-0

[25]   Bhuyan, L., Sharma, C.L., Singh, B. and Sharma, M.B. (2017) Vegetative Propagation of Two Important Garcinia Species of Assam, NE India. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 5, 273-277.

[26]   Leakey, R.R.B. and Coutts, M.P. (1989) The Dynamics of Rooting in Triplochiton scleroxylon Cuttings: Their Relation to Leaf Size, Node Position, Dry Weight Accumulation, Leaf Water Potential and Carbohydrate Composition. Tree Physiology, 5, 135-146.
https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/5.1.135

[27]   Tchoundjeu, Z., Avana, M.L., Leakey, R.R.B., Simons, A.J., Asaah, E., Duguma, B. and Bell, J.M. (2002) Vegetative Propagation of Prunus Africana: Effects of Rooting Medium, Auxin Concentrations and Leaf Area. Agroforestry Systems, 54,183-192.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016049004139

[28]   Owusu, S.A., Opuni-Frimpong, E. and Antwi-Boasiako, C. (2014) Improving Regeneration of Mahogany: Techniques for Vegetative Propagation of Four African Mahogany Species Using Leafy Stem Cuttings. New Forests, 45, 687-697.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-014-9431-y

[29]   Husen, A. (2004) Clonal Propagation of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. by Softwood Nodal Cuttings: Effects of Genotypes, Application of IBA and Position of Cuttings on Shoots. Silvae Genetica, 53, 50-55.
https://doi.org/10.1515/sg-2004-0009

[30]   Amri, E., Lyaruu, H.V.M., Nyomora, A.S. and Kanyeka, Z.L. (2010) Vegetative Propagation of African Blackwood (Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. & Perr.): Effects of Age of Donor Plant, IBA Treatment and Cutting Position on Rooting Ability of Stem Cuttings. New Forests, 39, 183-194.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-009-9163-6

[31]   Leakey, R.R.B. (1985) The Capacity for Vegetative Propagation in Trees. In: Cannell, M.G.R. and Jackson, J.E., Eds., Attributes of Trees as Crop Plants, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Abbotts Ripton, 110-133.

[32]   Leakey, R.R.B., Newton, A.C. and Dick, J.M.C.P. (1994) Capture of Genetic Variation by Vegetative Propagation: Processes Determining Success. In: Leakey, R.R.B. and Newton, A.C., Eds., Tropical Trees: The Potential for Domestication and the Rebuilding of Forest Resources, HMSO, London, 72-83.

[33]   Franzel, S.C., Jaenicke, H. and Janssen, W. (1996) Choosing the Right Trees: Setting Priorities for Multipurpose Tree Improvement. ISNAR Research, Report No. 8. The Hague. International Service for National Agricultural Research, 100.

[34]   Leakey, R.R.B., Mesen, J.F., Tchoundjeu, Z., Longman, K.A., Dick, J.Mc.P., Newton, A., Matin, A., Grace, J., Munro, R.C. and Muthoka, P.N. (1990) Low-Technology Techniques for the Vegetative Propagation of Tropical Trees. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 69, 247-257.

[35]   Hartmann, H.T., Kester, D.E., Davies, F.T. and Geneve, R.L. (1997) Plant Propagation Principle and Practices. 6th Edition, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 276-328.

[36]   Leakey, R.R.B. and Mohammed, H.R.S. (1985) The Effects of Stem Length on Root Initiation in Sequential Single-Node Cuttings of Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum. Journal of Horticultural Science, 60, 431-437.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.1985.11515648

[37]   Rana, R.S. and Sood, K.K. (2011) Effect of Cutting Diameter and Hormonal Application on the Propagation of Ficus roxburghii Wall. Through Branch Cuttings. Annals of Forest Research, 55, 69-84.

[38]   Wright, R.C.M. (1975) The Complete Handbook of Plant Propagation. Macmillan, New York.

[39]   Veierskov, B. (1988) Relations between Carbohydrates and Adventitious Root Formation. Advances in Plant Sciences Series, 2, 70-78.

[40]   Mesén, F., Newton, A.C. and Leakey, R.R.B. (1997) The Effects of Propagation Environment and Foliar Size on the Rooting Physiology of Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pavon) Oken Cuttings. Trees Structure and Function, 11, 404-411.
https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00009683

[41]   Tchoundjeu, Z. and Leakey, R.R.B. (2001) Vegetative Propagation of Lovoa trichilioides: Effects of Provenance, Substrate, Auxins and Leaf Size. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 13, 116-129.

[42]   Aminah, H., Dick, J. and Grace, J. (1997) Rooting of Shorea leprosula Stem Cuttings Decreases with Increasing Leaf Size. Forest Ecology and Management, 91, 247-254.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(96)03857-1

[43]   Mesén, F., Leakey, R.R.B. and Newton, A.C. (2001) The Influence of Stockplant Environment on Morphology, Physiology and Rooting of Leafy Stem Cuttings of Albizia guachapele. New Forests, 22, 213-227.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015668011884

[44]   Blakesley, D., Weston, G.D. and Hall, J.F. (1991) The Role of Endogenous Auxin in Root Initiation. Plant Growth Regulation, 10, 341-353.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00024593

 
 
Top