Back
 AS  Vol.11 No.9 , September 2020
Assessment of Good Agricultural Practices on Cocoa and Coffee Farms in Northern Haiti
Abstract: Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and presents a unique scenario for the food and agriculture industry, because there is no food safety legislation. The application of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) leads to improvements of quality, safety and sustainability of agricultural products. The purpose of the study was to assess the status of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) in cocoa and coffee farms in Northern Haiti. A general survey captured information about the farmer and the farm, and an audit checklist was used to assess compliance to GAPs. A total of 11 farms (n = 11) were audited, of which 7 were cocoa farms (64%) and 4 were coffee farms (34%) in the regions of Dondon, Limonade and Milot. Average overall audit scores for coffee farms (73%) were higher than for cocoa farms (55%). Farms affiliated with a cooperative scored higher (78%) than those that were not part of a cooperative (55%). The sections of the survey on “Practices related to premises and production site”, and the “use of agricultural inputs and chemicals” received the lowest scores but were confined to the cocoa farms. “Record keeping” plus “distribution, transportation, and traceability” were cause for concern with both the cocoa and coffee farms. Critical non-conformances included the access of livestock animals and domestic pets to processing and storage areas, the lack of control in the application of agricultural chemicals, a lack of safeguards on equipment and elevated surfaces, and washing of fresh cocoa beans to remove the mucilage with water that had not been treated or tested for potability. The root cause of the non-conformances, regardless of the commodity, was either related to poor physical and organizational infrastructures, or to a lack of technical training.
Cite this paper: Navarro, A. , Currie, E. and Mercer, D. (2020) Assessment of Good Agricultural Practices on Cocoa and Coffee Farms in Northern Haiti. Agricultural Sciences, 11, 803-836. doi: 10.4236/as.2020.119052.
References

[1]   United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2017) Human Development Report 2017.
http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/HTI

[2]   World Bank (2014) Haiti. Countries.
http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/haiti/overview

[3]   World Food Program (WFP) (2018) Haiti. Countries.
http://www1.wfp.org/countries/haiti

[4]   World Bank, Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) Database from the SE4ALL Global Tracking Framework (2018).
https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.ELC.ACCS.ZS

[5]   Sentlinger, K. (2018) Water in Crisis-Haiti.
https://thewaterproject.org/water-crisis/water-in-crisis-haiti

[6]   Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2013) Central America and Caribbean: Haiti. The World Factbook 2013-14.
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ha.html

[7]   Government of Canada (2018) Canada’s International Assistance in Haiti.
http://international.gc.ca/world-monde/issues_development-enjeux_developpement/priorities-priorites/where-ou/haiti.aspx?lang=eng

[8]   Observatory of Economic Complexity; OEC-Haiti (HTI) Exports, Imports, and Trade Partners (2016).
https://atlas.media.mit.edu/en/profile/country/hti/

[9]   Samapundo, S., Climat, R., Xhaferi, R. and Devlieghere, F. (2014) Food safety Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Street Food Vendors and Consumers in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Food Control, 50, 457-466.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.09.010

[10]   Fredrickson, N. (2015) Global food defense: Port-au-Prince Haiti [Blog Post].
https://foodprotection.umn.edu/news/post/global-food-defense-port-au-prince-haiti

[11]   Schwartzbord, J.R., Emmanuel, E. and Brown, D.L. (2013) Haiti’s Food and Drinking Water: A Review of Toxicological Health Risks. Clinical Toxicology, 51, 828-833.
https://doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2013.849350

[12]   Grandesso, F., Allan, M., Jean-Simon, P.S., Boncy, J., Blake, A., Pierre, R., et al. (2014) Risk Factors for Cholera Transmission in Haiti during Inter-Peak Periods: Insights to Improve Current Control Strategies from Two Case-Control Studies. Epidemiology and Infection, 142, 1625-1635.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268813002562

[13]   Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. (2003) Development of a Framework for Good Agricultural Practices. Committee on Agriculture (COAG), Rome.
http://www.fao.org/docrep/meeting/006/y8704e.htm

[14]   Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) (2020) Global Food Safety Initiative Recognition.
https://mygfsi.com/how-to-implement/recognition/

[15]   Hansen, H. and Trifković, N. (2014) Food Standards Are Good-For Middle-Class Farmers. World Development, 56, 226-242.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.10.027

[16]   Handschuch, C., Wollni, M. and Villalobos, P. (2013) Adoption of Food Safety and Quality Standards among Chilean Raspberry Producers—Do Smallholders Benefit? Food Policy, 40, 64-73.

[17]   Schillhorn, V.V. and Tjaart, W. (2005) International Trade and Food Safety in Developing Countries. Food Control, 16, 491-496.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2003.10.014

[18]   International Cocoa Organization (ICCO) The World Cocoa Economy—Past and Present (2010).
https://www.icco.org/about-us/international-cocoa-agreements/cat_view/30-related-documents/45-statistics-other-statistics.html

[19]   Haffner, R. (2012) Future Global Coffee Trends. Article. Coffee and Tea International Business Magazine, 2, 30-31.
https://issuu.com/coffeetea/docs/coffee_tea_international_2-2012_en-free

[20]   International Coffee Organization (ICO) (2015) Coffee Market Report [Blog Post].
http://icocoffeeorg.tumblr.com/post/116383112905/coffee-market-settles-lower-but-demand

[21]   World Cocoa Foundation (WCF) (2014) Cocoa Market Update. Uploads.
http://worldcocoafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/Cocoa-Market-Update-as-of-4-1-2014.pdf

[22]   Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) (2014) Food Safety Practices Guidance for Moulded Chocolate Manufacturers.
http://www.inspection.gc.ca/food/safe-food-production-systems/haccp-generic-models-and-guidance-documents/guidance-moulded-chocolate/eng/1362163599079/1362164529664?chap=1

[23]   Codex Alimentarius International Food Standards (2013) Code of Practice for the Prevention and Reduction of Ochratoxin A Contamination in Cocoa. Reference CAC/RCP 72-2013.
http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/codex-texts/codes-of-practice/en/

[24]   Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2012) Bad Bug Book: Handbook of Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook. 2nd Edition, FDA, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Washington DC.
https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/UCM297627.pdf

[25]   Nascimento, M.S., Pena, P.O., Brum, D.M., Imazaki, F.T., Tucci, M.L.S. and Efraim, P. (2013) Behavior of Salmonella during Fermentation, Drying and Storage of Cocoa Beans. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 167, 363-368.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.10.003

[26]   Badrie, N., Bekele, F., Sikora, E. and Sikora, M. (2015) Cocoa Agronomy, Quality, Nutritional, and Health Aspects. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55, 620-659.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2012.669428

[27]   Copetti, M.V., Pereira, J.L., Iamanaka, B.T., Pitt, J.I. and Taniwaki, M.H. (2010) Ochratoxigenic Fungi and Ochratoxin A in Cocoa during Farm Processing. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 143, 67-70.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.07.031

[28]   Copetti, M.V., Iamanaka, B.T., Pitt, J.I. and Taniwaki, M.H. (2014) Fungi and Mycotoxins in Cocoa: From Farm to Chocolate. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 178, 13-20.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.02.023

[29]   Copetti, M.V., Iamanaka, B.T., Nester, M.A., Efraim, P. and Taniwaki, M.H. (2013) Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in Cocoa By-Products and Determination of Its Reduction during Chocolate Manufacture. Food Chemistry, 136, 100-104.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.07.093

[30]   Oliveira, G., Da Silva, D.M., Peireira, R.G.F.A., Paiva, L.C., Prado, G., and Batista, L.R. (2013) Effect of Different Roasting Levels and Particle Size on Ochratoxin A Concentration in Coffee Beans. Food Control, 34, 651-656.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.06.014

[31]   Ganpat, W., Badrie, N., Walter, S., Roberts, L., Nandlal, J. and Smith, N. (2014) Compliance with Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) by State-Registered and Non-Registered Vegetable Farmers in Trinidad, West Indies. Food Security, 6, 61-69.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-013-0322-4

[32]   Canada GAP (2014) Food Safety Manual for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables (Version 6.2) Manuals. Updated Version 7.1.
https://www.CanadaGAP.ca/manuals/downloads/

[33]   Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (2007) Good Agricultural Practices for Family Agriculture Guidelines. FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean.
http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1193e/a1193e00.htm

[34]   Canada GAP (2014) Appendices to Canada GAP Food Safety Manuals (Version 6.2) Manuals. Updated Version 7.1.
http://www.bcveg.com/docs/foodsaftey/CanadaGAP-Appendices-7.1-2018-ENG%20Final.pdf

[35]   Anang, B.T., Fordjour, E. and Boateng, V.F. (2011) Farmers’ Management Practices and the Quality of Cocoa Beans in Upper Denkyira district of Ghana. Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3, 487-491.

[36]   International Cocoa Organization (ICCO) (2009) Guidelines on Best-Known Practices in the Cocoa Production. Consultative Board on the World Cocoa Economy, Moscow.
https://www.icco.org/about-us/international-cocoa-agreements/cat_view/30-related-documents/32-consultative-board-on-the-world-cocoa-economy.html

[37]   Quarmine, W., Haagsma, R., Sakyi-Dawson, O., Asante, F., Van Huis, A. and Obeng-Ofori, D. (2012) Incentives for Cocoa Bean Production in Ghana: Does Quality Matter? NJAS—Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, 60-63, 7-14.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.njas.2012.06.009

[38]   Perdew, J.G. and Shively, G. (2009) The Economics of Pest and Production Management in Small-Holder Cocoa: Lessons from Sulawesi. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 45, 373-389.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00074910903416288

[39]   Saltini, R., Akkerman, R. and Frosch, S. (2013) Optimizing Chocolate Production through Traceability: A Review of the Influence of Farming Practices on Cocoa Bean Quality. Food Control, 29, 167-187.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.05.054

 
 
Top