Back
 OALibJ  Vol.7 No.8 , August 2020
Electrocoagulation as a Pioneering Separation Technology—Electric Field Role
Abstract: Electrocoagulation (EC) is a very efficient process in dealing with effluent streams and separating complicated contaminants prior to the discharge of the treated water. Attention to such a technique augmented thanks to its large set of utilizations, zero—or minimal—chemical dosing demands, low waste formation, and low price. EC appears as an efficacious option to traditional water treatment techniques for the separation of a large collection of contaminants. This work examines the theories of the EC method and its application for the separation of contaminants from wastewater streams. Such a technique depends on the integration of electrochemical and coagulation methods. Basic parameters that touch the effectiveness comprise the electrode material (Fe or Al), current density, the electrical charge per unit volume, and solution pH. Electrode fouling could constitute a hard running dare even if it could be reduced by the alternating current operation. Next studies have to follow the routes of the EC technique for numerous kinds of pollutants at a set of working parameters, in particular for continuous mode, and the expansion of convenient models that could be utilized for scale-up and techno-economic evaluation of EC is required. Running as a destabilization agent and aiding to separate contaminants from the wastewater, the electric field should attract more attention to highlight its key contribution.

1. Introduction

Global investment in techniques and consumer demand for energy, goods, and natural resources conducted to the growing diffusion of contaminants in nature [1] [2] [3]. Numerous ecological programs focused on controlling and decreasing pollution [4] [5] [6]. Following their poisoning, contaminants have been classified with those that are highly threatening to nature known as “Black List” contaminants [1] [7] [8]. Black List contaminants are so dangerous, persistent, or bioaccumulative in nature, so procedures should be followed to remove their pollution [9] [10] [11]. The list of Black List pollutants persists to increase and comprises primarily persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (like organohalogen, organophosphorus), and toxic metals and their organometallic compounds [12] [13] [14]. Treatment of effluents carrying POPs remains hard since they provoke hurdles to conventional biological treatment plants which are resilient to biological digestion, bioaccumulate, and persist in nature [15] [16] [17].

The waste management hierarchy has to prefer the decrease in usage of POPs or institute regulations to prohibit their employment [18] [19] [20]. The following stage in the management hierarchy should also be adopted (that is to say, elimination, minimization, reuse, recycling, recovering, and, if possible, safe quarantine or disposal) [21] [22] [23]. Consequently, to guarantee the implementation of sustainability, it remains vital to decrease waste without periling human health, employing practical technologies that induce no damage to nature [24] [25] [26]. As a rule, environmental techniques employed different properties of physical [27] [28] [29] [30], biological [31] [32] [33], photolytic [34], chemical [35] [36] [37], and physicochemical methods [38] [39] [40] for pollution remediation [41] [42] [43]. Nevertheless, regulatory limits dare the techniques to stay cost-effective and reach an elevated degree of pollution reduction while dealing with complicated systems, comprising the occurrence of mixed contaminants, watery degrees of pollutants (e.g., micropollutants), and the exigency to recuperate contaminants (like metal ions) in a reusable form [44] [45] [46]. Among treatment processes, electrolytic techniques, regarded as physiochemical ones, could deal with such dares, allow ecologically benign treatment, and frequently give an easy solution to pollution troubles linked to industrial effluents [12] [47] [48]. Lately, some global guidance on the usage of electrochemical techniques for efficacious ecological treatment, monitoring, energy conversion, and pollutant separation has been furnished [12] [49] [50]. Such a guidance underlined the significance of external control of electron exchange as the major ecologically friendly reagent in the electrochemical treatment techniques [1] [51] [52]. This work defines the usage of electricity to treat water by means of accepted electrocoagulation (EC) technique and the merit of employing the method for performant water recuperation and pollutant separation.

The phenomenon of selective separation has a crucial contribution to the chemical and biochemical industries [53] [54] [55]. Indeed, the phenomenon of separation participates in about 40% to 70% of the total capital and operating expenses [56] [57] [58]. Nevertheless, taking into account the techniques of ecological treatment and water purification, where the pollutants are often existing at very small levels, the dare is to eliminate pollutant species in a cost-effective and environmentally sustainable procedure [1] [59] [60]. The troubles related to contaminant separation are usually because of a small level in effluent (related to the low mass transfer of the dilute pollutants), the steric effects of complexing species, and the occurrence of a mixture of different end-of-pipe products that stop the phenomenon of continuous recuperation and separation [12] [61] [62].

Employing EC for ecological treatment involves the elimination and separation of pollutants via catching them within a precisely selected coagulant to finally facilitate water reuse and recycling [63] [64] [65]. Even if the technology has been accepted, a selective capturing of a pollutant for elimination and separation furnishes a novel procedure to allow a performant treatment technique [1] [66] [67].

This work examines the EC background. A special focus is accorded to EC as a manner for separating contaminants. An apercu is dedicated to the chemical theories and electrochemical reactions. Features affecting the EC process and its mean fields of usage are discussed.

2. Electrocoagulation (EC) Background

The theory of EC has long been mentioned [68] [69] [70]. Nevertheless, the practical employment of the setup for ecological treatment and separation has only lately acquired attention [1] [71] [72]. The earliest account to refer to the use of the EC process to separate water from sewage emerged in 1889 in England [73] [74] [75]. A 1909 patent filed in the US was the first to mention the probable capture of contaminants from wastewater by the manner of an electrochemical cell employing sacrificial aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) electrodes [76] [77] [78]. Nevertheless, the first full-scale utilization of EC for water treatment was noted in 1946 [61] [79] [80]. In such configuration, the electrogenerated flocs were discovered to be efficacious in decoloring water [81] [82] [83]. An identical device, employed in England in 1956, injected Fe electrolytically into river water to separate turbidity and color [84] [85] [86].

At a certain level, the EC technique was restricted to some usages; nevertheless, it has attracted universal attention during the last three decades [1] [87] [88]. Even if the technique is more than 100 years old, there was little interest in academic literature until around the 1980s [89] [90] [91]. The resumed concern in EC for separating pollutants from wastewater has happened worldwide thanks to its wide applicability, low sludge formation, scalability, running at ambient temperature and pressure, simple design and ease of control, and low capital and operating costs [92] [93] [94]. Further, the capability to change the applied current to improve the treatment performance facilitates process automation and control [95] [96] [97].

EC is a method that employs the theories of chemical coagulation and electrochemistry to treat and separate pollutants from wastewater [1] [61] [65]. Conventional coagulation implicates the injection of chemical products to react, aggregate, and separate pollutants via the generation of large flocs that could be physically separated from the mixture [38] [53] [98]. The word traditional coagulation is utilized inconsistently with the word flocculation to explain the phenomenon related to colloidal separation from effluents [38] [99] [100]; nevertheless, the two words differ [101] [102] [103]. Coagulation implies the aggregation of colloids because of the reduction of electrostatic repulsive forces between the colloids in the suspension [104] [105] [106]. Flocculation includes the production of chemical bonds between the particles to enmesh them in relatively large masses called floc networks [107] [108] [109]. In EC, nonetheless, sacrificial metal anodes are used to dose the contaminated water with a coagulating agent, like Al or Fe ions [30] [63] [110]. Therefore, coagulation, flocculation, and electrochemical processes take place together (Figure 1) [1] [111] [112].

In EC technology, applying an adequate voltage to the sacrificial anodes that are composed of the coagulant species (i.e., Fe or Al) will permit their oxidation at the electrode/solution interface (Figure 1). Further, the dissolution of the coagulant species into the electrolyte lets them interact with each other and with the suspended matters or dissolved pollutants that can be more separated from the suspension by sweep coagulation [38] [107] [113]. Therefore, the EC technique inserts coagulant in situ rather than via external injection [43] [61] [67]. Employing such a tool, a specific separation of pollutants could be possible with careful control of the method, and a suitable selection of dissolved coagulant [1] [114] [115]. Such phenomena take place in both sides of the cell (i.e., anode and cathode); thus, the coagulation, flocculation, and gas evolution will happen together and participate in the global treatment technology [52] [58] [68]. As an illustration, in addition to the enhanced coagulation due to the reduced electrostatic repulsion between aggregating particles, in the EC process, the electrical

Figure 1. A schematic illustration of the major reactions happening during the EC method. In some conditions, redox reactions may occur directly on the electrode surface or in the bulk electrolyte [1].

field ameliorates this technique via augmenting the migration of ions through the electrophoresis impact and the charge redistribution on the pollutants [47] [58] [63]. The electrolysis of H2O at the cathode produces hydroxyl ions (OH) that combine with the dissolved metal coagulants (Al3+ or Fe2+/3+) from the anode to generate the corresponding hydroxide (or oxide) precipitate at a convenient pH, eliminating contaminants via sweep coagulation [38] [47] [55]. Further, the evolution of gases due to water electrolysis (usually O2 and H2) takes place at both electrodes at sufficient overpotentials that could raise floatation of some fractions of the coagulated contaminants to the surface (Figure 1) [58] [72]. The agglomerated species possess the potential to adsorb other species [58]. Such adsorption phenomenon could be improved by the applied potential between the electrodes that let separation and removal phenomena to happen along with the majority of the suspended matters [61]. Like in any electrochemical setup, additional responses happen jointly with the coagulation reactions, comprising cathodic reduction of reducible particles, anodic oxidation, and mass transfer of ions in solution, which adds some complexity to the technology [13] [52] [93]. It is evident that EC is a complex synergistic method with numerous reactions and pathways happening together to eliminate contaminants [58] [63] [68].

3. Electrocoagulation (EC) for Separating Contaminants

Since the early application of EC to deal with wastewater in the eighteenth century, the technique has been adopted as a separation method to separate water from sludge [1] [61] [63]. Founded on ecological and physicochemical concepts, the EC method could be viewed as one of the most efficient techniques for contaminant separation [64]. From an ecological point of view, an EC remediation of effluent is frequently applied to eliminate a mixture of contaminants from water at a level that it could be safely discharged. Taking into account the theories of chemical separation, EC implies a phase-transformation process (Figure 1), where the phase of dissolved contaminants is modified during elimination (from the liquid- to solid-phase) [58] [63] [68]. Identical to several chemical separation techniques, extracting contaminants by agglomeration inside the coagulated flocs (metal hydroxide) happens, in many situations, without changing the chemical or biological properties of the original contaminants [69]. In such a situation, the separated contaminants are aggregated inside the coagulants with no big modification of their chemical structure [30]. Agglomerating species renders the recuperation of such chemicals easy by extraction from the recuperated solids. Such a separation phenomenon is greatly significant when treating high-value chemicals for separation or recuperation. Oxidation or reduction reactions could happen at the anode or cathode surfaces, conducting to chemical alterations in some organic pollutants and could render recuperation of the original species more demanding or inappropriate [74].

In the absence of oxidation or reduction of the pollutant, EC could be adopted as a physicochemical separation technique [58] [116]. Numerous investigations have established the EC technique for the concurrent separation of several contaminants from a set of diverse wastewater streams [68]. Illustrations of waste water that have been treated via EC for contaminant separation are well-documented [1]. Pollutants that have been separated comprise emulsified oil, nanoparticles, antimicrobial chemicals (Bronopol), microalgae, heavy metals, organometallic mixtures, nuclear fission products, and heavy metals leachates [1]. As a rule, EC applies the theory of phase separation to eliminate contaminants and treat water [116].

Extracting contaminants by coagulation is founded on the physicochemical features of both coagulate and coagulant. The physicochemical conduct is affected by both chemical interactions between the coagulant and coagulate (like coprecipitation, solid-solution interface, and complexation) and electrostatic interactions (that is to say surface charge and colloidal destabilization). In EC, the coagulant arrives directly from the selection of the anode material and should have a high affinity for coagulating the target pollutants. Dissolved silica has a very high affinity to generate very stable coordination with Al cations. The phenomenon is largely employed in the coagulation technique to separate silica as aluminosilicates [117]. Researchers [1] proved a selective separation of Si from a petroleum process effluent via a chemical coagulation technique employing alum as a coagulant. Using the equivalent method of EC employing Al electrodes has also been illustrated to selectively retain silica from treated water from the oil and gas industry [1].

4. Chemical Theories and Electrochemical Reactions

Theoretically, during the electrolysis of sacrificial metal anodes, the solubilized metal ions at the anode have a tendency to hydrate, particularly those with a charge of +3 or more tend to donate hydronium (H3O+) cation from the surrounding hydration species (Brönsted acids) [1]. Equations (1)-(3) show the acidic reaction for Fe3+ cation and Equations (4)-(6) for Al3+ cations along with their equilibrium constants in aqueous media [118]. Some of such species show amphiprotic conduct, as they are acids when they appear on the left side of the equilibria and bases on the right side [1].

Fe ( H 2 O ) 6 ( aq ) 3 + + H 2 O Fe ( H 2 O ) 5 ( OH ) ( aq ) 2 + + H 3 O + pK = 2 . 187 (1)

Fe ( H 2 O ) 6 ( aq ) 3 + + 2 H 2 O Fe ( H 2 O ) 4 ( OH ) 2 ( aq ) + + 2 H 3 O + pK = 4.594 (2)

Fe ( H 2 O ) 6 ( aq ) 3 + + 3 H 2 O Fe ( H 2 O ) 3 ( OH ) 3 ( aq ) + 3 H 3 O + pK = 12.56 (3)

Al ( H 2 O ) 6 ( aq ) 3 + + H 2 O Al ( H 2 O ) 5 ( OH ) ( aq ) 2 + + H 3 O + pK = 4.997 (4)

Al ( H 2 O ) 6 ( aq ) 3 + + 2 H 2 O Al ( H 2 O ) 4 ( OH ) 2 ( aq ) + + 2 H 3 O + pK = 10.094 (5)

Al ( H 2 O ) 6 ( aq ) 3 + + 3 H 2 O Al ( H 2 O ) 3 ( OH ) 3 ( aq ) + 3 H 3 O + pK = 16.791 (6)

In coupling with the metal ions, the occurrence of OH could work as a bridging group to join two or more metal hydroxides jointly (Figure 2(a) and Figure 2(b) for Fe and Al, respectively), allowing more dimerization or polymerization (Equations (8) and (9)). The produced species of hydroxyl bridges are most probable to carry positive charges that can donate another hydrogen ion to provide OH anions and bond more with additional metals to produce polymeric hydrolytic species (gelatinous hydroxide) [1]. Polymerizing gelatinous hydroxide can further carry suspended solids or dissolved matters with it as it grows and settles (sweep coagulation) [7] [38] [53]. The capability and the specificity of the pollutants’ aggregation could change following the physicochemical properties of the produced gelatinous hydroxides, surrounding media, and the type of the suspended solids or solubilized pollutants in the solution [46] [61] [98]. Key properties of the generated gelatinous hydroxides comprise electrical charge, porosity, and types of bonding produced either in the hydroxide or with the pollutants.

2 ( Fe ( H 2 O ) 5 ( OH ) ) 2 + ( Fe 2 ( H 2 O ) 8 ( OH ) 2 ) 4 + + 2H 2 O (7)

2 ( Al ( H 2 O ) 5 ( OH ) ) 2 + ( Al 2 ( H 2 O ) 8 ( OH ) 2 ) 4 + + 2H 2 O (8)

In the coagulation chemistry, the conduct of hydrated metal ions to work as the acid can greatly touch the separation and treatment methods of different metal elements from effluents [1] [119]. The acidity of solubilized metal ions augments with the charge and decreases with the radius of the ionized species [120]. Hydrated metal species, other than Fe and Al, can likewise tend to donate protons, produce bridging compounds, and finally, work as a coagulant when polymerization happens [121] [122] [123]. Metal species that have been mentioned as coagulants comprise Be(II), Bi(III), Ce(IV), Co(III), Cu(II), Ga(III), Mo(V), Pb(II), Sc(II), Sn(IV), and U(VI) [1]. Even if the favored anode materials in commercial EC devices remain Fe and Al and if one or a mixture of the other metal species mentioned above are available in the effluent, they will coagulate and separate out of the solution. Such a phenomenon has been exploited in the EC technique, where either Al or Fe anodes have been utilized to separate and treat heavy metals from effluents [124]. Employing Al and Fe (or in some situations Zn [125]) in EC for industrial implementations is affected to their low

Figure 2. (a) Structure of the ferric hydroxide dimer. (b) Structure of the aluminum hydroxide dimer [1].

price and availability, large efficient pH span (4 - 11) for insoluble hydroxides generation, and low environmental footprint (especially for Fe [5] [75]).

5. Features Influencing Electrocoagulation (EC) Technique

Variables that touch the coagulation method could identically affect the EC phenomena [126]. In EC where electrochemical reactions are utilized to inject coagulants, the metal complexation is a function of the pH circumstances and the kind of the sacrificial anode employed [1] [63] [64]. The electric field can run as a destabilization agent, aiding to separate contaminants from the wastewater [47]. During electrolysis phenomena, the formation of hydronium and hydroxide ions work to enhance a pH difference between the oppositely polarized electrodes inside the reactor. Such a change in pH inside the electrochemical setup is a function of the applied current, voltage, supporting electrolyte, and time of treatment [57]. Consequently, pH change greatly affects the level of separation and treatment. In this context, numerous practical factors could touch the efficiency of the EC device. Nevertheless, the main elements could be classified into four interconnected groups that are related to the electrode setup (material, design, and electrode spacing), running circumstances (current density, operating period, over potential), the device design, the characteristics of the effluent treated (pH, conductivity, temperature, turbidity).

Such elements are interrelated and their contributions to the EC technology are examined elsewhere [1].

6. Employing Electrocoagulation (EC) Fields

In order to make possible efficacious and economic water treatment, EC could be utilized either on its own or as a stage in a treatment train especially for small- or medium-sized implementations where a wide water treatment plant is not economically practicable. Illustrations of pollutants that have been remedied by EC setups along with the parameters used and their performance may be found elsewhere [1]. EC has been proved to be efficient for a large set of implementations like removal of toxic arsenic [127] or fluoride [95] from groundwater, remediation of dairy effluent [128], treatment of wastewater from a set of sources comprising slaughterhouses, textile dyehouses, pharmaceutical processes, oilfields, municipal effluents, paper mills, olive mill processes, metal finishing processes, and disinfecting effluents [47] [61]. The technology stays efficient in eliminating colloidal particles from surface water [64], reducing turbidity in algae [58] [72], microorganisms [63] [67] [92], and micropollutants [1]. Whereas EC remains performant in eliminating a so large variety of pollutants, its efficiency in dealing with organics changes largely [30] [74]. The main route for eliminating organic matters in EC is by adsorption on the coagulant and coprecipitates [65]. Elimination achievement is complicated by the organic interactions with both coagulants and different aqueous species [54] [69].

EC treatment techniques usually involve a pretreatment reservoir that is utilized to monitor and adjust the pH, followed by an electrolysis chamber that may implicate a plurality of electrodes connected to a power supply, followed by reservoirs for flocculation and/or chemical dosing, and finally solid-liquid separation (e.g., by sedimentation, induced flotation [58] [72], or filtration [129] [130] [131]) [61]. Designing the device should consider numerous features, comprising the fluid flow and distribution between the electrodes, floatation, and precipitation, in addition to the running factors (like electrode materials, electrode arrangement, electrode connections, current density, etc.) [61]. Electrical power is applied to the electrodes utilizing either an applied voltage or constant current, frequently with alternating polarity, with the same material employed for both electrodes [61]. A constant current is mostly utilized to attain the wanted coagulant injection and so treatment efficacy [61]. The reactor has to be conceived to deal with the gas formation (usually O2 and H2) in the device. In most cases, the H2 bubbles will be liberated in the solid-liquid separation process [1].

7. Conclusions

EC separation techniques supply credible and green technology for eliminating a large variety of pollutants from water. The technology is more than 100 years old and it is only during the past two decades that its application has pulled important attention from academia and industry. Several features of the process remain to be well known because of the complexity of the interactions between electrochemistry, chemical coagulation, flow, mixing, and transport phenomena. This work focused on the key chemical and electrochemical theories ruling the method and the fundamental parameters that affect the separation efficacy [1] [132]. The main points drawn from this work are listed below:

1) The EC method takes advantage of the concepts of traditional coagulation while furnishing important benefits over a chemical dosing procedure. In EC, the coagulants are injected via integrating electrochemical dissolution of metal at the anode and formation of hydroxide at the cathode. The first dissimilarity between chemical coagulation and EC is simply the way of introduction of the coagulant; nevertheless, EC averts the injection of the counter ion in a coagulant salt and does not need the introduction of alkali to balance the pH change related to hydrolysis of the coagulant. In EC, the pH of the water to be treated must be in the neutral or alkaline interval; however, very little pH change happens during the treatment application [1].

2) The chemical phenomena happening during EC are a function of the electrode material and the composition of the solution [1]. The geometry, electrochemical variables (e.g., current, voltage, and resistance), type of current flows (direct or alternative), and the pH are crucial elements that dictate the separation efficacy. Convenient selection of the electrode material, the design of electrochemical reactors, and systematic control of the electrochemical variables could conduct to an efficient setup. Even if the EC separation method remains an interesting technique, there are numerous dares as the generation of a fouling layer on the electrode surface that could conduct to running difficulties, as well as the restricted effectiveness for eliminating persistent organic pollutants. Regardless of such dares, for several industrial implementations, the efficacy of the system is proved and the technique of EC furnishes a relatively compact and robust manner for handling end-of-pipes industrial effluent (e.g., textile, leather tanning, pulp and paper, olive mill, metal-bearing industrial effluent, arsenic, and fluoride-containing effluents).

3) Despite the progress of the technology, more comprehension of the basic phenomena happening during EC is requested to guarantee effective design and utilization for novel implementations. Even if EC has been employed for a wide set of usages and pollutants, only a few investigations have tried to interpret the complicated physicochemical phenomena taking place during EC application. Most investigations concentrated on the effectiveness of EC for particular contaminants or implementations, rather than assessing the technology at a mechanistic degree, considering the complicated responses and physical processes happening. An additional dare is the scale-up of EC to satisfy industrial demands. Most investigations realized batch treatment; however, industrial usage is mostly founded on a continuous mode. Scale-up of a chemical method is a function of the usage of established models to define process efficacy as a function of running variables; however, very few such models have been suggested for EC technology. Modeling and scale-up researches remain demanded to permit the easier utilization of EC for industrial implementations without complicated and costly tests. Next studies have to follow the routes of the EC technique for numerous kinds of pollutants at a set of working parameters, in particular for continuous mode, and the expansion of convenient models that could be utilized for scale-up and techno-economic evaluation of EC is required [1]. Running as a destabilization agent and aiding to separate contaminants from the wastewater, the electric field should attract more attention to highlight its fundamental contribution.

Acknowledgements

The Research Deanship of University of Ha’il, Saudi Arabia, through the Project RG-191190, has funded this research.

Cite this paper: Ghernaout, D. (2020) Electrocoagulation as a Pioneering Separation Technology—Electric Field Role. Open Access Library Journal, 7, 1-19. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1106702.
References

[1]   Yasri, N., Hu, J., Kibria, M.G. and Roberts, E.P.L. (2020) Electrocoagulation Separation Processes. In: Chernyshova, I., Ponnurangam, S. and Liu, Q., Eds., Multidisciplinary Advances in Efficient Separation Processes, ACS Symposium Series, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, Ch. 6. https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-2020-1348.ch006

[2]   Ghernaout, D. (2019) Greening Cold Fusion as an Energy Source for Water Treatment Distillation—A Perspective. American Journal of Quantum Chemistry and Molecular Spectroscopy, 3, 1-5.

[3]   Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B. and Naceur, M.W. (2011) Embodying the Chemical Water Treatment in the Green Chemistry—A Review. Desalination, 271, 1-10.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.01.032

[4]   Ghernaout, D. (2017) Environmental Principles in the Holy Koran and the Sayings of the Prophet Muhammad. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 75-79.
https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20170603.13

[5]   Ghernaout, D. (2017) The Holy Koran Revelation: Iron Is a “Sent Down” Metal. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 101-104. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20170604.14

[6]   Ghernaout, D. (2018) Disinfection and DBPs Removal in Drinking Water Treatment: A Perspective for a Green Technology. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 108-117. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.02.018

[7]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2019) Water Reuse: Emerging Contaminants Elimination—Progress and Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5981.

[8]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Antibiotics Resistance in Water Mediums: Background, Facts, and Trends. Applied Engineering, 4, 1-6.

[9]   Ghernaout, D. (2013) The Best Available Technology of Water/Wastewater Treatment and Seawater Desalination: Simulation of the Open Sky Seawater Distillation. Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 3, 68-88. https://doi.org/10.4236/gsc.2013.32012

[10]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Removing Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (ARB) Carrying Genes (ARGs): Challenges and Future Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6003.
https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106003

[11]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Is Not It Time to Stop Using Chlorine for Treating Water? Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6007.

[12]   Yasri, N.G. and Gunasekaran, S. (2017) Electrochemical Technologies for Environmental Remediation. In: Enhancing Cleanup of Environmental Pollutants, Springer, Berlin, 5-73.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-55423-5_2

[13]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Electrochemical Technology for Wastewater Treatment: Dares and Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6020.

[14]   Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N. and Ghareba, S. (2020) Fenton Technology for Wastewater Treatment: Dares and Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6045. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106045

[15]   Ghernaout, D. (2019) Reviviscence of Biological Wastewater Treatment—A Review. Applied Engineering, 3, 46-55.

[16]   Al Arni, S., Amous, J. and Ghernaout, D. (2019) On the Perspective of Applying of a New Method for Wastewater Treatment Technology: Modification of the Third Traditional Stage with Two Units, One by Cultivating Microalgae and Another by Solar Vaporization. International Journal of Environmental Sciences & Natural Resources, 16, Article ID: 555934.
https://doi.org/10.19080/IJESNR.2019.16.555934

[17]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2019) Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plant to Obtain Drinking Water. Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5959. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105959

[18]   Van Ewijk, S. and Stegemann, J.A. (2016) Limitations of the Waste Hierarchy for Achieving Absolute Reductions in Material Throughput. Journal of Cleaner Production, 132, 122-128.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.11.051

[19]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) UV-C/H2O2 and Sunlight/H2O2 in the Core of the Best Available Technologies for Dealing with Present Dares in Domestic Wastewater Reuse. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6161. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106161

[20]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Urgent Proposals for Disinfecting Hospital Wastewaters during COVID-19 Pandemic. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6373.
https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106373

[21]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) On the Treatment Trains for Municipal Wastewater Reuse for Irrigation. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6088.

[22]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater Treatment: Facts and Future Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6139.

[23]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Domestic Wastewater Treatment: Difficulties and Reasons, and Prospective Solutions—China as an Example. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6141.

[24]   Cropper, M.L., Morgenstern, R.D. and Rivers, N. (2018) Policy Brief—Facilitating Retrospective Analysis of Environmental Regulations. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 12, 359-370. https://doi.org/10.1093/reep/rey011

[25]   Ghernaout, D. and Ghernaout, B. (2020) Controlling COVID-19 Pandemic through Wastewater Monitoring. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6411. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106411

[26]   Ghernaout, D. (2017) Water Reuse (WR): The Ultimate and Vital Solution for Water Supply Issues. International Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 3, 36-46.
https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijsdr.20170304.12

[27]   Ghernaout, D. (2018) Magnetic Field Generation in the Water Treatment Perspectives: An Overview. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 193-203.
https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.01.025

[28]   Irki, S., Ghernaout, D., Naceur, M.W., Alghamdi, A. and Aichouni, M. (2018) Decolorization of Methyl Orange (MO) by Electrocoagulation (EC) Using Iron Electrodes under a Magnetic Field (MF). II. Effect of Connection Mode. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3, 56-64.
https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjac.20180302.13

[29]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Magnetic Field Application: An Underappreciated Outstanding Technology. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6000.

[30]   Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B., Saiba, A., Boucherit, A. and Kellil, A. (2009) Removal of Humic Acids by Continuous Electromagnetic Treatment Followed by Electrocoagulation in Batch Using Aluminium Electrodes. Desalination, 239, 295-308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2008.04.001

[31]   Ghernaout, D., Alshammari, Y., Alghamdi, A., Aichouni, M., Touahmia, M. and Ait Messaoudene, N. (2018) Water Reuse: Extenuating Membrane Fouling in Membrane Processes. International Journal of Environmental Chemistry, 2, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajche.20180602.12

[32]   Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N. and Al Arni, S. (2019) Water Reuse (WR): Dares, Restrictions, and Trends. Applied Engineering, 3, 159-170.

[33]   Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N. and Ghareba, S. (2019) Drinking Water Reuse: One-Step Closer to Overpassing the “Yuck Factor”. Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5895.
https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105895

[34]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Vacuum-UV Radiation at 185 nm for Disinfecting Water. Chemical Science & Engineering Research, 2, 12-17.

[35]   Ghernaout, D. and Ghernaout, B. (2010) From Chemical Disinfection to Electrodisinfection: The Obligatory Itinerary? Desalination and Water Treatment, 16, 156-175.
https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2010.1085

[36]   Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A. and Ghernaout, B. (2019) Microorganisms’ Killing: Chemical Disinfection vs. Electrodisinfection. Applied Engineering, 3, 13-19.

[37]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2019) Water Disinfection: Ferrate(VI) as the Greenest Chemical—A Review. Applied Engineering, 3, 171-180.

[38]   Ghernaout, D. and Ghernaout, B. (2012) Sweep Flocculation as a Second form of Charge Neutralisation—A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 44, 15-28.
https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2012.691699

[39]   Ghernaout, D. (2014) The Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Ratio vs. Dissolved Organics Removal by Coagulation—A Review. Journal of King Saud University—Science, 26, 169-180.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2013.09.005

[40]   Ghernaout, D., Moulay, S., Ait Messaoudene, N., Aichouni, M., Naceur, M.W. and Boucherit, A. (2014) Coagulation and Chlorination of NOM and Algae in Water Treatment: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 2, 23-34.
https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijema.s.2014020601.14

[41]   Ghernaout, D., Al-Ghonamy, A.I., Boucherit, A., Ghernaout, B., Naceur, M.W., Ait Messaoudene, N., Aichouni, M., Mahjoubi, A.A. and Elboughdiri, N.A. (2015) Brownian Motion and Coagulation Process. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 4, 1-15.
https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajeps.s.2015040501.11

[42]   Ghernaout, D., Al-Ghonamy, A.I., Naceur, M.W., Boucherit, A., Messaoudene, N.A., Aichouni, M., Mahjoubi, A.A. and Elboughdiri, N.A. (2015) Controlling Coagulation Process: From Zeta Potential to Streaming Potential. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 4, 16-27.
https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajeps.s.2015040501.12

[43]   Ghernaout, D. and Boucherit, A. (2015) Review of Coagulation’s Rapid Mixing for NOM Removal. Journal of Research & Developments in Chemistry, 2015, Article ID: 926518.
https://doi.org/10.5171/2015.926518

[44]   Ghernaout, D. (2020) Charge Neutralization in the Core of Plasma Treatment. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6434.

[45]   Ghernaout, D. (2020) New Configurations and Techniques for Controlling Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Fouling. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6579.

[46]   Ghernaout, D. (2020) Enhanced Coagulation: Promising Findings and Challenges. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6569.

[47]   Ghernaout, D. (2020) Electric Field (EF) in the Core of the Electrochemical (EC) Disinfection. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6587.

[48]   Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N., Alghamdi, A. and Ghernaout, B. (2020) Trends in Decreasing Disinfection By-Products Formation during Electrochemical Technologies. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6337. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106337

[49]   Yasri, N., Roberts, E.P.L. and Gunasekaran, S. (2019) The Electrochemical Perspective of Bioelectrocatalytic Activities in Microbial Electrolysis and Microbial Fuel Cells. Energy Reports, 5, 1116-1136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2019.08.007

[50]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Disinfecting Water: Plasma Discharge for Removing Coronaviruses. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6314. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106314

[51]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) An Insight in Electrocoagulation Process through Current Density Distribution (CDD). Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6142.

[52]   Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N., Ghareba, S. and Salih, A. (2020) Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes (EAOPs) for Disinfecting Water—Fresh Perspectives. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6257. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106257

[53]   Ghernaout, B., Ghernaout, D. and Saiba, A. (2010) Algae and Cyanotoxins Removal by Coagulation/Flocculation: A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 20, 133-143.
https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2010.1202

[54]   Ghernaout, D., Mariche, A., Ghernaout, B. and Kellil, A. (2010) Electromagnetic Treatment-Bi-Electrocoagulation of Humic Acid in Continuous Mode Using Response Surface Method for Its Optimization and Application on Two Surface Waters. Desalination and Water Treatment, 22, 311-329. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2010.1120

[55]   Ghernaout, D., Naceur, M.W. and Aouabed, A. (2011) On the Dependence of Chlorine By-Products Generated Species Formation of the Electrode Material and Applied Charge during Electrochemical Water Treatment. Desalination, 270, 9-22.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.01.010

[56]   Yasri, N.G., Yaghmour, A. and Gunasekaran, S. (2015) Effective Removal of Organics from Corn Wet Milling Steepwater Effluent by Electrochemical Oxidation and Adsorption on 3-D Granulated Graphite Electrode. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 3, 930-937.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2015.03.019

[57]   Ghernaout, D. and Ghernaout, B. (2011) On the Controversial Effect of Sodium Sulphate as Supporting Electrolyte on Electrocoagulation Process: A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 27, 243-254. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2011.1983

[58]   Ghernaout, D., Naceur, M.W. and Ghernaout, B. (2011) A Review of Electrocoagulation as a Promising Coagulation Process for Improved Organic and Inorganic Matters Removal by Electrophoresis and Electroflotation. Desalination and Water Treatment, 28, 287-320.
https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2011.1493

[59]   Ghernaout, D. and Naceur, M.W. (2011) Ferrate(VI): In Situ Generation and Water Treatment—A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 30, 319-332.
https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2011.2217

[60]   Ghernaout, D. and Ghernaout, B. (2012) On the Concept of the Future Drinking Water Treatment Plant: Algae Harvesting from the Algal Biomass for Biodiesel Production—A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 49, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2012.708191

[61]   Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B. and Kellil, A. (2009) Natural Organic Matter Removal and Enhanced Coagulation as a Link between Coagulation and Electrocoagulation. Desalination and Water Treatment, 2, 203-222. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2009.116

[62]   Grimes, S.M., Yasri, N.G. and Chaudhary, A.J. (2017) Recovery of Critical Metals from Dilute Leach Solutions—Separation of Indium from Tin and Lead. Inorganica Chimica Acta, 461, 161-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ica.2017.02.002

[63]   Ghernaout, D., Badis, A., Ghernaout, B. and Kellil, A. (2008) Application of Electrocoagulation in Escherichia coli Culture and Two Surface Waters. Desalination, 219, 118-125.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2007.05.010

[64]   Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B. and Boucherit, A. (2008) Effect of pH on Electrocoagulation of Bentonite Suspensions in Batch Using Iron Electrodes. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 29, 1272-1275. https://doi.org/10.1080/01932690701857483

[65]   Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B., Boucherit, A., Naceur, M.W., Khelifa, A. and Kellil, A. (2009) Study on Mechanism of Electrocoagulation with Iron Electrodes in Idealised Conditions and Electrocoagulation of Humic Acids Solution in Batch Using Aluminium Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 8, 91-99. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2009.668

[66]   Saiba, A., Kourdali, S., Ghernaout, B. and Ghernaout, D. (2010) In Desalination, from 1987 to 2009, the Birth of a New Seawater Pretreatment Process: Electrocoagulation—An Overview. Desalination and Water Treatment, 16, 201-217. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2010.1094

[67]   Belhout, D., Ghernaout, D., Djezzar-Douakh, S. and Kellil, A. (2010) Electrocoagulation of a Raw Water of Ghrib Dam (Algeria) in Batch Using Iron Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 16, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2010.1081

[68]   Ghernaout, D. (2013) Advanced Oxidation Phenomena in Electrocoagulation Process: A Myth or a Reality? Desalination and Water Treatment, 51, 7536-7554.
https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.792520

[69]   Ghernaout, D., Irki, S. and Boucherit, A. (2014) Removal of Cu2+ and Cd2+, and Humic Acid and Phenol by Electrocoagulation Using Iron Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 52, 3256-3270. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.852484

[70]   Ghernaout, D., Al-Ghonamy, A.I., Naceur, M.W., Ait Messaoudene, N. and Aichouni, M. (2014) Influence of Operating Parameters on Electrocoagulation of C.I. Disperse Yellow 3. Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, 4, 271-283. https://doi.org/10.5599/jese.2014.0065

[71]   Ghernaout, D., Al-Ghonamy, A.I., Irki, S., Grini, A., Naceur, M.W., Ait Messaoudene, N. and Aichouni, M. (2014) Decolourization of Bromophenol Blue by Electrocoagulation Process. Trends in Chemical Engineering, 15, 29-39.

[72]   Ghernaout, D., Benblidia, C. and Khemici, F. (2015) Microalgae Removal from Ghrib Dam (Ain Defla, Algeria) Water by Electroflotation Using Stainless Steel Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 54, 3328-3337. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2014.907749

[73]   Mollah, M.Y.A., Schennach, R., Parga, J.R. and Cocke, D.L. (2001) Electrocoagulation (EC)—Science and Applications. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 84, 29-41.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(01)00176-5

[74]   Ghernaout, D., Al-Ghonamy, A.I., Ait Messaoudene, N., Aichouni, M., Naceur, M.W., Benchelighem, F.Z. and Boucherit, A. (2015) Electrocoagulation of Direct Brown 2 (DB) and BF Cibacete Blue (CB) Using Aluminum Electrodes. Separation Science and Technology, 50, 1413-1420. https://doi.org/10.1080/01496395.2014.982763

[75]   Irki, S., Ghernaout, D. and Naceur, M.W. (2017) Decolourization of Methyl Orange (MO) by Electrocoagulation (EC) Using Iron Electrodes under a Magnetic Field (MF). Desalination and Water Treatment, 79, 368-377. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2017.20797

[76]   Ghernaout, D. (2018) Electrocoagulation Process: Achievements and Green Perspectives. Colloid and Surface Science, 3, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.css.20180301.11

[77]   Ghernaout, D. (2008) élimination des substances humiques et des germes indicateurs de contamination bactériologique par électrocoagulation assistée d’un traitement magnétique de l’eau. PhD Thesis, University of Blida, Algeria.

[78]   Irki, S., Ghernaout, D., Naceur, M.W., Alghamdi, A. and Aichouni, M. (2018) Decolorizing Methyl Orange by Fe-Electrocoagulation Process—A Mechanistic Insight. International Journal of Environmental Chemistry, 2, 18-28. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijec.20180201.14

[79]   Ghernaout, D., Touahmia, M. and Aichouni, M. (2019) Disinfecting Water: Electrocoagulation as an Efficient Process. Applied Engineering, 3, 1-12.

[80]   Ghernaout, D., Aichouni, M. and Touahmia, M. (2019) Mechanistic Insight into Disinfection by Electrocoagulation—A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 141, 68-81.
https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2019.23457

[81]   Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A. and Ghernaout, B. (2019) Electrocoagulation Process: A Mechanistic Review at the Dawn of Its Modeling. Journal of Environmental Science and Allied Research, 2, 51-67. https://doi.org/10.29199/2637-7063/ESAR-201019

[82]   Ghernaout, D. (2019) Greening Electrocoagulation Process for Disinfecting Water. Applied Engineering, 3, 27-31.

[83]   Ghernaout, D. (2019) Electrocoagulation Process for Microalgal Biotechnology—A Review. Applied Engineering, 3, 85-94.

[84]   Ghernaout, D. (2019) Virus Removal by Electrocoagulation and Electrooxidation: New Findings and Future Trends. Journal of Environmental Science and Allied Research, 85-90.

[85]   Ghernaout, D. (2019) Electrocoagulation and Electrooxidation for Disinfecting Water: New Breakthroughs and Implied Mechanisms. Applied Engineering, 3, 125-133.

[86]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2019) Electrocoagulation Process Intensification for Disinfecting Water—A Review. Applied Engineering, 3, 140-147.

[87]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2019) Iron Electrocoagulation Process for Disinfecting Water—A Review. Applied Engineering, 3, 154-158.

[88]   Ghernaout, D. (2019) Disinfection via Electrocoagulation Process: Implied Mechanisms and Future Tendencies. EC Microbiology, 15, 79-90.

[89]   Vik, E.A., Carlson, D.A., Eikum, A.S. and Gjessing, E.T. (1984) Electrocoagulation of Potable Water. Water Research, 18, 1355-1360. https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(84)90003-4

[90]   Tokuda, H. and Nakanishi, K. (1995) Application of Direct Current to Protect Bioreactor against Contamination. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 59, 753-755.
https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.59.753

[91]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Strategies for Reducing Disinfection By-Products Formation during Electrocoagulation. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6076.

[92]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Electrocoagulation Process in the Context of Disinfection Mechanism. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6083.

[93]   Ghernaout, D. (2017) Microorganisms’ Electrochemical Disinfection Phenomena. EC Microbiology, 9, 160-169.

[94]   Ghernaout, D., Boudjemline, A. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Electrochemical Engineering in the Core of the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6178.

[95]   Mameri, N., Yeddou, A.R., Lounici, H., Belhocine, D., Grib, H. and Bariou, B. (1998) Defluoridation of Septentrional Sahara Water of North Africa by Electrocoagulation Process Using Bipolar Aluminium Electrodes. Water Research, 32, 1604-1612.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(97)00357-6

[96]   Holt, P.K., Barton, G.W. and Mitchell, C.A. (2005) The Future for Electrocoagulation as a Localised Water Treatment Technology. Chemosphere, 59, 355-367.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.10.023

[97]   Matteson, M.J., Dobson, R.L., Glenn, R.W.Jr., Kukunoor, N.S., Waits III, W.H. and Clayfield, E.J. (1995) Electrocoagulation and Separation of Aqueous Suspensions of Ultrafine Particles. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 104, 101-109.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0927-7757(95)03259-G

[98]   Ghernaout, D., Badis, A., Braikia, G., Mataam, N., Fekhar, M., Ghernaout, B. and Boucherit, A. (2017) Enhanced Coagulation for Algae Removal in a Typical Algeria Water Treatment Plant. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 16, 2303-2315.
https://doi.org/10.30638/eemj.2017.238

[99]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Foresight Look on the Disinfection By-Products Formation. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6349.

[100]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Disinfection By-Products Regulation: Zero ng/L Target. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6382.

[101]   Ghernaout, D. (2017) Entropy in the Brownian Motion (BM) and Coagulation Background. Colloid and Surface Science, 2, 143-161.

[102]   Ghernaout, D., Simoussa, A., Alghamdi, A., Ghernaout, B., Elboughdiri, N., Mahjoubi, A., Aichouni, M. and El-Wakil, A.E.A. (2018) Combining Lime Softening with Alum Coagulation for Hard Ghrib Dam Water Conventional Treatment. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 61-70. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.05.008

[103]   Djezzar, S., Ghernaout, D., Cherifi, H., Alghamdi, A., Ghernaout, B. and Aichouni, M. (2018) Conventional, Enhanced, and Alkaline Coagulation for Hard Ghrib Dam (Algeria) Water. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3, 41-55. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjac.20180302.12

[104]   Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A., Aichouni, M. and Touahmia, M. (2018) The Lethal Water Tri-Therapy: Chlorine, Alum, and Polyelectrolyte. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3, 65-71.
https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjac.20180302.14

[105]   Kellali, Y. and Ghernaout, D. (2019) Physicochemical and Algal Study of Three Dams (Algeria) and Removal of Microalgae by Enhanced Coagulation. Applied Engineering, 3, 56-64.

[106]   Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N., Ghareba, S. and Salih, A. (2020) Coagulation Process for Removing Algae and Algal Organic Matter—An Overview. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6272.
https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106272

[107]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Dealing with Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: Engineering Viewpoints. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6363.

[108]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) Control Strategies in Electrodisinfection. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6396.
https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106396

[109]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) On the Other Side of Viruses in the Background of Water Disinfection. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6374.

[110]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2019) Mechanistic Insight into Disinfection Using Ferrate(VI). Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5946.

[111]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Solar Treatment in the Core of the New Disinfection Technologies. Chemical Science & Engineering Research, 2, 6-11.

[112]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Environmental Engineering for Stopping Viruses Pandemics. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6299.

[113]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Eliminating Cyanobacteria and Controlling Algal Organic Matter—Short Notes. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6252.
https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106252

[114]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Towards Enhancing Ozone Diffusion for Water Disinfection—Short Notes. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6253.

[115]   Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N., Ghareba, S. and Salih, A. (2020) Disinfecting Water with the Carbon Fiber-Based Flow-Through Electrode System (FES): Towards Axial Dispersion and Velocity Profile. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6238. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106238

[116]   Bocos, E., Brillas, E., Sanromán, M.á. and Sirés, I. (2016) Electrocoagulation: Simply a Phase Separation Technology? The Case of Bronopol Compared to Its Treatment by EAOPs. Environmental Science & Technology, 50, 7679-7686. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b02057

[117]   Liao, Z., Gu, Z., Schulz, M., Davis, J., Baygents, J. and Farrell, J. (2009) Treatment of Cooling Tower Blowdown Water Containing Silica, Calcium and Magnesium by Electrocoagulation. Water Science & Technology, 60, 2345-2352. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2009.675

[118]   Hakizimana, J.N., Gourich, B., Chafi, M., Stiriba, Y., Vial, C., Drogui, P. and Naja, J. (2017) Electrocoagulation Process in Water Treatment: A Review of Electrocoagulation Modeling Approaches. Desalination, 404, 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2016.10.011

[119]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Controlling Disinfection By-Products Formation in Rainwater: Technologies and Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6162.

[120]   Ghernaout, D., Laribi, C., Alghamdi, A., Ghernaout, B., Ait Messaoudene, N. and Aichouni, M. (2018) Decolorization of BF Cibacete Blue (CB) and Red Solophenyle 3BL (RS) Using Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Chloride. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3, 32-40.
https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjac.20180302.11

[121]   Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N. and Alghamdi, A. (2019) Direct Potable Reuse: The Singapore NEWater Project as a Role Model. Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5980.
https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105980

[122]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Should We Forbid the Consumption of Antibiotics to Stop the Spread of Resistances in Nature? Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6138.

[123]   Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Disinfection By-Products: Presence and Elimination in Drinking Water. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6140.

[124]   Garcia-Segura, S., Eiband, M.M.S.G., de Melo, J.V. and Martínez-Huitle, C.A. (2017) Electrocoagulation and Advanced Electrocoagulation Processes: A General Review about the Fundamentals, Emerging Applications and Its Association with Other Technologies. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 801, 267-299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2017.07.047

[125]   Fajardo, A.S., Rodrigues, R.F., Martins, R.C., Castro, L.M. and Quinta-Ferreira, R.M. (2015) Phenolic Wastewaters Treatment by Electrocoagulation Process Using Zn Anode. Chemical Engineering Journal, 275, 331-341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.03.116

[126]   Ghernaout, D. (2018) Increasing Trends towards Drinking Water Reclamation from Treated Wastewater. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3, 1-9.
https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjac.20180301.11

[127]   Kobya, M., Soltani, R.D.C., Omwene, P.I. and Khataee, A. (2020) A Review on Decontamination of Arsenic-Contained Water by Electrocoagulation: Reactor Configurations and Operating Cost Along with Removal Mechanisms. Environmental Technology & Innovation, 17, Article ID: 100519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2019.100519

[128]   Reilly, M., Cooley, A.P., Tito, D., Tassou, S.A. and Theodorou, M.K. (2019) Electrocoagulation Treatment of Dairy Processing and Slaughterhouse Wastewaters. Energy Procedia, 161, 343-351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2019.02.106

[129]   Ait Messaoudene, N., Naceur, M.W., Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A. and Aichouni, M. (2018) On the Validation Perspectives of the Proposed Novel Dimensionless Fouling Index. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 116-122. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.07.014

[130]   Ghernaout, D. (2019) Brine Recycling: Towards Membrane Processes as the Best Available Technology. Applied Engineering, 3, 71-84.

[131]   Ghernaout, D. and El-Wakil, A. (2017) Requiring Reverse Osmosis Membranes Modifications—An Overview. American Journal of Chemical Engineering, 5, 81-88.
https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajche.20170504.15

[132]   Ghernaout, D. (2020) Water Treatment Challenges towards Viruses Removal. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6408.

 
 
Top