AID  Vol.10 No.3 , December 2020
Atypical Presentations of COVID-19
Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019. It has now spread to all parts of the world and as of 26th July 2020, more than 16 million cases and over 600,000 deaths have been reported. The commonest presentation is respiratory in nature with non-productive cough, fever and shortness of breath. Some COVID-19 patients have had atypical or unusual presentations involving the neurological, metabolic, gastrointestinal, renal, haematological, cutaneous and cardiovascular systems. In this mini-review, we have outlined the main atypical or unusual clinical presentations of COVID-19.
Cite this paper: Jayasekara, D. , Seneviratne, S. , Jayasekara, A. and De Zoysa, I. (2020) Atypical Presentations of COVID-19. Advances in Infectious Diseases, 10, 136-142. doi: 10.4236/aid.2020.103014.

[1]   Rothan, H.A. and Byrareddy, S.N. (2020) The Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak. Journal of Autoimmunity, 109, 102433.

[2]   Asadi-Pooya, A.A. and Simani, L. (2020) Central Nervous System Manifestations of COVID-19: A Systematic Review. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 413, Article ID: 116832.

[3]   Xu, X.T., Chen, P., Wang, J.F., Feng, J.N., Zhou, H., Li, X., Zhong, W. and Hao, P. (2020) Evolution of the Novel Coronavirus from the Ongoing Wuhan Outbreak and Modeling of Its Spike Protein for Risk of Human Transmission. Science China Life Sciences, 63, 457-460.

[4]   Baig, A.M., Khaleeq, A., Ali, U. and Syeda, H. (2020) Evidence of the COVID-19 Virus Targeting the CNS: Tissue Distribution, Host-Virus Interaction, and Proposed Neurotropic Mechanisms. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 11, 995-998.

[5]   Mao, L., Jin, H., Wang, M., et al. (2020) Neurologic Manifestations of Hospitalized Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Neurology, 77, 683-690.

[6]   Sun, T. and Guan, J. (2020) Novel Coronavirus and the Central Nervous System. European Journal of Neurology.

[7]   Moriguchi, T., Harii, N., Goto, J., et al. (2020) A First Case of Meningitis/Encephalitis Associated with SARS-Coronavirus-2. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 94, 55-58.

[8]   Li, B., Yang, J., Zhao, F., et al. (2020) Prevalence and Impact of Cardiovascular Metabolic Diseases on COVID-19 in China. Clinical Research in Cardiology, 109, 531-538.

[9]   Zhang, J.J., Dong, X., Cao, Y.Y., Yuan, Y.D., Yang, Y.-B., Yan, Y.Q., Akdis, C.A. and Gao, Y.-D. (2020) Clinical Characteristics of 140 Patients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China. Allergy, 75, 1730-1741.

[10]   Yang, X.B., Yu, Y.Y., Xu, J., et al. (2020) Clinical Course and Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A Single-Centered, Retrospective, Observational Study. The Lancet, 8, 475-481.

[11]   Zhou, J. and Tan, J. (2020) Diabetes Patients with COVID-19 Need Better Blood Glucose Management in Wuhan, China. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 107, Article ID: 154216.

[12]   Xu, L., Liu, J., Lu, M., Yang, D. and Zheng, X. (2020) Liver Injury during Highly Pathogenic Human Coronavirus Infections. Liver International, 40, 998-1004.

[13]   Cheng, Y., Luo, R., Wang, K., et al. (2020) Kidney Disease Is Associated with In-Hospital Death of Patients with COVID-19. Kidney International, 97, 829-838.

[14]   Larsen, C.P., Bourne, T.D., Wilson, J.D., Saqqa, O. and Sharshir, M.A. (2020) Collapsing Glomerulopathy in a Patient with COVID-19. Kidney International Reports, 5, 935-939.

[15]   Paranjpe, I., Fuster, V., Lala, A., et al. (2020) Association of Treatment Dose Anticoagulation with In-Hospital Survival among Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 7, 122-124.

[16]   Conti, P., Ronconi, G., Caraffa, A., et al. (2020) Induction of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines (IL-1 and IL-6) and Lung Inflammation by Coronavirus-19 (COVI-19 or SARS-CoV-2): Anti-Inflammatory Strategies. Journal of Biological Regulators & Homeostatic Agents, 34, 122-124.

[17]   Rivera-Figueroa, E.I., Santos, R., Simpson, S. and Garg, P. (2020) Incomplete Kawasaki Disease in a Child with Covid-19. Indian Pediatrics, 57, 680-681.

[18]   Zhang, Y., Xiao, M., Zhang, S., et al. (2020) Coagulopathy and Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Patients with Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine, 382, e38.

[19]   Ferrario, C.M., Jessup, J., Chappell, M.C., et al. (2005) Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers on Cardiac Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2. Circulation, 111, 2605-2610.

[20]   Li, G., Hu, R. and Gu, X. (2020) A Close-Up on COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Diseases. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 30, 1057-1060.

[21]   Wang, D., et al. (2020) Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA, 321, 1061-1069.

[22]   Huang, C., et al. (2020) Clinical Features of Patients Infected with 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395, 497-506.

[23]   Recalcati, S. (2020) Cutaneous Manifestations in COVID-19: A First Perspective. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 34, e212-213.

[24]   Galván Casas, C., Català, A., Carretero Hernández, G., et al. (2020) Classification of the Cutaneous Manifestations of COVID-19: A Rapid Prospective Nationwide Consensus Study in Spain with 375 Cases. British Journal of Dermatology, 183, 71-77.