Back
 PP  Vol.11 No.8 , August 2020
Additive Efficiency of Fipronil + Methoprene Compared to Fipronil Alone against Rhipicephalus sanguineus Ticks in Naturally Infested Dogs
Abstract: The acaricidal efficiency of fipronil alone and fipronil + methoprene compared to commercial fipronil and commercial fipronil + methoprene, applied by the epicutaneous route (spot-on) in dogs naturally infested with ticks, was assessed. Thirty dogs infested with high loads of ticks were used. On day 0, the dogs were divided into 5 groups of 6 animals each. Each animal was duly identified for individual and group monitoring. Treatments were made based on body weight according to manufacturer’s instructions. Group 1 (G1) received 10.0% fipronil at a single dose of a pipette applied by epicutaneous route in the base of the neck. G2 received 10% fipronil + 10% methoprene in single application similarly to G1. G3 was treated with 9.8% commercial fipronil as before mentioned. G4 received commercial 9.8% fipronil + 9.8% methoprene applied as in previous groups. G5 served as an infected untreated control. Animals were examined by thumb tick counts on days 0 (Treatment day), 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Efficacy was measured as a percentage of tick reduction in the treated groups relative to the untreated control. Results indicated an overall efficacy of 88.2%, 93%, 90.4% and 99.3%, respectively. There was no significant statistical difference between the treated groups (P < 0.05), neither in sex nor in weight. Engorged ticks were the most frequent, followed by the nymph group. However, by the end of the study these data were reversed due to the fact that only small larvae were found, which we interpreted came from engorged ticks that released their progeny before dying and a month later their offspring began to be observed presently and in full development. It is concluded that the combined formulations of fipronil + methoprene compared to fipronil applied alone, showed an additive effect against Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in naturally infested dogs kept in captivity.
Cite this paper: Ibarra-Velarde, F. , Vera-Montenegro, Y. , Acala-Canto, Y. and Cruz-Mendoza, I. (2020) Additive Efficiency of Fipronil + Methoprene Compared to Fipronil Alone against Rhipicephalus sanguineus Ticks in Naturally Infested Dogs. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 11, 174-187. doi: 10.4236/pp.2020.118016.
References

[1]   Prullage, J.B., Hair, J.A., Everett, W.R., Yoon, S.S., Cramer, L.G., Franke, S., Cornelison, K. and Hunter III, R. (2011) The Prevention of Attachment and the Detachment Effects of a Novel Combination of Fipronil, Amitraz and (S)-Methoprene for Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor variabilis on Dogs. Veterinary Parasitology, 179, 311-317.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.03.043

[2]   Leschnick, M., Feiler, A., Duscher, G.G. and Joachim, A. (2013) Effect of Owner-Controlled Acaricidal Treatment on Tick Infestation and Immune Response to Tick-Borne Pathogens in Naturally Infested Dogs from Eastern Austria. Parasites & Vectors, 6, 62.
http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/6/1/62
https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-6-62


[3]   Baneth, G. (2014) Tick-Borne Infections of Animals and Humans: A Common Ground. International Journal for Parasitology, 44, 591-596.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2014.03.011

[4]   Chomel, B. (2011) Tick-Borne Infections in Dogs—An Emerging Infectious Threat. Veterinary Parasitology, 179, 294-301.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.03.040

[5]   Tinoco-Gracia, L., Quiroz-Romero, H., Quintero-Martínez, M.T., Rentería-Evangelista, T.B., González-Medina, Y., Barreras-Serrano, A., Hori-Oshima, S., Moro, M.H. and Vinasco, J. (2009) Prevalence of Riphicephalus sanguineus Ticks on Dogs in a Region on the Mexico-USA Border. Veterinary Record, 164, 59-61.

[6]   Guan, M.M., Liu, G., Dang, Q., Liu, Z., Ren, A., Liu, Q., Li, Z., Chen, Y., Liu, J., Yin, Y.J. and Luo, H. (2013) The in Vitro Efficacy of Deltamethrin and Alpha-Cypermethrin against Engorged Female Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). Experimental Parasitology, 134, 405-408.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2013.04.001

[7]   Sun, M., Ren, Q., Li, Y., Han, X., Ma, C. and Yin, H. (2013) Effectiveness of Beauveria bassiana Sensu Lato Strains for Biological Control against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in China. Parasitology International, 62, 412-415.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2013.04.008

[8]   Lu, H., Ren, Q., Li, Y., Liu, J., Niu, Q., Yin, H., Meng, Q., Guan, G. and Luo, J. (2015) The Efficacies of 5 Insecticides against Hard Ticks Hyalomma asiaticum, Haemaphysalis longicornis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Experimental Parasitology, 157, 44-47.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2015.06.011

[9]   Abbas, R.Z., Zamman, M.A., Coldwell, D.D., Gilleard, J. and Iqbal, Z. (2014) Acaricide Resistance in Cattle Ticks and Approaches to Its Management: The State of Play. Veterinary Parasitology, 203, 6-20.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.03.006

[10]   Fourie, J.J., Ollagnier, C., Beugnet, F., Luus, H.G. and Jongehan, F. (2013) Prevention of Transmission of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus Ticks to Dogs Treated with a Combination of Fipronil, Amitraz and (S)-Methoprene (CERTIFECT®). Veterinary Parasitology, 193, 223-228.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.12.009

[11]   Fourie, J.J., de Vos, C., Crafford, D., Pollmeier, M. and Schunack, B. (2019) A Study on the Long-Term Efficacy of Seresto® Collars in Preventing Babesia canis (Piana & Galli-Valerio, 1895) Transmission to Dogs by Infected Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) Ticks. Parasites & Vectors, 12, Article No. 139.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3393-z

[12]   Navarro, C., Reymond, N., Fourie, J., Hellmann, K. and Bonneau, S. (2015) Prevention of Babesia canis in Dogs: Efficacy of a Fixed Combination of Permethrin and Fipronil (Effitix®) Using an Experimental Transmission Blocking Model with Infected Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks. Parasites & Vectors, 8, Article No. 32.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0645-4

[13]   Tielemans, E., Manavella, C., Pollmeier, M., Chester, T., Murphy, M. and Gale, B. (2010) Comparative Acaricidal Efficacy of the Topically Applied Combinations Fipronil/(S)-Methoprene, Permethrin/Imidacloprid and Metaflumizone/Amitraz against Dermacentor reticulatus, the European Dog Tick (Ornate Dog Tick, Fabricius, 1794) in Dogs. Parasite, 17, 343-348.
https://doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2010174343

[14]   Jongejan, F., Crafford, D., Erasmus, H., Fourie, J.J. and Schunack, B. (2016) Comparative Efficacy of Oral Administrated Afoxolaner (NexGard™) and Fluralaner (Bravecto™) with Topically Applied Permethrin/Imidacloprid (Advantix®) against Transmission of Ehrlichia canis by Infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus Ticks to Dogs. Parasites & Vectors, 9, Article No. 348.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1636-9

[15]   Jongejan, F., Fourie, J.J., Chester, S.T., Manavella, C., Mallouk, Y., Pollmeier, M.G. and Baggot, D. (2011) The Prevention of Transmission of Babesia canis canis by Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks to Dogs Using a Novel Combination of Fipronil, Amitraz and (S)-Methoprene. Veterinary Parasitology, 179, 343-350.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.03.047

[16]   Jongejan, F., de Vos, C., Fourie, J.J. and Beugnet, F. (2015) A Novel Combination of Fipronil and Permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®) Reduces Risk of Transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus and of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus Ticks to Dogs. Parasites & Vectors, 8, Article No. 602.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-1207-5

[17]   Traversa, D. (2012) Pet Roundworms and Hookworms: A Continuing Need for Global Worming. Parasites & Vectors, 5, Article No. 91.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-91

[18]   Knaus, M., Baker, C., Reinemeyer, C., Chester, T., Rosentel, J. and Rehbein, S. (2014) Efficacy of a Novel Topical Combination of Fipronil, (S)-Methoprene, Eprinomectin and Praziquantel against Adult and Larval Stages of Toxocara cati in Cats. Veterinary Parasitology, 202, 34-39.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.036

[19]   Knaus, M., Marawan, A., Madi, A., Ibarra-Velarde, F., Dawie, J., Kusi, K.L., Postoli, R., Chester, S.T., Rosentel, J., Alva, R., Irwin, J., Visser, M., Winter, R. and Rehbein, S. (2014) Efficacy of a Novel Topical Fipronil, (S)-Methoprene, Eprinomectin and Praziquantel Combination against Naturally Acquired Intestinal Nematode and Cestode Infections in Cats. Veterinary Parasitology, 202, 18-25.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.033

[20]   Dumont, P., Fourie, J.J., Soll, M. and Beugnet, F. (2015) Repellency, Prevention of Attachment and Acaricidal Efficacy of a New Combination of Fipronil and Permethrin against the Main Vector of Canine Babesiosis in Europe, Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks. Parasites & Vectors, 8, Article No. 50.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0682-z

[21]   EMEA/CVMP/005/2000-Rev.2 Guidelines for the Testing and Evaluation of the Efficacy of Antiparasitic Substances for the Treatment and Prevention of Tick and Flea Infestation in Dogs and Cats. 2007. Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Product of the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, London, UK.

[22]   Marchiondo, A.A., Holdsworth, P.A., Fourie, L.J., Rugg, D., Hellmann, K., Snyder, D.E., et al. (2013) World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) Second Edition: Guidelines for Evaluating the Efficacy of Parasiticides for the Treatment, Prevention and Control of Flea and Tick Infestations on Dogs and Cats. Veterinary Parasitology, 194, 84-97.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23741753
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.02.003


[23]   Castillo-Martínez, A., Cueto-Medina, S.M., Hernández-Rodríguez, S., Gallegos-Robles, M.A., Valdez-Perezgasca, M.A., Sánchez-Ramos, F.J. and Ortega-Morales, A.I. (2015) Detección de Rickettsia sp. en la garrapata café del perro Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) en Matamoros, Coahuila, México. Acta Zoológica Mexicana, 31, 80-83.
https://doi.org/10.21829/azm.2015.311509

[24]   Alvarez-Hernandez, G., González-Roldán, J.P., Hernández-Milan, N.S., Ryan-Lash, R., Barton-Behravesh, C. and Paddock, C.D. (2017) Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Mexico: Past, Present, and Future. Historical Review, 17, E189-E196.
http://www.thelancet.com/infection
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30173-1


[25]   Tinoco-Gracia, L., Rodríguez-Lomelí, M., Hori-Oshima, S., Stephenson, N. and Foley, J. (2018) Molecular Confirmation of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Epidemic Agent in Mexicali, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24, 1723-1725.
https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2409.171523

[26]   Foley, J., Tinoco-Gracia, L., Rodríguez-Lomelí, M., Estrada-Guzmán, J., Fierro, M., Mattar-López, E., Peterson, A., Pascoe, E., González, Y., Hori-Oshima, S., Armstrong, P.A., López, G., Jácome-Ibarra, M., Paddock, C.P. and Zazueta, O.E. (2019) Unbiased Assessment of Abundance of Rhipicephalus sanguineus Sensu Lato Ticks, Canine Exposure to Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia, and Risk Factors in Mexicali, México. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 101, 22-32.
https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0878

[27]   Ibarra-Velarde, F., Vera-Montenegro, Y., Alcala-Canto, Y. and Cruz-Mendoza, I. (2019) Comparative Efficacy of Three Commercial Ectoparasiticides against Fleas in Naturally Infested Dogs. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 10, 234-243.
https://doi.org/10.4236/pp.2019.105020

[28]   Bowman, D.D. (2008) Arthropods. In: Georgi’s Parasitology for Veterinarians, 9th Edition, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.

[29]   Dryden, M.W. and Payne, P.A. (2004) Biology and Control of Ticks Infesting Dogs and Cats in North America. Veterinary Therapeutics, 5, 139-154.

[30]   Urquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Dunn, A.M. and Jennings, F.W. (2003) Veterinary Entomology. In: Veterinary Parasitology, 2nd Edition, Blackwell Science, Osney Mead, Oxford, UK.

[31]   Danta-Torres, F. (2008) The Brown Dog Tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae): From Taxonomy to Control. Veterinary Parasitology, 152, 173-185.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.12.030

[32]   Geurden, T., Becskei, C., Grace, S., Strube, C., Doherty, P. and Liebenberg, J. (2016) Efficacy of a Novel Oral Formulation of Sarolaner (Simparica™) against Four Common Tick Species Infesting Dogs in Europe. Veterinary Parasitology, 222, 33-36.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2016.03.024

[33]   Geurden, T., Becskei, R., Maeder, C., Lloyd, A., Mahabir, A., Fourie, J. and Liebenberg, J. (2017) Evaluation of the Efficacy of Sarolaner (Simparica®) in the Prevention of Babesiosis in Dogs. Parasites & Vectors, 10, Article No. 415.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2358-3

[34]   Mustafa, M.B., Baskar, J.V., Rosentel, J., Chester, T. and Knaus, M. (2016) Efficacy of a Topical Combination of Fipronil, (S)-Methoprene, Eprinomectin and Praziquantel (Broadline®) against Naturally Acquired Infections with Cestodes of the Genus Joyeuxiella in Cats. Parasitological Research, 115, 2679-2684.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-016-5016-3

 
 
Top