JACEN  Vol.9 No.3 , August 2020
Bioactive Compounds and Antifungal Activities of Extracts of Lamiaceae Species
Abstract: Origanum vulgare L. (oregano) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) are vegetal species belonging to the family Lamiaceae, popularly known as oregano and rosemary. Aromatic plants are used in the treatment and prevention of diseases and in the culinary as functional food in the preparation and conservation of foods. In the chemical composition of oregano and rosemary are present bioactive compounds with antimicrobial, antioxidant and flavoring effect. Several reports in the literature have presented the chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oils of oregano and rosemary. However, few studies have been carried out regarding the chemical composition and biological potential of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. Evidencing a need to investigate the chemical composition and antifungal activity of these extracts. The objective of the study was to evaluate the bioactive compounds and antifungal activity of the aqueous and ethanolic extract of Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. present in the chemical composition phenolic acids and flavonoids. The antifungal test of the aqueous and ethanolic extract of Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. presented antifungal potential against Candida globosa, Cryptococcus laurentii, Trichosporum assai, Rhodotorula sp., Candida albicans, Kodamaea ohmeri, Saccharomyces and Geotrichum. According to the results obtained in this study, it was concluded that the ethanolic extract of oregano and rosemary present antifungal activity against several yeasts tested, thus proving that these plant species must be carefully evaluated, aiming at a potential for use as an antimicrobial agent.
Cite this paper: Blank, D. , Alves, G. , Nascente, P. , Freitag, R. and Cleff, M. (2020) Bioactive Compounds and Antifungal Activities of Extracts of Lamiaceae Species. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 9, 85-96. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2020.93008.

[1]   Singletary, K. (2010) Oregano: Overview of the Literature on Health Benefits. Nutrition Today, 45, 129-138.

[2]   Lorenzi, H. and Matos, F.J. (2006) Plantas Medicinais no Brasil: Nativas e Exóticas Cultivadas. Instituto Plantarum, Nova Odessa, 324-512.

[3]   Morais, S.M., Cavalcanti, E.S.B., Costa, S.M.O. and Aguiar, L.A. (2009) Acao antioxidante de chás e condimentos de grande consumo no Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 19, 315-320.

[4]   Del Ré, P.V. and Jorge, N. (2012) Especiarias como antioxidantes naturais: aplicacoes em alimentos e implicacao na saúde. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, 14, 389-399.

[5]   Anila, L. and Vijayalakshmi, N.R. (2003) Antioxidant Action of Flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis in Hypercholesterolemic Rats. Food Chemistry, 83, 569-574.

[6]   Del Ré, P.V. and Jorge, N. (2011) Antioxidant Potential of Oregano (Oreganum vulgare L.), Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.): Application of Oleo Resins in Vegetable Oil. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 31, 955-959.

[7]   Del Bano, M.J., Lorente, J., Castillo J., Benavente-García, O., Del Río, J.A., Ortuno, A., Quirin, K. and Gerard, D. (2003) Phenolic Diterpenes, Flavones and Rosmarinic Acid Distribution during the Development of Leaves, Flowers, Stems, and Roots of Rosmarinus officinalis: Antioxidant Activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 4247-4253.

[8]   Cragg, G.M. and Newman, D.J. (2014) Natural Products: A Continuing Source of Novel Drug Leads. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)—General Subjects, 1830, 3670-3695.

[9]   Brasil. Ministério da saúde. Uso de plantas medicinais e fitoterápicos sobe 161%.

[10]   Pimentel, V., Vieira, V., Mitidieri, T., Franca, F. and Pieroni, J.P. (2015) Biodiversidade brasileira como fonte da inovacao farmacêutica: Uma nova esperanca. Revista do Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Economico e Social (BNDES), 43, 41-89.

[11]   Pérez-Fons, L., Aranda, F.J., Guillén, J., Villalaín, J. and Micol, V. (2006) Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Diterpenes Affect Lipid Polymorphism and Fluidity in Phospholipid Membranes. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 453, 224-236.

[12]   Machado, B.A.S., Ribeiro, D.S. and Druzian, J.I. (2013) Estudo prospectivo relativo à atividade antimicrobiana de algumas plantas aromáticas. Cadernos de Prospeccao, 6, 97-105.

[13]   Eswar, P., Devaraj, C.G. and Agarwal, P. (2016) Anti-Microbial Activity of Tulsi {Ocimum Sanctum (Linn.)} Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro Study. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 10, 53-56.

[14]   Lacaz, C.S. (2002) Tratado de micologia médica. 9th Edition, Sarvier, Sao Paulo, 1104.

[15]   Meireles, M.C.A. and Nascente, P.S. (2009) Micologia Veterinária. Editora Universitária da Ufpel, Pelotas, 543.

[16]   Cleff, M.B., Silva, G.M., Meinerz, A.R.M., Madrid, I.M., Martins, A.A., Fonseca, A.O., Nascente, P.S., Meireles, M.C.A. and Mello, J.R.B. (2007) Infeccao cutanea em cao por Candida albicans. Veterinária e Zootecnia, 14, 164-168.

[17]   Brito, E.H.S., Fontenelle, R.O.S., Brilhante, R.S.N., Cordeiro, R.A.C., Sidrim, J.J.C. and Rocha, M.F.G. (2009) Candidose na medicina veterinária: Um enfoque micológico, clínico e terapêutico. Ciência Rural, 39, 2655-2664.

[18]   Cruz, L.C.H. (2010) Micologia Veterinária. 2nd Edition, Revinter, Rio de Janeiro, 348 p.

[19]   Souza, W.A. and Siqueira, A.M. (2003) Ocorrência de Candida albicans em intestino de bovinos. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 55, 262-265.

[20]   Chowdhary, A., Ahmad, S., Khan, Z.U., Doval, D.C. and Randhawa, H.S. (2004) Trichosporon Asahii as an Emerging Etiologic Agent of Disseminated Trichosporonosis: A Case Report and an Update. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 22, 16-22.

[21]   Biswas, S.K., Yokoyama, K., Nishimura, K. and Miyaji, M. (2001) Molecular Phylogenetics of the Genus Rhodotorula and Related Basidiomycetous Yeasts Inferred From the Mitochondrial Cytochrome B Gene. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 51, 1191-1199.

[22]   Gomez-Lopez, A., Mellado, E., Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L. and Cuenca-Estrella, M. (2005) Susceptibility Profile of Clinical Isolates of Rhodotorula spp. and Literature Review. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 55, 312-316.

[23]   Wirth, F. and Goldani, L.Z. (2012) Epidemiology of Rhodotorula: An Emerging Pathogen. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, 2012, Article ID: 465717.

[24]   Vivas, R., Beltran, C., Munera, M.I., Trujillo, M., Restrepo, A. and Garcés, C. (2016) Fungemia Due to Kodomaea ohmeri in a Young Infant and Review of the Literature. Medical Mycology Case Reports, 13, 5-8.

[25]   Barbosa, L.N., Probst, I.S., Andrade, B.F.M.T., Alves, F.C.B., Albano M., Cunha, M.L.R.S., Doyama, J.T., Rall, V.L.M. and Júnior, A.F. (2015) In Vitro Antibacterial and Chemical Properties of Essential Oils Including Native Plants from Brazil against Pathogenic and Resistant Bacteria. Journal of Oleo Science, 64, 289-298.

[26]   Romero, A.L., Romero, R.B., Silva, E.L., De Souza Diniz, S.P.S., De Oliveira, R.R. and Vida, J.B. (2012) Composicao química e atividade do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare sobre fungos fitopatogênicos. UNOPAR Cientifica Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, 14, 231-235.

[27]   Almela, L., Sánchez-Munoz, B., Fernández-lópez, J.A., Roca, M.J. and Rabe, V. (2006) Liquid Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Phenolics and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Rosemary Extract from Different Raw Material. Journal Chromatography A, 1120, 221-229.

[28]   Arcila-Lozano, C.C., Loarca-Pina, G., Lecona-Uribe, S. and Mejía, E.G. (2004) El orégano: propiedades, composición y actividad biológica de sus componentes. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición, 54, 100-111.

[29]   Turkmen, N., Sari, F. and Velioglu, Y.S. (2006) Effects of Extraction Solvents on Concentration and Antioxidant Activity of Black and Black Mate Tea Polyphenols Determined by Ferrous Tartrate and Folin-Ciocalteu Methods. Food Chemistry, 99, 835-841.

[30]   Rockenbach, I.I., Silva, G.L., Rodrigues, E., Kuskoski, E.M. and Fett, R. (2008) Influência do solvente no conteúdo total de polifenóis, antocianinas e atividade antioxidante de extratos de bagaco de uva (Vitis vinifera) variedades Tannat e Ancelota. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 28, 238-244.

[31]   Danila, O.A., Gatea, F. and Radu, G.L. (2011) Polyphenol Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Herbs. Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 47, 22-26.

[32]   Ninfali, P., Mea, G., Giorgini, S., Rocchi, M. and Bacchioccal, M. (2005) Antioxidant Capacity of Vegetables, Spices and Dressings Relevant to Nutrition. British Journal of Nutrition, 93, 257-266.

[33]   Mata, A.T., Proenca, C., Ferreira, A.R., Serralheiro, M.L.M., Nogueira, J.M.F. and Araújo, M.E.M. (2007) Antioxidant and Antiacetylcholinesterase Activities of Five Plants Used as Portuguese Food Spices. Food Chemistry, 103, 778-786.

[34]   Aguiyi, J.C., Obi, C.I., Gang, S.S. and Igweh, A.C. (2000) Hyypoglycaemic Activity of Ocimum gratissimum in Rats. Fitoterapia, 71, 444-446.

[35]   Carvalho Filho, J.L.S., Blank, A.F., Alves, P.B., Ehlert, P.A.D., Melo, A.S., Cavalcanti, S.C.H., Arrigoni-Blank, M.F. and Silva-Mann, R. (2006) Influence of the Harvesting Time, Temperature and Drying Period on Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Essential Oil. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 16, 24-30.

[36]   Petersen, M. and Simmonds, M.S.J. (2003) Rosmarinic Acid. Phytochemistry, 62, 121-125.

[37]   Jacques, A.C. and Zambiazi, R.C. (2011) Phytochemicals in Blackberry. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 32, 245-260.

[38]   Raudonea, L., Raudonisa, R., Liaudanskasa, M., Janulis, V. and Viskelis, P. (2017) Phenolic Antioxidant Profiles in the Whole Fruit, Flesh and Peel of Apple Cultivars Grown in Lithuania. Scientia Horticulturae, 216, 186-192.

[39]   Juntachote, T., Berghofer, E., Siebenhandl, S. and Bauer, F. (2007) Antioxidative Effect of Added Dried Holy Basil and Its Ethanolic Extracts on Susceptibility of Cooked Ground Pork to Lipid Oxidation. Food Chemistry, 100, 129-135.

[40]   Gülcin, I., Elmastas, M. and Aboul-Enein, H.Y. (2007) Determination of Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Activity of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Assayed by Different Methodologies. Phytotherapy Research, 21, 354-361.

[41]   Yanishlieva, N.V., Marinova, E. and Pokorny, J. (2006) Natural Antioxidants from Herbs and Spices. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 108, 776-793.

[42]   Rezzoug, S.A., Boutekedjiret, C. and Allaf, K. (2005) Optimization of Operating Conditions of Rosemary Essential Oil Extraction by a Fast Controlled Pressure Drop Process Using Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Food Engineering, 71, 9-17.

[43]   Moreno, S., Scheyer, T., Romano, C.S. and Vojnov, A.A. (2006) Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Rosemary Extracts Linked to Their Polyphenol Composition. Free Radical Research, 40, 223-231.

[44]   Asolini, F.C., Tedesco, A.M. and Carpes, S.T. (2006) Atividade Antioxidante e Antibacteriana dos Compostos Fenólicos dos Extratos de Plantas Usadas como Chás. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, 9, 209-215.

[45]   Peng, Y.Y., Yuan, J.J., Liu, F.H. and Ye, J.N. (2005) Determination of Active Components in Rosemary by Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 39, 431-437.