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 JWARP  Vol.12 No.7 , July 2020
Blue and Grey Water Footprints of Dairy Farms in Kuwait
Abstract: In Kuwait, dairy farming faces challenges due to its significant water demands. The current study assessed seasonal patterns of water use to estimate the blue water footprint (WF) and grey WF per kg of fat protein corrected milk (FPCM) for confined dairy farming systems in Kuwait. Blue and grey WFs were evaluated using data from three operational farms. The average blue WF (L·kg-1 FPCM) was estimated to be 54.5 ± 4.0 L·kg-1 in summer and 19.2 ± 0.8 L·kg-1 in winter. The average grey WF (generated from milk house wastewater) was assessed on bimonthly basis and determined based on its phosphate (PO4) concentration (82.2 ± 14.3 mg·L-1) which is the most limiting factor to be 23.0 ± 9.0 L·kg-1 FPCM d-1. The outcomes indicate that enhancing the performance of dairy cows and adopting alternative water management strategies can play a role in minimizing the impacts of confined dairy farming systems in Kuwait on water quality and quantity.
Cite this paper: Al-Bahouh, M. , Osborne, V. , Wright, T. , Dixon, M. and Gordon, R. (2020) Blue and Grey Water Footprints of Dairy Farms in Kuwait. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 12, 618-635. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2020.127038.
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