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 IIM  Vol.12 No.4 , July 2020
School Level Information System (IS) Discontinuance Intention: A Case Study on Information System (IS) Discontinuance of Surigao State College of Technology SSCT
Abstract: Educational institutions implement school information system (IS) solutions for efficient academic processes and improve the student experience, and thus tend to upgrade to new school IS, ceasing the use of old school IS. Extant studies of information system discontinuance are in organizational in general. This study is solely a school organization setting, specifically a thorough understanding of contributing factors that facilitate the intention of school information system (IS) discontinuance. Organizational level IS discontinuance intention OLIDI model was used as a lens and anchored by grounded theory. Semi-Structured interviews were used to collect data from school administrators and users of information system (IS) of Surigao State College of Technology. A qualitative statistics approach and coding of words are used to analyze the intention of IS discontinuance and provide model for school setting IS discontinuance. The findings show that system shortcomings, organizational initiative, environmental change, system investment, and institutional pressures were the critical determinants of increased intentions to replace the existing school information system (IS). The study findings are useful to school administrators to identify long term flexibility required for policies to overcome the capability of shortcomings that emerge over the system life span and underline risk associated with continued use of unsupported systems.

1. Introduction

Teaching, learning, and administration in schools are now incorporated with the school information system (IS) to boost school performance and effectiveness [1]. Maximizing time in decision making from complex problems in school such as staff and resource allocation, efficient processes, and monitoring operation was addressed by the used of school information system (IS) [2]. School management information system (IS) was now vital to school operation as a whole [3]. But even with the advent of this technology, the information system (IS) has its limitation where it suffers deterioration as the schools grow overtime [4].

School administrator’s salience of inadequate attention to the discontinuance of obsolete information system (IS) because of the risk to the whole school operation will have an impact on the system complexity, system change, and resources [5]. Some research that says the intention of discontinuance of information systems (IS) was personal views such as dissatisfaction of the user [6], the shift of one’s interest [6], status quo [7] and ease of usefulness [8]. This paper explores the information system (IS) discontinuance of Surigao State College of Technology in some depth with a view toward improving the understanding of what drives an information system (IS) toward the end of its life.

The result of the study shows that the discontinuance of the old information system of Surigao State College of Technology was associated with the system shortcomings, organizational initiative, environmental change, system investment, and institutional pressures. This factor of school information system (IS) discontinuance can help school administrator overcome capability of shortcomings that emerge over the information system (IS) life span and underline risk associated with continued use of unsupported systems.

2. Theoretical Framework

To obtain the objective of the study, an initial theoretical framing was conducted based on the method of [9] as shown in Figure 1 where this resulting framework of general organizational level IS discontinuance intention and is rooted at the organizational level of analysis by [10].

2.1. Change Force

A priori framework has given considerations to technological, organizational, and environmental sources of change as depicted in Figure 1.

2.1.1. Organizational Initiative

System performance shortcomings is a technological issue that defined as the extent to which system consistently and effectively accomplishes the task that it is expected to accomplish and therefore incorporates elements such as the functionality, responsiveness, and reliability of the system [11].

2.1.2. Environmental Change

The organizational initiative is defined as an internal organizational effort directed

Figure 1. Theoretical framework.

toward altering where and how an organization operates, organizational initiative, asserts a teleological perspective that sees goal-directed behavior and strategic choices as fundamental drivers of organizational change. Pressure on change in an organization’s information systems include changing strategic plans, the replacement of key executives, the pursuit of a new product or market opportunities, the construction of new facilities, and change in organizational structure [12].

2.1.3. System Performance Shortcoming

Environmental change can be defined as the change in the physical or social factors that lie outside of the boundaries of an organization which includes revised government regulations and the emergence of new and distinctive competitive threats [13].

2.2. Continuance Inertia

Analogous to our efforts to adequately account for technological, organizational, and environmental drivers of change, we also sought to identify technological, organizational, and environmental sources of continuance inertia. This process led to the identification of the level of financial and other investments in an existing system, the degree of embeddedness of this system within organizational activities, and institutional pressures from the organization’s environment as three potentially essential contributors to continuance inertia.

2.2.1. System Investment

System investment is defined as the financial and other resources committed to the acquisition, implementation, and use of an information system. Building on the idea that commitment can escalate, the sunk cost effect is the tendency of decision-makers to continue making resource commitments to an endeavor once an initial determination of resources has been established [14]. Given that investments in an information system can be considerable, the sunk-cost effect suggests that organizations will be reluctant to discontinue their use of existing systems since this would represent a “loss” of substantial sunk costs. The discontinuance of a system that has consumed significant organizational resources can also threaten the reputation of those who have supported these investments, thus leading them to support continued system use.

2.2.2. System Embeddedness

System embeddedness is defined as the extent to which the use of an information system is an integral part of organizational activity. An organization that has successfully implemented an information system gains competence with the system [15].

2.2.3. Institutional Pressures

Institutional theory has traditionally been concerned with organizational legitimacy and how the need for legitimacy fosters the emergence of norms and practices that prove resistant to change [16]. This emphasis on behavioral persistence serves to highlight the potential role that institutional pressures may have in fostering continuance inertia. Coercive, normative, and mimetic pressures have been identified by institutional theorists as the three key pressures that can lead organizations to conform to the practices of other organization [17]. Although pressures to comply with regulatory demands and conform to social and professional norms may also contribute to continuance inertia, it is mimetic pressures that rely on a degree of orthodoxy and taken-for-grantedness that are most suggestive of inertial tendencies [16]. Mimetic isomorphism, seen as the tendency of firms to mimic or copy the actions of those organizations that are perceived to have high levels of legitimacy, was therefore identified as the institutional pressure most likely to contribute to continuance inertia [17].

3. Research Methodology

Using a qualitative study and by the aid of an initial theoretical framework was a guide to develop a grounded understanding of school level IS discontinuance. The motives of the framework will be the guide to sensitize factors that impede or facilitate school level (IS) discontinuance. Similar to the work of [18], develop a research model of general organizational level IS discontinuance intention as shown in Figure 2. A priori that organizational IS discontinuance were the systems performance shortcomings, organization initiative, and environmental change, as shown in Figure 2.

Data are needed to make a model specific to school level IS discontinuance intention. Data are collected via semi-structured interviews with school administrators and users of school information system (IS) (i.e. registrar’s front liners, cashiers, and accounting clerk) who were users and familiar with the school information system (IS). A second interview was conducted to test the reliability of the data. One on one meeting and group interview were used from their experience on using the old information system (IS) comparing to the new information system (IS) as to usability, user-friendliness, and promptness. The data are group into two themes, such as Facilitate Discontinuance and Impede discontinuance. Each word is assigned to each item. Assigned color coding of words to match the answers with system performance shortcomings, organization initiative, environmental change, system investment, and system embeddedness where most of the answer are vernacular and converted to English words as shown in Figure 3 which is represented different colors.

4. Results and Discussion

Analysis of interview transcripts was guided by grounded theory techniques. The data analysis process commenced with an impressionistic reading of transcripts text to develop some familiarity with recurring themes. Segregation words into two groups, the impede discontinuance and facilitate discontinuance. Using the color-coding to the same theme at the two groups, then initial color code assignments were also revised, abstracted, and consolidated during this process. Once a relatively concise set of had been established, the relationships between color codes were reviewed to ensure that they did not exhibit inconsistencies. Another interview was conducted to double-check the consistency of the result. Then finalize the color coding and finally, the result was used to model school level IS discontinuance intention as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 2. Organizational level of IS discontinuance intention.

Figure 3. Coding of words.

Figure 4. Sample of coding results.

After a thorough selection, the grouping of word with the same theme, and colour-coding to the similar factors a model was developed as shown in Figure 5. The result indicates that the SSCT school level IS discontinuance intention which are system shortcomings, organizational initiative, environmental change, system investment, and institutional pressures. Since the information system (IS) of the SSCT school was developed from the different university which has different processing procedures and culture, which result in system shortcoming. The president of the SSCT school changes the organizational structure, which leads to an information system (IS) discontinuance. Implementation of ISO standards and accreditation where the environmental change that triggers information system (IS) discontinuance of SSCT school. Numbers of students

Figure 5. School level information system (IS) discontinuance intention.

are increasing every year, and SSCT school offers an additional course that drives more income and willing to invest to a new information system (IS) that fits the culture which contribute to IS discontinuance of older system. SSCT school is aiming to be university and institutional pressures in the field of research and extension are rolled out to which also influence the IS discontinuance.

5. Conclusion

A model of school-level information system (IS) discontinuance intention of Surigao State College of Technology is formulated. Issues on system shortcomings, organizational initiative, environmental change, system investment, and institutional pressures are the parameter to be considered that it is time to implement or change the existing information system (IS). It will help school administrators in planning and improving school transactions and services.

Acknowledgements

The author thanks all the people who helped himself during the study.

Cite this paper: Ylaya, V. (2020) School Level Information System (IS) Discontinuance Intention: A Case Study on Information System (IS) Discontinuance of Surigao State College of Technology SSCT. Intelligent Information Management, 12, 121-130. doi: 10.4236/iim.2020.124009.
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