Over the past 40 years of reform and opening up (Kang & Zhang, 2006), China’s national economy has developed rapidly, the level of urbanization has continued to increase and rise, and urban and rural areas have also made rapid development and progress. At the same time, due to various reasons such as urbanization, more and more rural areas people are migrating to cities. The migration of population to the urban center has caused a series of problems such as waste of rural land resources, hindering the ecological environment governance and economic development of villages (Gao, 2019). Among them, the problem of rural land fragmentation is quite serious, so how to integrate and use rural resource fragments Land has become a major issue that needs to be resolved urgently. Different regions have different degrees of land fragmentation, population structure, geographical environment and culture have their own characteristics. Therefore, they should be flexibly managed in the process of remediation and promote the construction of beautiful and harmonious villages.
Fragmentation of village land has seriously affected the economic and natural ecological development of the entire village. Some villages have fragmented land that has even affected the original village style and form, resulting in environmental degradation and loss of farmers’ sense of belonging. Therefore, the management of fragmented land in villages has become an urgent problem to be solved. The state’s comprehensive land remediation project has integrated rural fragmented land to a certain extent, which is crucial to the current rural development. Taking the current development of Wenxing District as an example, we study the impact of comprehensive land remediation on rural construction and its application in village development in the future will increasingly show its important theoretical and practical significance in the field of village planning and management in China, providing a basis for thinking for managers and decision makers, and for other land, provide a reference for the future development of rural areas with severe fragmentation.
2. Comprehensive Land Consolidation of Xingfu Village
2.1. Comprehensive Land Consolidation
Comprehensive land consolidation is the comprehensive remediation of low-effi- ciency and unreasonably used fields, water, roads, forests, and villages in rural areas to improve land utilization and output rates, including agricultural land, construction land, and unused land Remediation is an effective measure to integrate rural fragmented land resources and realize continuous and large-scale rural arable land (Yang, Chen, & Chen, 2014). It has created favorable conditions for the development of modern large-scale agriculture.
2.2. Location and Overview of Xingfu Village
Xingfu Village is located in Wanchun Town, Wenjiang District, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province (Li & Xing, 2019). “Chengqing” Green Avenue runs through the entire village, about 6 kilometers away from Wenjiang City. Adjacent to Xinhe Village, Jinxing Village in the south and north of Wanchun Township in the east is Hongjia Village in Dongxiang, with an area of 46,477.68 acres of cultivated land, 2447.8 acres of cultivated land, 150 acres of wetland, and a total population of 2296 people (Deng & Xiao, 2017). Ten years ago, Xingfu Village in Wenjiang District was completely a traditional pure agricultural village, with a single industry, inconvenient transportation, and low-lying and humid. In 2008, Xingfu Village was identified as a pilot area for rural property rights system reform and comprehensive land consolidation. Since then, Xingfu Village has begun to explore its own path of happiness. The “Happy Garden” comprehensive land reclamation project includes the consolidation and reclamation of collective construction land in the village, such as the relocation of old houses and reclamation of homesteads; the construction of new communities, such as the construction of new houses for villagers and the construction of supporting facilities for community services; the construction of scenic spots, such as the happiness station, Pastoral Inn. At the same time, the comprehensive land consolidation of Xingfu Village is also tied to the land transfer, so it also includes the consolidation of the scale transfer of the collective land after the reclamation. Regarding the implementation and management of the entire project, the relevant departments have made many discussions and deliberations before implementing comprehensive land consolidation, and finally decided to formulate a plan suitable for the development of happy villages, the most important of which is public participation, all in the interests of the villagers. The villagers adopt a voluntary, spontaneous, independent, market-oriented, and professional work model. In 2015, Xingfu Village was awarded the title of China’s Most Beautiful Village and China’s Rural Tourism Demonstration Village.
2.3. Land Management
The village committee carried out propaganda, villager training, collected the wishes of the villagers, integrated the original fragmented collective land resources after the villager congress, and concentrated the original villagers next to the village committee, and then intensively All of the land is used for the development and construction of beautiful happy pastoral tourism scenic spots, and collective land and the market are bound together by land circulation. The collective land of happy pastoral tourism scenic spots is attracted investment in the market through collective land circulation. Ownership of the property is owned by the collective villagers, and the developer has 40 years of collective land management and use rights.
2.4. Implementation of the Project
The implementation of the project can be divided into eight stages: publicity and training, collection of farmers’ wishes, convening of villagers’ Congress, signing of cooperation agreement with foreign countries, approval of project approval, filing of special report for approval of results publicity, implementation of the project, supervision and acceptance of project implementation, Through the collective investment company, with the help of tangible rural land comprehensive transfer service platform, villagers give the collective land transfer business of happy village group to market-oriented investment company. At first, the relevant departments of Wanchun town promoted the project to the villagers by means of publicity and training, and the village committee of Xingfu village promoted the land consolidation project to the residents group of Xingfu village in the same way of project management. After the villagers’ meeting was held, the villagers’ meeting was held to determine the willingness of the villagers. In the past, most land consolidation projects adopted the project management mode of “government planning and villagers’ choice”. Now, the project of Xingfu village has innovated the project management mode of “three self and two modernizations” (spontaneous, voluntary, independent, market-oriented and professional). It has explored new local urbanization according to local conditions. All projects are initiated and participated by farmers, In the whole process of supporting project construction and the project implementation process of Xingfu village demolishing the old and building the new project, the industrial development and project follow-up management emphasize that the project should respect and fully reflect the wishes of the farmers. The old brick houses in the past have been transformed into single family buildings with the flavor of Western Sichuan folk houses after comprehensive land consolidation and management. Because of the participation of villagers in the whole planning process, design and even the construction of renovation, the villagers are very satisfied.
At present, Xingfu village has completed the second phase of the planning. The first phase is the residential land and residential area of the collective villagers next to the village committee. The original villagers will be resettled together. Each family has its own small yard, where the villagers grow vegetables and flowers. The second phase is happy rural eco-tourism scenic spot, happy village. With the rapid development of agricultural urban-rural integration, the industrial chain of collective rural areas has been constantly improved. The construction land saved through land consolidation has attracted social funds. It has built tourist service center, green trains on the fields of happy village (Refer to Figure 1), music performance hall, rural family hotel (Refer to Figure 2), theme holiday village and other leisure and cultural tourism and entertainment projects. Diversified business models and cooperative development mechanisms have created a rural music and Culture Festival and a happy rural music and culture tourism brand, Like a happy song of happy village “in this field of hope”, it has attracted a large number of tourists. In the past ten years, the happy village has changed from a pure agricultural village to a truly happy and beautiful harmonious new countryside with “prosperous agriculture, rich family, harmonious people and beautiful village” (Refer to Figure 3 & Figure 4). It is exploring a arduous and arduous development road of China”s new rural modernization.
3. The Impact of Comprehensive Land Consolidation on Xingfu Village
1) It promotes the efficient use of rural land resources. Through the comprehensive land consolidation project, Xingfu village reclaimed 142.1 mu of construction land, including 53.6 mu of resettlement land and 88.5 mu of usable land. At present, the index of 46.4 Mu has been transferred by the way of increasing
Figure 1. Green trains on the fields of happy village (photo source: internet).
Figure 2. Rural family hotel (photo source: internet).
Figure 3. Today’s happy village (photo source: internet).
Figure 4. Today’s happy village (photo source: internet).
or decreasing in different places, which improves the spatial allocation efficiency of rural land resources.
2) It meets the requirements and goals of rational allocation of rural community infrastructure to realize the integration of urban and rural areas. The construction and implementation of the new rural project of “happy countryside” will transfer all the farmers who live in scattered communities to those who live in new communities, which reduces the time and cost for the supporting construction of rural infrastructure for urban and rural governments and enterprises.
3) Extensive public participation facilitates the management of the local administration. The villagers are quite satisfied with the planning and construction after the comprehensive land consolidation, and coordinate with the local management department in their daily life.
4) It has improved the living environment and living conditions of local villagers, not only retaining more local population to work in the local area and attracting young people working in the city to return to the countryside to start business, but also attracting a large number of urban population to travel and rest. To a certain extent, it can evacuate the overcrowded urban population and increase the income of local villagers.
4. Problems in Comprehensive Land Consolidation
Generally speaking, the effect of comprehensive land consolidation is well, but there are some problems in different areas in different degrees, resulting in unbalanced rural development.
1) The first is the lack of comprehensiveness. Among the projects currently being implemented in various places, the project only involves the reconstruction of fields, water and roads, while the reconstruction of forests and villages involves less. So it is not comprehensive.
2) Second, rural planning is hysteresis. The comprehensive land consolidation project is used as a supplement to village planning. How to make a village improvement plan, what is the plan and how to solve the planning and preparation costs are urgent problems to be solved.
3) Third, the support funds of government departments are difficult to implement. The current main problem is how to implement comprehensive supporting funds in comprehensive improvement.
4) Fourth, insufficient coordination during project implementation. The implementation of land remediation projects involves the Ministry of Land and Resources, Party Building, Party Supervision, local township governments, villager groups and villagers. They coordinate well and support each other, and can use half of their energy to form a joint force. However, in the implementation of the project, they often do not pay attention to coordination when doing their own things, which leads to disagreement and insufficient coordination. Sometimes they even restrain each other.
5) Fifth, later management and protection are not enough. After the acceptance of certain projects is completed, they will be handed over to the local villagers, who will not manage or even give up maintenance. As a result, the land productivity has declined, and the role of land consolidation has not been fully exerted.
Through the comprehensive land consolidation project, Xingfu village in Wenjiang District integrates the original fragmented land of the village, improves the living environment and living conditions of the local villagers. It not only retains more local population to work locally and attracts young people working in the city to return to the countryside to start businesses, but also attracts a large number of urban population to travel and rest, which can evacuate the overcrowded to a certain extent urban population, continue to promote the comprehensive land consolidation of countryside, and strengthen the construction of beautiful villages, which not only increases the income of local villagers, but also increases the happiness of local residents’ lives. At the same time, it promotes the construction and development of harmonious and beautiful villages. The comprehensive land consolidation of Xingfu Village also provided references for the construction of other villages. As an important turning point in China’s rural development, there are still many deficiencies to be improved. How we should uphold the people-oriented concept and solve the current problems of rural development and management is a topic worthy of profound discussion.
This research was supported by Southwest Minzu University Innovation Project of Graduation Student (No. CX2020SZ34).
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