Back
 AS  Vol.11 No.7 , July 2020
Chronic Exposure to No-Effect Concentration of Diazinon Induced Histological Lesions in Organs of Clarias gariepinus
Abstract: In all parts of the world pesticides have been found in the aquatic ecosystem and scientific evidence has also shown that they can enter the food chain. Diazinon is an organophosphate pesticide, widely used in agriculture to control a wide variety of suckling and leaf eating insects and recently in fish culture to suppress some parasitic diseases; nevertheless, there is little study on its adverse effect on fish. In this study, seventy-two (72) apparently healthy catfish comprising adult and juvenile of both sexes were used to set up triplicate experimental groups of those exposed to culture water alone (control group), fish exposed to pre-determined no-effect concentration (0.405 ppm) of Diazinon (test group). The fish were exposed for 28 days and fish were sacrificed and organs harvested on days 21 and 28 to determine the effect of long-term exposure to diazinon on organ histology. Histological changes observed in diazinon-exposed catfish were hyperplasia and fusion of the gill epithelium, hyperplasia of mucoid producing cells and aggregation of melanin pigment in the skin. Histological lesions were also seen observed in other organs, including severe diffuse cellular swelling and fatty degeneration of the liver, interstitial congestion of the kidney, carbon deposit on the wall of the heart and multifocal haemorrhage. The water quality of the control was not significantly different from that of the test group throughout the experiment. The lesions detected in cells, tissue, or organs represent an integration of cumulative effects of physiological and biochemical stressors. The histological alterations observed in vital organ of fish show that exposure to “no-effect” concentration of diazinon induced structural damage in fish organs and are likely to affect the functionality of the organs. For example, the adverse effect on the gill might disrupt its feeding and oxygen uptake.
Cite this paper: Fagbohun, A. , Ola-Davies, O. , Emikpe, B. , Obagbemiro, O. and Adeyemo, O. (2020) Chronic Exposure to No-Effect Concentration of Diazinon Induced Histological Lesions in Organs of Clarias gariepinus. Agricultural Sciences, 11, 627-637. doi: 10.4236/as.2020.117040.
References

[1]   Ahirwar, M.K., Shammi, Q.J., Chalko, S.R. and Lone, G.N. (2012) Effect of Malathion on Physio-Biological Aspects of Notopterus notopterus (Pallas). Asian Journal of Biological and Life sciences, 1, 159-163.

[2]   Ayoola, S.O. and Ajani, E.K. (2007) Histopathological Effects of Cypermethrinon Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) African Journal of Livestock Extension, 5, 1-13.

[3]   Ayoola S.O (2008) Histopathological Effects of Glyphosate on Juvenile African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 4, 362-367.

[4]   Robert and Hutson (1998) Metabolic Pathways of Agrochemical Parts 2; Insecticides and Fungicides. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 1475 p.

[5]   Ladipo, M.K., Doherty, V.F. and Oyebadejo, S.A. (2010) Acute Toxicity, Behavioural Changes and Histopathological Effect of Paraquat Dichloride on Tissues of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). International Journal of Biology, 3, 67-74.
https://doi.org/10.5539/ijb.v3n2p67

[6]   FAO (2003) Ecosystem Issues. OAR/National under Sea Research Programme. G.Mc. Fall. Aquaculture Newsletter-No. 29.
http://www.fao.org/

[7]   Nelson, J.S. (2006) Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken.

[8]   Sampath, K., Velamnial, S., Kennedy, I.J. and James, R. (1993) Haematological Changes and Their Recovery in Oreochromis mossambicus as a Function of Exposure Period and Sub-Lethal Levels of Ekalus. Acta Hydrobiologica, 35, 73-83.

[9]   Cong, N.V., Phuong, N.T. and Bayley, M. (2009) Effects of Repeated Exposure of Diazinon on Cholinesterase Activity and Growth in Snakehead Fish (Channa striatus). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 72, 699-703.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2008.10.007

[10]   Dutta, H.M. and Meijer, H.J.M. (2003) Sublethal Effects of Diazinon on the Structure of the Testis of Bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus: A Microscopic Analysis. Environmental Pollution, 125, 355-360.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(03)00123-4

[11]   Aydin, R. and Köprücü, K. (2005) Acute Toxicity of Diazinon on the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Embryos and Larvae. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 82, 220-225.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2005.03.001

[12]   Lecoeur, S., Videmann, B. and Mazallon, M. (2006) Effect of Organophosphate Pesticide Diazinon on Expression and Activity of Intestinal P-Glycoprotein. Toxicology Letters, 161, 200-209.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2005.09.003

[13]   Uner, N., Oruç, E.Ö., Sevgiler, Y., Sahin, N., Durmaz, H. and Usta, D. (2006) Effects of Diazinon on Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in the Brain of Oreochromis niloticus. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 21, 241-245.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2005.08.007

[14]   Girón-Pérez, M.I., Santerre, A., Gonzalez-Jaime, F., Casas-Solis, J., Hernández Coronado, M., Peregrina-Sandoval, J., Takemura, A. and Zaitseva, G. (2007) Immunotoxicity and Hepatic Function Evaluation in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Exposed to Diazinon. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 23, 760-769.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2007.02.004

[15]   Adedeji, O.B., Adedeji, A.O., Adeyemo, O.K. and Agbede, S.A. (2008) Acute Toxicity of Diazinon to the African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). African Journal of Biotechnology, 7, 651-654.

[16]   Bakhshwan, S., Hamed, H., Marzouk, M. and Hanna, M. (2009) Some Investigations on the Clinical and Biochemical Alterations Associated with Dizinon Toxicity in Clarias gariepinus. Egyptian. Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, 13, 173-197.
https://doi.org/10.21608/ejabf.2009.2039

[17]   Inyang, I.R., Daka, E.R. and Ogamba, E.N. (2010) Effects of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Diazinon on Total Protein and Transaminase Activities in Clarias gariepinus. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 2, 390-395.

[18]   Soyingbe, A.A., Ogunyanwo, O.O., Hammed, T.B. and Adesope, A.O. (2012) Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Diazinon on Total Protein in Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus). IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 1, 22-25.
https://doi.org/10.9790/2402-0112225

[19]   Adebayo, I.A., Akin-Obasola, B.J. and Bajulaye, O.M. (2013) Toxicological Effect of Diazinon on African Catfish (Clarias anguillaris). IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 3, 64-71.
https://doi.org/10.9790/2402-0316471

[20]   Ola-Davies, O.E., Fagbohun, A.F., Emikpe, B.O. and Adeyemo, O.K. (2015) Diazinon-Induced Clastogenity and Pathological Changes in Ovaries and Testes of Clarias gariepinus. Agricultural Science, 6, 146-151.
https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2015.61012

[21]   Al-Otaibia, A.M., Al-Balawia, H.F.A., Ahmada, Z. and Sulimana. E.M. (2018) Toxicity Bioassay and Sub-Lethal Effects of Diazinon on Blood Profile and Histology of Liver, Gills and Kidney of Catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 79.
https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.185408

[22]   Bancroft, J.D., Stevens, A. and Turner, D.R. (1996) Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 4th Edition, Churchill Livingstone, New York.

[23]   Belpaema, K., Delbeke, K., Zhu, L., Kirsch-Volders, M. (1996) Cytogenic Studies of PCB77 on Brown Trout (Salmo trutta fario) Using the Micronucleus Test and the Alkaline Comet Assay. Mutagenesis, 11, 485-492.
https://doi.org/10.1093/mutage/11.5.485

[24]   Braunbeck, T., Boettcher, M., Hollert, H., Kosmehi, T., Lammer, E., Leist, E., Rudolf, M. and Seitz, N. (2005) Towards an Alternative for the Acute Fish LC (50) Test in Chemical Assessment: The Fish Embryo Toxicity Test Goes Multi-Species—An Update. Alternatives to Animal Experimentation, 22, 87-102.

[25]   Muller, W.E.G., Ed. (1994) Use of Aquatic Invertebrates as Tools for Monitoring of Environmental Hazards. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 201-211.

[26]   Spitsbergen, J.M. and Kent, M.L. (2003) The State of the Art of the Zebrafish Model for Toxicology and Toxicologic Pathology Research—Advantages and Current Limitations. Toxicologic Pathology, 31, 62-87.
https://doi.org/10.1080/01926230390174959

[27]   Osman, A.G.M., Wuertz, S., Mekkawy, I.A., Exner, H.J. and Kirschbaum, F. (2007) Lead Induced Malformations in Embryos of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Environmental Toxicology, 22, 375-389.
https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20272

[28]   Bucke, D., Vethaak, D., Lang, T. and Mellergaard, S. (1996) Common Diseases and Parasites of Fish in the North Atlantic: Training Guide for Identification. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Techniques in Marine Environmental Sciences, Copenhagen.

[29]   Poleksic, V. and Mitrovic-Tutundzic. V. (1994) Fish Gills as a Monitor of Sublethal and Chronic Effects of Pollution. In: Müller, R. and Lloyd, R., Eds., Sublethal and Chronic Effects of Pollutants on Freshwater Fish, Fishing News Books, Oxford, 339-352.

[30]   Bucher, F. and Hofer, R. (1990) Effect of Domestic Wastewater on Serum Enzyme Activities of Brown Trout (Salmo truta). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 97, 381-385.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0742-8413(90)90158-6

[31]   ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) (1997) Report of Special Meeting on the Use of Liver Pathology of Flatfish For Monitoring Biological Effects of Contaminants. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen.

[32]   Oliveira Ribeiro, C.A., Pelletier, E., Pfeiffer, W.C. and Rouleau, C. (2000) Comparative Uptake, Bioaccumulation, and Gill Damages of Inorganic Mercury in Tropical and Nordic Freshwater Fish. Environmental Research, 83, 286-292.
https://doi.org/10.1006/enrs.2000.4056

[33]   Cerqueira, C.C.C. and Fernandes. M.N. (2002) Gill Tissue Recovery after Cooper Exposure and Blood Parameter Responses in the Tropical Fish Prochilodus scrofa. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 52, 83-91.
https://doi.org/10.1006/eesa.2002.2164

[34]   Martinez, C.B.R., Nagae, M.Y., Zaia, C.T.B.V. and Zaia, D.A.M. (2004) Morphological and Physiological Acute Effects of Lead in the Neotropical Fish Prochilodus lineatus. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 64, 797-807.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842004000500009

[35]   Rosety-RodríGuez, M., Ordoñez, F.J., Rosety, M., Rosety, J.M., Ribelles, A. and Carrasco, C. (2002) Morpho-Histochemical Changes in the Gills of Turbot, Scophthalmus maximus L., Induced by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 51, 223-228.
https://doi.org/10.1006/eesa.2001.2148

[36]   Fanta, E., Rios, F.S., Romão, S., Vianna, A.C.C. and Freiberger, S. (2003) Histopathology of the Fish Corydoras paleatus Contaminated with Sublethal Levels of Organophosphorus in Water and Food. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 54, 119-130.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-6513(02)00044-1

[37]   Ezemonye, L. and Ogbomida, T.E. (2010) Histopathological Effects of Gammalin 20 on African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Applied Environmental and Soil Science, 2010, Article ID: 138019.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/138019

[38]   Ayoola, S.O. and Ajani, E.K. (2008) Histopathological Effects of Cypermethrin on Juvenile African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). World Journal of Biological Research, 1, 1-14.

[39]   Ikele, C.B., Mgbenka, B.O. and Oluah, N.S. (2011) Histopathological Effects of Diethyl Phthalate on Clarias gariepinus Juveniles. Animal Research International, 8, 1431-1438.

[40]   Van Der Oost, R., Beber, J. and Vermeulen, N.P.E. (2003) Fish Bioaccumulation and Biomarkers in Environmental Risk Assessment: A Review. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 13, 57-149.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1382-6689(02)00126-6

[41]   Rahman, M.Z., Hossain, Z., Mellah, M.F.R. and Ahmed, G.U. (2002) Effect of Diazinon 60EC on Anabus testudinus, Channa punctatus and Barbades gomonotus. Naga. The ICLARM Quarterly, 25, 8-11.

[42]   Biagianti-Risbourg, S. and Bastide, J. (1995) Hepatic Perturbation Induced by an Herbicide (Atrazine) in Juvenile Grey Mullet Liza ramada (Mugilidae, Teleotei): An Ultrastructural Study. Aquatic Toxicology, 31, 217-229.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-445X(94)00065-X

[43]   Velmurugan, B., Selvanayagam, M., Cengiz, E.I. and Unlu, E. (2007) The Effect of Fenvalerate on Different Tissues of Freshwater Fish Cirrhinus mrigala. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, 42, 157-163.
https://doi.org/10.1080/03601230601123292

 
 
Top