AS  Vol.11 No.7 , July 2020
Comparative Efficacy of Common Broad Leaf Herbicides against an Invasive Weed: Parthenium hysterophorus L.
Abstract: Parthenium hysterophorus L. (parthenium weed) is an annual weed that grows rapidly in disturbed land. It is considered as one of the most hazardous weeds in Pakistan as it poses serious health problems to livestock as well as severe allergenic reactions in humans. It has invaded the Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces and also been spreading in other parts of the country where it poses a risk for the grazing lands, roadsides, forests, wet lands, waste lands and of all types of cropped and non-cropped areas in Pakistan. The present studies were carried out to determine the impact of four locally available broad leaf herbicides viz; Stomp 455 CS (pendimethalin), Buctril Super 60 EC (bromoxynil + MCPA), Vantage 48 SL (glyphosate) and Logran Extra 750 WG (triasulfuron + terbutryn) (@ recommended and ½ of recommended dose) against P. hysterophorus grown in pots at research field of CABI CWA, Rawalpindi. All herbicides were applied at three growth stages (rosette, bolted and flowering). The observations for the mortality of P. hysterophorus were made 2 and 4 weeks after spray. The glyphosate was the most effective and reported 100% mortality of P. hysterophorus plants at flowering stage followed by bromoxynil + MCPA (89%), pendimethalin (80%) and triasulfuron + terbutryn (61%) at recommended dose after 4 weeks of spray. All tested herbicides achieved a mortality between 38% - 86% at rosette while 54% - 96% mortality at bolted stage after 4 weeks. Initially, 2 weeks after spray at flowering stage glyphosate caused 53% wilting followed by 49% (bromoxynil + MCPA), 33% (pendimethalin) and 9% (triasulfuron + terbutryn) at their recommended doses. The results indicated that P. hysterophorus is the most susceptible to glyphosate and bromoxynil + MCPA, both these herbicides are very promising for the wilting and management of parthenium weed.
Cite this paper: Ali, K. , Rehman, A. , Khan, K. and Weyl, P. (2020) Comparative Efficacy of Common Broad Leaf Herbicides against an Invasive Weed: Parthenium hysterophorus L.. Agricultural Sciences, 11, 617-626. doi: 10.4236/as.2020.117039.

[1]   Vitousek, P.M. (1990) Biological Invasions and Ecosystem Process—Towards an Integration of Population Biology and Ecosystem Studies. Oikos, 57, 7-13.

[2]   Mooney, H.A. and Hobbs, R.J. (2000) Invasive Species in a Changing World. Island Press, Washington DC.

[3]   Walker, B.H. and Steffen, W.L. (1999) Interactive and Integrative Effects of Global Change on Terrestrial Ecosystems. In: Walker, B., Steffen, W., Candell, J. and Ingram, J., Eds., The Terrestrial Biosphere and Global Change. Implications for Natural and Managed Ecosystems, Synthesis Volume, International Geosphere-Biosphere Program Book Series 4, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 329-375.

[4]   Picman, J. and Picman, A.K. (1984) Autotoxicity in Parthenium hysterophorus and Its Possible Role in Control of Germination. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 12, 287-292.

[5]   Navie, S.C., McFadyen, R.E., Panetta, F.D. and Adkins, S.W. (1996) The Biology of Australian Weeds Parthenium hysterophorus L. Plant Protection Quarterly, 11, 76-88.

[6]   Holm, L.J.D., Holm, E., Pancho, J.V. and Herberger, J.P. (1997) World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

[7]   Jayaramaiah, R., Balenahalii, N., Ramesh, B., Krishnaprasad, T., Sunil, K.R., Pramodh, G., Ramkumar, C. and Sheshadri, T. (2017) Harmful Effects of Parthenium hysterophorus and Management through Different Approaches—A Review. Annals of Plant Sciences, 6, 1614-1621.

[8]   Patel, S. (2011) Harmful and Beneficial Aspects of Parthenium hysterophorus: An Update. Biotechnology, 1, 1-9.

[9]   Joshi, S. (1991) Interference Effect of Cassia uniflora Mill. on Parthenium hysterophorus L. Plant Soil, 132, 213-218.

[10]   Adkins, S.W. and Navie, S.C. (2006) Parthenium Weed: A Potential Major Weed for Agro Ecosystems in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 12, 19-36.

[11]   Javaid A. and Adrees, H. (2009) Parthenium Management by Cultural Filtrates of Phytopathogenic Fungi. Natural Product Research, 23, 1541-1551.

[12]   Rao, R.S. (1956) Parthenium, a New Record for India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 54, 218-220.

[13]   Shabbir, A. (2006) Parthenium Weed an Emerging Threat to Crops. Parthenium News, No. 1, University of the Punjab, Lahore.

[14]   Bajwa, A.A., Farooq, M., Nawaz, A., Yadav, L., Chauhan, B.S. and Adkins, S. (2019) Impact on Invasive Plant Species on the Livelihoods of Farming Households: Evidence from Parthenium hysterophorus Invasion in Rural Punjab, Pakistan. Biological Invasions, 21, 3285-3304.

[15]   Bajwa, A.A., Nawaz, A., Farooq, M. and Chauhan, B.S. (2020) Parthenium Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus) Competition with Grain Sorghum under Arid Conditions. Experimental Agriculture, 56, 387-396.

[16]   Nadeem, M., Rani, Z., Aman, S., Kazmi, A.H. and Shabbir, A. (2005) Parthenium Weed: A Growing Concern in Pakistan. Journal of Pakistan Association of Dermatologist, 15, 4-8.

[17]   Hassan, G. and Marwat, K.B. (2010) Integrated Weed Management in Agricultural Crops. National Workshop on Technologies for Sustainable Agriculture, Faisalabad, 24-26 September 2001, 27-34.

[18]   Muniappa, T.V., Ramchandra, P.T.V. and Krishnamurthy, K. (1980) Comparative Efficacy and Economics of Mechanical and Chemical Method of Control of Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 12, 137-144.

[19]   Lonkar, A., Mitchell, J.C. and Calman, C.D. (1974) Contact Dermatitis from Parthenium hysterophorus. Transactions of the St. John’s Hospital Dermatological Society, 60, 43-53.

[20]   Chippendale, J.F. and Panetta, F.D. (1994) The Cost of Parthenium Weed to the Queensland Cattle Industry. Plant Protection, 9, 73-76.

[21]   Dhawan, S.R. and Dhawan, P. (1996) Regeneration in Parthenium hysterophorus L. World Weeds, 3, 181-182.

[22]   Haseler, W.H. (1976) Parthenium hysterophorus L. in Australia. PANS, 22, 515-517.

[23]   Javaid, A., Anjum, T. and Bajwa, R. (2006) Chemical Control of Parthenium hysterophorus. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 3, 619-622.

[24]   Shabbir, A. (2014) Chemical Control of Parthenium hysterophorus L. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 20, 1-10.

[25]   Njoroge J.M. (1991) Tolerance of Bidens pilosa L. and Parthenium hysterophorus L. to Paraquat (Gramoxone) in Kenya. Kenya Coffee, 56, 999-1001.

[26]   Krishna, N.R., Bryson, C.T. and Burke, I.C. (2007) Ragweed Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus) Control with Pre-Emergence and Post-Emergence Herbicides. Weed Technology, 21, 982-986.

[27]   Javaid, A. (2007) Efficacy of Some Common Herbicides against Parthenium Weed. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 13, 93-98.

[28]   Hussain, N., Khan, M.B., Tariq, M. and Hanif, S. (2003) Spectrum of Activity of Different Herbicides on Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 5, 166-168.

[29]   Balyan, R.S., Yadav, A. and Malik, R.K. (1998) Efficacy of Herbicides and Carrier Volumes on the Carrot Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Adjuvants for Agrochemicals. Challenges and Opportunities, Vol. 1, 182-186.

[30]   Tyson, R.V. and Bryan, H.H. (1987) Screening Pre and Post Emergence Herbicides for Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) Control. Proceedings Southern Weed Science Society, Vol. 40, 131-136.

[31]   Rosales-Robles, E., Sanchez-de-la-Cruz, R. Salinas-Garcia, J. and Pecina-Quintero, V. (2005) Broadleaf Weed Management in Grain Sorghum with Reduced Rates of Post Emergence Herbicides. Weed Technology, 19, 385-390.

[32]   Singh, A.Y., Balyan, R.S., Malik, R.K. and Singh, M. (2004) Control of Ragweed Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus) and Associated Weeds. Weed Technology, 18, 658-664.

[33]   Walia, U.S., Brar, L.S., Jand, S. and Kler, D.S. (2002) Control of Sorghum halepense and Parthenium hysterophorus with Different Brands of Glyphosate. Environmental Ecology, 20, 540-543.