The evolution of the Earth system is dictated mostly by tectonic and volcanic processes that occur throughout the geological history. These processes take place through events that reshape the Earth lithosphere both at shallow and deep levels and facilitate the occurrence of subsequent tectonic and volcanic events such as ocean opening and closing, periods and regions with extensive seismicity, erosion and sedimentation variations and, in a global perspective, drive the climatic changes. The linkage between the tectonic events and their causative tectonic processes is not straightforward. This linkage usually relies on structural relations, and temporal association, between processes that have spatial affinity. However, to date, an inclusive mechanism linking such processes on a global scale has not been suggested.
The study presented here proposes that the most powerful force in plate tectonics, slab pull, is capable of triggering a chain of tectono-magmatic events that are advanced around the world. The paper discusses the major role of subduction in plate tectonics and asks what happens when subduction (and hence slab pull) is interrupted. To illustrate the chain reaction effect, we first focus on the interruption in the subduction of the largest plate on earth, the pacific plate. We then show how the chocking of the ~3000 km long Melanesian subduction Arc at the southern Pacific Ocean six million years ago, by the arrival of the Ontong Java Plateau, provoked an abrupt global stress change that activated numerous short-lived events. Our new concept links together numerous tectonic and volcanic events with global distribution to a single cause—the disruption of subduction—is presented as a “ripple tectonics” concept in order to inspire a better understanding of the causality between tectonic and volcanic events worldwide and throughout the Earth’s geologic history. We hope that the new concept will inspire innovative GPS-based studies that will seek the connectivity between tectonic, seismic, and volcanic events worldwide.
2. Ontong Java Plateau and the Melanesian Arc
Subduction is one of the essential processes in plate tectonics. Slab pull is widely regarded as one of the most powerful forces on Earth . The subduction is closely linked with mantle convection that changes over time scales of >100 Myr  . This long-lasting process is accompanied by seismicity, volcanism, and modifications in the stress distribution in the subducting and overriding plates and their surrounding margins. The main question is what happens when the subduction is stalled and even stops. Bercovici et al.  show that when an oceanic plateau approaches a subduction zone it causes slab necking, which leads to its possible tear along with abrupt continental rebound and rapid changes in plate motion. The larger the plateau/continental crust approaching, the faster and larger is the change and the greater is the global impact.
One of the most interesting case studies to examine this effect is the long-lasting ~120 Myr Pacific-Australian convergence. This convergence along the 4000 km long Melanesian Arc was choked by the arrival of the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) during the Miocene-Pliocene transition at ~6 Ma (Figure 1). The OJP is the world’s largest oceanic plateau . Its seafloor expression extends across 2 × 106 km2, ~2.5 km above the surrounding ocean floor, and its entire 4.27 × 106 km2 extent covers ~0.8% of the Earth surface   . The plateau consists of an exceptionally thick crust associated with volcanism, that drifts along with the Pacific Plate towards the south-west  . The arrival of the OJP at the Melanesian Arc severely choked the smooth subduction process . The subduction transformed into a collision of the plateau, while the Pacific slab was torn from underneath. This short-timed disruption occurred during the
Figure 1. Location of the sites mentioned in the text (numbers surrounding the figure specify geographic coordinates). OJP: Ontong Java Plateau; MA: Melanesian Arc. Numbered locations: 1: San Andreas fault, 2: Alpine fault, 3: Aleutian Arc, 4: Pitman Fracture Zone, 5: Juan Fernandez microplate, 6: Easter microplate, 7: East Pacific Rise, 8: Menard Fracture Zone, 9: Emerald Fracture Zone, 10: Canterbury Basin, 11: Hjort Trench, 12: South Tasman Sea, 13: Macquarie Plate, 14: West Scotia Sea, 15: Magallanes-Fagnano fault, 16: Andean mountains, 17: Argentinian and Malvinas basins, 18: Southern Atlantic spreading, 19: Central Atlantic spreading, 20: North Atlantic spreading, 21: Arctic Ocean, 22: Central North Sea, 23: Labrador Sea, 24: Grand Banks, 25: Western Greenland, 26: Nova Scotia continental shelf, 27: United States Atlantic margin, 28: Alpine arc, 29: Mid: Hungarian line, 30: South Caspian Sea, 31: Cyprus, 32: Dead Sea Fault, 33: Tibetan Plateau, 34: Tengchong volcanic field, 35: Indian Ocean Triple Junction, 36: Bowie seamount, 37: Hawaii hotspot, 38: Macdonald seamount, 39: Tahiti volcano, 40: Caroline chain, 41: Galapagos hotspot, 42: Cook islands, 43: Austral islands, 44: Marquesas islands, 45: Mayotte and Comores Islands, 46: Somali Basin, 47: Bowland and Rosencrans, 48: Tasmantid Seamounts, 49: Annobon Island, 50: Cameroon and Guinea, 51: Biu Plateau and Cameroon Volcanic line, 52: Namjagbarwa and Yuli, 53: Calatrava, 54: Sao Vicente, 56: Alboran Sea.
Miocene-Pliocene transition, at ~6 Myr. It rotated the direction of the Pacific plate motion by 5˚ - 15˚ clockwise relative to hotspots  , and triggered several short-lived changes across the Pacific plate and its margins. These included a shift in volcanism of the five long-lived, plume-fed hotspots; triggering of “crack spots” that developed as extensional volcanism at preexisting zones of weakness reactivated by Pacific plate stresses transition; tectonic modifications along the Pacific-North American, Pacific-Antarctic and Pacific-Australian plate boundaries such as trench migration and back-arc rifting, transpression at the San Andreas (California) and Alpine (New Zealand) strike-slip faults and Aleutian Arc . While some of these modifications were short-lived, others initiated a cascade of events that persisted through time.
Our hypothesis suggests that the short-lived choking of the Melanesian Arc extended beyond the Pacific plate. It triggered a series of synchronous tectonics events worldwide, which occurred mainly, yet not exclusively, along plate boundaries, during the Miocene-Pliocene transition. Each of these events was on the verge of stress-threshold when the rapid catalyst enabled it to cross-over and yield. Once occurred, these events may have resulted in additional processes such as initiation or cessation of volcanism, basin closure, extensive erosion, and sedimentation. The following paragraphs describe the major events that co-occurred worldwide around 6 Ma. Some of them were gathered in the comprehensive review by Leroux et al. . The locations of the sites discussed are shown in Figure 1.
3. Ripple Tectonics
In the Pacific region, the Pacific-Antarctic relative motion was disrupted at the end of Chron C3a (6.033 Ma ) as recorded by the short-lived 8˚ clockwise rotation of the abyssal hill fabric along the Pitman Fracture Zone  ; formation of the Juan Fernandez and Easter microplates along the East Pacific Rise (5.25 Ma  ); trend change in the lineation azimuths of the Menard Fracture Zone, attesting to an increase in the Pacific-Antarctic half-spreading rate , and initiation of a propagating ridge system along the Emerald Fracture Zone ; and an increase in convergence at the Alpine fault in New Zealand between 8 - 6 Myr, that was accompanied by an increased subsidence of the Canterbury Basin offshore and reversal in its decreasing sedimentation rate . Meanwhile, the subduction across the Hjort Trench, and the ocean crust deformation of the South Tasman Sea are associated with the initiation of the Macquarie Plate as an independent rigid plate around 6 Ma . Further north, a major change in the Philippine plate motion occurred during the Miocene-Pliocene transition  .
Meanwhile, in the southeast, the opening of the West Scotia Sea ceased at 6 Ma . At the same time (~6 Ma) strike-slip motion along the Magallanes-Fagnano fault system took over the displacement and acted as the western segment of the left-lateral South America-Scotia plate boundary  . A phase of drastic increase in the uplift of the southern Andean mountains was recorded at ~6 Ma .
In the Atlantic, sedimentation tripled over the Argentinian and Malvinas basins of the southern Atlantic during the Miocene-Pliocene transition   and is associated with a decrease in the south Atlantic spreading rate . The drastic decrease around 6 Ma was reported across the southern Atlantic  , the central Atlantic offshore Iberia , and the northern Atlantic  . A simultaneous and rapid increase in subsidence occurred across the margins of the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans, in the Central North Sea, the Labrador Sea and Grand Banks, offshore western Greenland, the Nova Scotia continental shelf and the United States Atlantic margin. Cloetingh et al.  suggest that a regional stress shift causes the simultaneous events.
Further east, the Africa-Eurasia-Anatolia convergence caused compression across the Alpine arc periphery ; tectonic inversion along the Mid-Hungarian line  ; subsidence of the south Caspian Sea ; and the uplift and emergence of Cyprus above the Mediterranean Sea Level since the late Miocene  . This was accompanied by eastward migration of the Sinai-Arabia rotation pole and an increase in vertical subsidence along the Dead Sea Fault plate boundary . These modifications occurred along with a slight counterclockwise rotation in the absolute motion of the African plate around 6 Ma . This change was accompanied by a decrease in the spreading rate between Africa and its surrounding plates—South and North America as well as India .
North of the Indian plate, a rapid exhumation of the southern Tibetan Plateau ~6 - 5 Ma was accompanied by the formation of normal faulting that controlled volcanic eruptions of the Tengchong volcanic field . A major inversion and peak metamorphic recrystallization were recorded across the Himalayan Main Central Thrust . Meanwhile, at the southern margin of the plate, a rapid increase in spreading velocity was recorded around the Indian Ocean Triple Junction with the Antarctic plate around 5 Ma  .
Evidence for modifications in volcanism was recorded worldwide  . Five long-lived hotspot tracks sharply changed their trajectory around approximately at 5 Ma (Bowie Seamount, Hawaii, Macdonald seamount, Tahiti, Caroline Chain ). In addition, hotspots rejuvenated in the Galapagos, Cook, Austral and Marquesas islands at 5.9 Ma    ; Mayotte and Comores Islands, and in the Somali Basin, East Africa at 5.4 Ma; Bowland and Rosencrans, Central Panama at ~5 Ma ; Tasmantid Seamounts at ~5 Ma; Annobon Island, Cameroon and Guinea ; Biu Plateau and Cameroon Volcanic line . In addition, rare carbonatite rocks emerged between 6 - 5 Ma in Namjagbarwa and Yuli (China), Calatrava (Spain), and Sao Vicente (Cape Verde ). Their formation is associated with thermal mantle instabilities  and therefore their onset at ~6 Ma indicates a sharp geodynamic transition .
One of the most pronounced examples that we ascribe to the ripple tectonic effect is the closure and subsequent opening of the Mediterranean Sea. The tectonic closure of the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean occurred after a long and progressive decline of the roll-back processes in the Gibraltar Arc subduction system, and the opening of the Alboran Sea   , while the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence vector changed from a N-S direction to a NW-SE one . It was only at 5.97 Ma that the gateway emerged above sea level, closed the Mediterranean, and initiated the Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.97 - 5.33 Ma     —one of the most dramatic ecological events in Earth history . The isolation and consequent drop of hundreds of meters in the Mediterranean Sea water level    induced massive erosion of the surrounding landmass and reorganization of the marine landscape    . The short-lived isolation ended abruptly at 5.33 Ma with the catastrophic Zanclean flooding that incorporated tectonic processes at the Gibraltar area, with the sea-level change, faulting, and gravity-induced slumping . The flooding transgressed inland onto the Mediterranean margins. The abrupt end of the crisis at 5.33 Ma marks the ending of the Messinian age and the beginning of the Zanclean, which defines the Miocene-Pliocene transition  - .
At the easternmost end of the Mediterranean, the flood progressed into the shallow and elongated Dead Sea Fault valley. Desiccation of these waters yielded a significant thickness of evaporites , that in later stages enhances the vertical subsidence of the fault valley , facilitated the formation of lakes and formed hospitable environments for waves of hominin dispersal out of Africa .
Amongst the tectono-magmatic events linked here with the Melanesian Arc choking, the timing of the Messinian Salinity Crisis is the most accurate. We suggest that the initiation of the Messinian Salinity Crisis at 5.97 Ma marks the timing of Melanesian Arc choking and the initiation of the ripple tectonic mechanism that influenced the Gibraltar area. Hence, the collision of the OJP with the Melanesian arc might have caused the Miocene-Pliocene transition.
Although the ongoing tectonic and volcanic activity of the Earth is expected to produce repetitive events, their simultaneous occurrence around 6 Ma could be more than a coincidence. In many localities, worldwide long-lasting stress buildup reached very close to yielding. The chocking of the Melanesian Arc by the arrival of the OJP and the necking and slab tear from underneath induced an abrupt global stress change that activated the short-lived events in these localities. For this reason, these events initiated almost synchronously. The new “ripple tectonics” concept suggested here provides a broad tectonic context for relating seemingly unrelated global events that occurred during other periods. By analyzing the trigger and following events, we can better understand the behavior of the Earth as an intimately interconnected system. The new concept enables GPS-based studies conducted today to seek connectivity between seemingly unrelated tectonic, seismic, and volcanic events worldwide.
 Forsyth, D. and Uyeda, S. (1975) On the Relative Importance of the Driving Forces of Plate Motion. Geophysical Journal International, 43, 163-200.
 Bunge, H.-P., Richards, M.A., Lithgow-Bertelloni, C., Baumgardner, J.R., Grand, S.P. and Romanowicz, B.A. (1998) Time Scales and Heterogeneous Structure in Geodynamic Earth Models. Science, 280, 91-95.
 Bercovici, D., Schubert, G. and Ricard, Y. (2015) Abrupt Tectonics and Rapid Slab Detachment with Grain Damage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112, 1287-1291.
 Neal, C.R., Mahoney, J.J., Kroenke, L.W., Duncan, R.A. and Petterson, M.G. (1997) The Ontong Java Plateau. Geophysical Monograph-American Geophysical Union, 100, 183-216.
 Mahoney, J.J. and Coffin, M.F. (1997) Large Igneous Provinces: Continental, Oceanic, and Planetary Flood Volcanism, Volume 100. American Geophysical Union, Washington DC.
 Fitton, J.G., Mahoney, J.J., Wallace, P.J. and Saunders, A.D. (2004) Origin and Evolution of the Ontong Java Plateau: Introduction. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 229, 1-8.
 Mann, P. and Taira, A. (2004) Global Tectonic Significance of the Solomon Islands and Ontong Java Plateau Convergent Zone. Tectonophysics, 389, 137-190.
 Austermann, J., Ben-Avraham, Z., Bird, P., Heidbach, O., Schubert, G. and Stock, J.M. (2011) Quantifying the Forces Needed for the Rapid Change of Pacific Plate Motion at 6 Ma. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 307, 289-297.
 Wessel, P. and Kroenke, L.W. (2000) Ontong Java Plateau and Late Neogene Changes in Pacific Plate Motion. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 105, 28255-28277.
 Briais, A., Aslanian, D., Géli, L. and Ondréas, H. (2002) Analysis of Propagators along the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge: Evidence for Triggering by Kinematic Changes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 199, 415-428.
 Cande, S.C., Raymond, C.A., Stock, J. and Haxby, W.F. (1995) Geophysics of the Pitman Fracture Zone and Pacific-Antarctic Plate Motions during the Cenozoic. Science, 270, 947-953.
 Hilgen, F.J., Lourens, L.J., Van Dam, J.A., Beu, A.G., Boyes, A.F., Cooper, R.A., Krijgsman, W., Ogg, J.G., Piller, W.E. and Wilson, D.S. (2012) The Neogene Period. In: Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.G., Schmitz, M.D. and Ogg, G.M., Eds., The Geologic Time Scale, Elsevier, Boston, Chap. 29, 923-978.
 Tebbens, S. and Cande, S. (1997) Southeast Pacific Tectonic Evolution from Early Oligocene to Present. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 102, 12061-12084.
 Croon, M.B., Cande, S.C. and Stock, J.M. (2008) Revised Pacific-Antarctic Plate Motions and Geophysics of the Menard Fracture Zone. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 9, Q07001.
 Lodolo, E., Coren, F. and Ben-Avraham, Z. (2013) How Do Long-Offset Oceanic Transforms Adapt to Plate Motion Changes? The Example of the Western Pacific-Antarctic Plate Boundary. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 118, 1195-1202.
 Lu, H., Fulthorpe, C.S., Mann, P. and Kominz, M.A. (2005) Miocene-Recent Tectonic and Climatic Controls on Sediment Supply and Sequence Stratigraphy: Canterbury Basin, New Zealand. Basin Research, 17, 311-328.
 Cande, S.C. and Stock, J.M. (2004) Pacific-Antarctic-Australia Motion and the Formation of the Macquarie Plate. Geophysical Journal International, 157, 399-414.
 Sarewitz, D.R. and Karig, D.E. (1986) Geologic Evolution of Western Mindoro Island and the Mindoro Suture Zone, Philippines. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 1, 117-144.
 Eagles, G., Livermore, R.A., Fairhead, J.D. and Morris, P. (2005) Tectonic Evolution of the West Scotia Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 110, B02401.
 Lodolo, E., Menichetti, M., Bartole, R., Ben-Avraham, Z., Tassone, A. and Lippai, H. (2003) Magallanes-Fagnano Continental Transform Fault (Tierra del Fuego, Southernmost South America). Tectonics, 22, 1076-1103.
 Tassone, A., Yagupsky, D., Lodolo, E., Menichetti, M. and Lippai, H. (2005) Seismic Study of the Southernmost Andes in the SW Atlantic Ocean: Main Wrench Faults and Associated Basin. 6th International Symposium on Andean Geodynamics, Barcelona, 722-725.
 Ghiglione, M.C., Sue, C., Ramos, M.E., Tobal, J.E. and Gallardo, R.E. (2016) The Relation between Neogene Denudation of the Southernmost Andes and Sedimentation in the Offshore Argentine and Malvinas Basins During the Opening of the Drake Passage. In: Ghiglione, C., Ed., Geodynamic Evolution of the Southernmost Andes, Springer, Berlin, 109-135.
 Baristeas, N., Anka, Z., di Primio, R., Rodriguez, J., Marchal, D. and Dominguez, F. (2013) New Insights into the Tectono-Stratigraphic Evolution of the Malvinas Basin, Offshore of the Southernmost Argentinean Continental Margin. Tectonophysics, 604, 280-295.
 Ghiglione, M.C., Likerman, J., Giambiagi, L.B., Aguirre-Urreta, B. and Suarez, F. (2014) Geodynamic Context for the Deposition of Coarse-Grained Deep-Water Axial Channel Systems in the Patagonian Andes. Basin Research, 26, 726-745.
 Colli, L., Stotz, I., Bunge, H.P., Smethurst, M., Clark, S., Iaffaldano, G., Tassara, A., Guillocheau, F. and Bianchi, M.C. (2014) Rapid South Atlantic Spreading Changes and Coeval Vertical Motion in Surrounding Continents: Evidence for Temporal Changes of Pressure-Driven Upper Mantle Flow. Tectonics, 33, 1304-1321.
 Bruguier, N., Minshull, T. and Brozena, J. (2003) Morphology and Tectonics of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 7° - 12°S. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 108, 2093.
 Macchiavelli, C., Vergés, J., Schettino, A., Fernàndez, M., Turco, E., Casciello, E., Torne, M., Pierantoni, P.P. and Tunini, L. (2017) A New Southern North Atlantic Isochron Map: Insights into the Drift of the Iberian Plate Since the Late Cretaceous. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 122, 9603-9626.
 Iaffaldano, G., Bodin, T. and Sambridge, M. (2012) Reconstructing Plate-Motion Changes in the Presence of Finite-Rotations Noise. Nature Communications, 3, 1048.
 Vibe, Y., Friedrich, A.M., Bunge, H.-P. and Clark, S.R. (2018) Correlations of Oceanic Spreading Rates and Hiatus Surface Area in the North Atlantic Realm. Lithosphere, 10, 677-684.
 Cloetingh, S., Gradstein, F., Kooi, H., Grant, A. and Kaminski, M. (1990) Plate Reorganization: A Cause of Rapid Late Neogene Subsidence and Sedimentation around the North Atlantic? Journal of the Geological Society, 147, 495-506.
 Bergerat, F. (1987) Paleo-champs de contrainte tertiaires dans la plate-forme europeenne au front de l’orogene alpin. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 3, 611-620.
 Balázs, A., Matenco, L., Magyar, I., Horváth, F. and Cloetingh, S. (2016) The Link between Tectonics and Sedimentation in Back-Arc Basins: New Genetic Constraints from the Analysis of the Pannonian Basin. Tectonics, 35, 1526-1559.
 Allen, M.B., Jones, S., Ismail-Zadeh, A., Simmons, M. and Anderson, L. (2002) Onset of Subduction as the Cause of Rapid Pliocene-Quaternary Subsidence in the South Caspian Basin. Geology, 30, 775-778.
 Harrison, R.W., Newell, W.L., Batihanli, H., Panayides, I., McGeehin, J.P., Mahan, S.A., Ozhur, A., Tsiolakis, E. and Necdet, M. (2004) Tectonic Framework and Late Cenozoic Tectonic History of the Northern Part of Cyprus: Implications for Earthquake Hazards and Regional Tectonics. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 23, 191-210.
 Kempler, D. (1998) Eratosthenes Seamount: The Possible Spearhead of Incipient Continental Collision in the Eastern Mediterranean. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 160, 709-721.
 Wang, Y., Zhang, X., Jiang, C., Wei, H. and Wan, J. (2007) Tectonic Controls on the Late Miocene-Holocene Volcanic Eruptions of the Tengchong Volcanic Field along the Southeastern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 30, 375-389.
 Harrison, T.M., Ryerson, F., Le Fort, P., Yin, A., Lovera, O.M. and Catlos, E. (1997) A Late Miocene-Pliocene Origin for the Central Himalayan Inverted Metamorphism. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 146, E1-E7.
 De Ribet, B. and Patriat, P. (1988) La région axiale de la dorsale sud-ouest indienne entre 53° est et 59° est: Son evolution depuis 10 Ma. Marine Geophysical Researches, 10, 139-156.
 Patriat, P. and Parson, L. (1989) A Survey of the Indian Ocean Triple Junction Trace within the Antarctic Plate. Implications for the Junction Evolution Since 15 Ma. Marine Geophysical Researches, 11, 89-100.
 Chauvel, C., Maury, R.C., Blais, S., Lewin, E., Guillou, H., Guille, G., Rossi, P. and Gutscher, M.-A. (2012) The Size of Plume Heterogeneities Constrained by Marquesas Isotopic Stripes. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 13, Q07005.
 Duncan, R.A. and McDougall, I. (1974) Migration of Volcanism with Time in the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 21, 414-420.
 Gutscher, M.-A., Olivet, J.-L., Aslanian, D., Eissen, J.-P. and Maury, R. (1999) The “Lost Inca Plateau”: Cause of Flat Subduction beneath Peru? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 171, 335-341.
 McNutt, M.K., Caress, D., Reynolds, J., Jordahl, K. and Duncan, R. (1997) Failure of Plume Theory to Explain Midplate Volcanism in the Southern Austral Islands. Nature, 389, 479.
 Fitton, J. (1987) The Cameroon Line, West Africa: A Comparison between Oceanic and Continental Alkaline Volcanism. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 30, 273-291.
 Rankenburg, K., Lassiter, J. and Brey, G. (2004) Origin of Megacrysts in Volcanic Rocks of the Cameroon Volcanic Chain-Constraints on Magma Genesis and Crustal Contamination. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 147, 129-144.
 Faccenna, C., Piromallo, C., Crespo-Blanc, A., Jolivet, L. and Rossetti, F. (2004) Lateral Slab Deformation and the Origin of the Western Mediterranean Arcs. Tectonics, 23, TC1012.
 Krijgsman, W. and Langereis, C. (2000) Magnetostratigraphy of the Zobzit and Koudiat Zargasections (Taza-Guercif Basin, Morocco): Implications for the Evolution of the Rifian Corridor. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 17, 359-371.
 Capella, W., Matenco, L., Dmitrieva, E., Roest, W.M., Hessels, S., Hssain, M., Chakor-Alami, A., Sierro, F.J. and Krijgsman, W. (2017) Thick-Skinned Tectonics Closing the Rifian Corridor. Tectonophysics, 710, 249-265.
 Dewey, J., Helman, M., Knott, S., Turco, E. and Hutton, D. (1989) Kinematics of the Western Mediterranean. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 45, 265-283.
 Ryan, W.B. and Cita, M.B. (1978) The Nature and Distribution of Messinian Erosional Surfaces—Indicators of a Several-Kilometer-Deep Mediterranean in the Miocene. Marine Geology, 27, 193-230.
 Duggen, S., Hoernle, K., van den Bogaard, P. and Harris, C. (2004) Magmatic Evolution of the Alboran Region: The Role of Subduction in Forming the Western Mediterranean and Causing the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 218, 91-108.
 Adams, C., Benson, R.H., Kidd, R., Ryan, W. and Wright, R. (1977) The Messinian Salinity Crisis and Evidence of Late Miocene Eustatic Changes in the World Ocean. Nature, 269, 383.
 Ben-Gai, Y., Ben-Avraham, Z., Buchbinder, B. and Kendall, C.G.S.C. (2005) Post-Messinian Evolution of the Southeastern Levant Basin Based on Two-Dimensional Stratigraphic Simulation. Marine Geology, 221, 359-379.
 Bache, F., Olivet, J.L., Gorini, C., Rabineau, M., Baztan, J., Aslanian, D. and Suc, J.-P. (2009) Messinian Erosional and Salinity Crises: View from the Provence Basin (Gulf of Lions, Western Mediterranean). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 286, 139-157.
 Lofi, J., Gorini, C., Berné, S., Clauzon, G., Dos Reis, A.T., Ryan, W.B. and Steckler, M.S. (2005) Erosional Processes and Paleo-Environmental Changes in the Western Gulf of Lions (SW France) during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Marine Geology, 217, 1-30.
 Gorini, C., Lofi, J., Duvail, C., Dos Reis, A.T., Guennoc, P., Lestrat, P. and Mauffret, A. (2005) The Late Messinian Salinity Crisis and Late Miocene Tectonism: Interaction and Consequences on the Physiography and Post-Rift Evolution of the Gulf of Lions Margin. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 22, 695-712.
 Berggren, W.A., Hilgen, F.J., Langereis, C.G., Kent, D.V., Obradovich, J.D., Raffi, I., Raymo, M.E. and Shackleton, N.J. (1995) Late Neogene Chronology: New Perspectives in High-Resolution Stratigraphy. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 107, 1272-1287.
 Hilgen, F., Bissoli, L., Iaccarino, S., Krijgsman, W., Meijer, R., Negri, A. and Villa, G. (2000) Integrated Stratigraphy and Astrochronology of the Messinian GSSP at Oued Akrech (Atlantic Morocco). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 182, 237-251.
 Hilgen, F., Iaccarino, S., Krijgsman, W., Villa, G., Langereis, C. and Zachariasse, W. (2000) The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Messinian Stage (Uppermost Miocene). Episodes, 23, 172-178.
 Van Couvering, J.A., Castradori, D., Cita, M.B., Hilgen, F.J. and Rio, D. (2000) The Base of the Zanclean Stage and of the Pliocene Series. Episodes, 23, 179-187.
 Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.G., Smith, A.G., Bleeker, W. and Lourens, L.J. (2004) A New Geologic Time Scale, with Special Reference to Precambrian and Neogene. Episodes, 27, 83-100.
 Rozenbaum, A.G., Sandler, A., Stein, M. and Zilberman, E. (2019) The Sedimentary and Environmental History of Tortonian-Messinian Lakes at the East Mediterranean Margins (Northern Israel). Sedimentary Geology, 383, 268-292.
 Ben-Avraham, Z. and Katsman, R. (2015) The Formation of Graben Morphology in the Dead Sea Fault, and Its Implications. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 6989-6996.
 Ben-Avraham, Z., Lazar, M., Schattner, U. and Marco, S. (2005) The Dead Sea Fault and Its Effect on Civilization. In: Wenzel, F., Ed., Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences: Perspectives in Modern Seismology, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 147-170.