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 JHRSS  Vol.8 No.2 , June 2020
The Impact of Administrative Empowerment on the Performance of King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah (An Applied Study)
Abstract: The study aimed to identify the effect of administrative empowerment through the (knowledge, Authorization, work teams) concept on the performance of King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah, also aimed to Identify the views of study sample about the effect of administrative empowerment on the performance of King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah, according to the variables: job title, academic qualification, years of experience, the researcher has used the descriptive analytical method of study and also used the questionnaire as a tool for study, the researcher used the simple random sampling method where the sample consisted of (330) individuals, the main result of these study is showing Individuals agree about the impact administrative empowerment in term of knowledge on performance at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital, also most of individual agree in general about “the impact of administrative empowerment in term of Authorization on performance in King Abdul-Aziz Hospital”, other result showing that most of individual agree in general about “the impact administrative empowerment in term of work team on performance at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital”, the main recommendation of the study it is necessary to maintain administrative empowerment in terms of knowledge due to its positive impact on performance, also it is necessary to maintain administrative empowerment in terms of authorization due to its positive impact on performance, and it is necessary to maintain administrative empowerment in terms of work team due to its positive impact on performance, the researcher recommended further studies on the subject as there is scarcity in such studies in the local environment of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

1. Introduction

The various administrative institutions are experiencing major and fundamental changes in their strategies and plans as a result of the major changes in economic activity, and the emergence of new data such as globalization, increasing of complexity degree, technological change and increasing of competition and knowledge intensity. In order to improve the ability of these institutions to adapt with these new variables and respond to the requirements of this change, institutions’ management needs to focus on applying some concepts, including comprehensive quality management, competitive advantage, knowledge management and administrative empowerment, and the latter depends on the human being ability, the extent of his efficiency and the way to deal with them by the institution’s management, where a necessary need has arisen to take care of developing his capabilities, directing, motivating, empowering him and set him free, confident and able to work without direct interference from the institution’s management in which he works (Brown & Harve, 2006).

Therefore, empowering employees may lead to develop the performance rates for the institution, through developing the employees’ capabilities, providing them with confidence to work, delegating greater powers to them and giving them more freedoms for creativity. This will lead to developing their capabilities and raising their job performance rates and this reflects positively on the institution’s performance itself, and that is what the administrative institutions seek. The empowerment has been known as “a strategy aims to liberate the potentialities of individuals, and involving them in the processes of building the organization, considering that the success of the organization depends on the harmony of individuals needs with the organization’s vision and distant goals” (Brown & Harve, 2006: p. 241). In another context, the administrative empowerment, the results of its implementation and application leads to increasing and strengthening the performance rates of administrative institutions.

The Study Problem:

Studies highlighted some obstacles that accompany the application of empowerment in the administrative institution, where they indicated that despite the many benefits related to administrative empowerment, there are many obstacles related to activating that system within the institutions, including obstacles related to the employee himself in terms of his inability to carry out the tasks and responsibilities assigned to him (Baird & Wang, 2009). As for (Carter, 2009), his study showed that empowerment encourages innovation, creativity and motivation, and that employees were more productive in the case of empowerment and the opposite is true in the case of empowerment in their jobs, while (Turner, 2006) indicated in his study that: workers expressed that they are getting less empowerment than the senior management in their organization indicates, while (Al-Magableh, 2014) study showed that: there is an average degree of administrative empowerment and creative behavior between the head and coordinators of the academic department at the College of Arts in the University of Najran, while (Tjosvold & Sun, 2006) indicated in his study that: successful empowerment of employees requires the provision of effective organizational support.

In the same context, and from the reality of the researcher’s work in King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in the city of Makkah, the officials are concerned with improving the performance of the hospital’s departments and sections and to develop them by creating the appropriate job climate and by applying modern administrative concepts, however, the researcher observed the absence of applying the concept of administrative empowerment in hospital departments and sections, this is one of the reasons for the poor efficiency and effectiveness of the hospital’s performance. therefore, this study tries through an analytical study to study the reality of applying administrative empowerment in the hospital, and therefore the current study problem is represented in the following question: What is the effect of administrative empowerment through the concepts of (knowledge, authorization, and work teams) on the performance of health institutions by studying the case of King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah?

Study questions:

1) What is the effect of administrative empowerment through the (knowledge) concept on the performance of King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah?

2) What is the effect of administrative empowerment through the (Authorization) concept on the performance of King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah?

3) What is the effect of administrative empowerment through the (work teams) concept on the performance of King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah?

4) What are the views of study sample about the effect of administrative empowerment on the performance of health organizations through studying the case of King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah according to the variables: job title, academic qualification, years of experience?

This study basically depends on the descriptive analytical approach which uses descriptive, statistical, and analytical methods. The descriptive approach is defined as “a set of research procedures integrated to describe the phenomenon or topic based on the collection, classification, processing and analysis of facts and data sufficiently and accurately in order to reveal significance and results” (Mutawi & Khalifa, 2014: p. 111).

Research Terminology:

Administrative Empowerment: the focus on delegating authority to make decisions and providing appropriate systems that support empowerment, such as linking wages and rewards to performance, providing appropriate training, building team work, controlling overall quality, achieving strategy and managing goals, (Holliman, 2012: p. 23).

Knowledge: means all what employees should acquire information and facts related to the tasks and procedures of their work and how to perform it based on encouraging the leadership to acquire that information and facts, and provide sources for them, and exchange among them (Al Khaja, 2006).

Participation: is the process of allowing employees by senior leadership to contribute to the decision-making process related to the performance of their tasks related to service delivery to beneficiaries (Obeid, 2009).

Authorization: to grant or give authority from managers at a higher management level to subordinates at a lower administrative level regarding the completion of a specific job (Al Taani, 2016: p. 155).

Work Teams: this means the extent of using the team approach as one of the organizational building components in organizations, and the effectiveness of these teams is achieved as long as these teams are able to manage their culture and operations and the relationships between organizational divisions (Latifa, 2015).

The performance: the extent to achieve the goals of health care that it seeks to achieve in terms of the preparation of health programs and reflect its strategy and objectives in the results achieved from the functioning of all services provided either preventive treatment for individuals or preventive for the community to meet the desires associated with this service (Talib & Al-Naeemi, 2014).

2. Literature Review

Administrative work in institutions, whether public or private, service or productive, has become characterized by speed as a result of the work environment globalization and the entry of modern communication methods and technologies to the business world, and this has a positive impact on work in those institutions. Also, the work environment in the first world countries was distinguished from the work environment in the third world countries, including the Arab countries in general, and in Saudi Arabia the country is trying to enter the world of technology and information by starting the application of electronic government, and this continuous work must be in parallel with efforts towards human resources in administrative institutions, in general, and health in particular, as granting the human element full powers in the institution and developing his capabilities and giving him the opportunity to make and take administrative decision, would give him more empowerment at work, which is what the current study tries to identify and analyze, administrative empowerment.

The administrative and commercial work environment has increased the speed and rate at which the administrative institution needs creativity to maintain its survival and enhance its position and increase its competitiveness. One of the methods that makes the institution able to compete lies in its ability to enhance, develop, and exploit the talents of employees, in particular their creative capacities, then the main issue for institutions, is how to stimulate the capabilities of their employees to formulate their creative ideas, and how they provide the conditions in which organizational members can implement their creative ideas. Hence the term administrative empowerment came, and modern management believes that if the project success depends on achieving its goals, then the institution’ manpower are the means to achieve these goals, and in order to flourish and develop the project, it is necessary to form an integrated team of employees who have experience, skill and an optional desire to work efficiently, motivated to raise their production efficiency, and feel the desire to remain in the project and to be loyal to it. the idea of administrative empowerment is based on the higher management granting authority and confidence to employees to perform their tasks freely, which contributes to creating an atmosphere of satisfaction, a sense of importance, increasing responsibility and creating a positive feeling among employees that represents an important motivation for work, and therefore administrative empowerment contributes in liberating the individual worker from restrictions, and encouraging, motivating and rewarding him for exercising the spirit of initiative and not relying on rigid laws in the administrative institution.

Defining the Concept of Administrative Empowerment:

This study attempts to address the concept of empowerment in general and the concept of administrative empowerment in a more specific way and to know the views of some researchers on empowerment and similarities between those definitions, where the term empowerment is one of the modern terms in management science that have received the attention of organizations and administrative leaders and it reflects the process of giving individuals a broader authority to exercise control, responsibility, and use of their abilities, and by encouraging them to make decisions in its broadest sense, Tjosvold & Sun’s (2006) study, which dealt with the relationship between organizational support and employee empowerment, has reached an important conclusion indicating that successful employee empowerment requires the provision of effective organizational support. In the context (Ratmawati, 2007: p. 556) defined administrative empowerment as “the transfer of responsibilities and authority from managers to employees of the organization to participate in the decision-making authority, and in empowerment, the potential subordinate is responsible for the quality of his decision.” Empowerment is also defined as “the administrative process by which employees are taken care of by enriching their information, knowledge and increasing their skills, developing their individual capabilities, and encouraging them to participate and provide the necessary capabilities to them in a way that motivates them to take appropriate decisions” (Al-Rashoudi, 2009: p. 10).

Empowerment is also known as “liberating a person from restrictions, encouraging and motivating the individual, and rewarding him for exercising the spirit of initiative and creativity” (Melhem, 2006: p. 6), also (Mohammadia, 2016: p. 11) defined it as “Granting employees within the Jordan Tourism Revitalization Authority broad freedom in career work by expanding the scope of authority authorization and increasing participation in decision-making, self-motivation, and emphasizing the importance of the work environment, and building trust between management and employees, which encourages their creative behavior,” and also defined as “the process of exchanging information and the necessary knowledge that enables employees to contribute in Organizational Performance” (Kruja et al., 2009: p. 29).

It was also known as “the skill of giving employees the power to set goals for their own works, decision-making, and solve problems related to the powers vested to them and within the limits of their responsibilities”, (Littrell, 2003: p. 2), also it is “an organizational strategy that includes giving employees full authority and responsibility in making decisions related to their works.” (Al-Madi & Nusairat, 2011: p. 527), it was also defined as “a strategy that aims to liberate the individual’s capacities and engaging them in the organization building processes, given that the success of the organization depends on the harmony of individuals’ needs with the organization’s vision and distant goals.” (Brown & Harvey, 2006: p. 241). So, the researcher concludes that administrative empowerment can be defined as empowering individuals with all the details of the administrative process, developing their capabilities, qualifying them, and involving them in making and taking decisions for the institution and granting them powers to move through it and appoint them in the appropriate place.

There is a lot of Studies about defining the concept of administrative empowerment, one of these studies is the study of (Irechukwu, 2010), the results of these study concluded that the principals have attributes that qualify them and enable them to practice leadership work in the school, and that they also have a good ability to communicate positively with all members of the educational process, including teachers, students and parents, and that they are well aware of teaching methods and all these features make them successful educational leaders. also the study of (Liszt, 2008), the results concluded that, in general, the new york department of education develops the decision-making authority of the principals as they feel that they are responsible for students’ academic results for all students, also managers explained that the decision-making authority has enabled managers to achieve the distinction of education, which contributes significantly to achieving success in the academic achievement of students. also the study of (Latifa, 2015) the study recommendations, is the most important of which are: The official side in the work by giving the employees a wide range of power with the participation in decision-making, also (Affana, 2013) study about the administrative empowerment and its relationship with the effectiveness of the work teams the results showed that there is a disparity in approval ratings between the five variables identified by the survey of managerial empowerment. Also, (Al Otaibi, 2004) study concluded that the promoting of Administrative empowerment decreases the work turnover and therefore, providing qualified nurse staff.

The Importance of Administrative Empowerment:

Giving employees the freedom to work, giving them more powers, developing their capabilities, and involving them in the decision-making process in the organization. All this means their participation in the administrative process of the institution, and therefore looking to lead the institutions towards achieving their goals, so the completeness of this image, from the point of view of the administrative leadership, is an importance for the institution. Some researchers have summarized that importance, (Al-Sharif, 2015: p. 21) indicated the importance of the empowerment process for several justifications, such as the organization’s need to respond to circumstances and emergency variables, reducing the number of managerial levels in organizational structures, senior management focus on long-term strategic issues, the necessity of optimizing the use of all available resources, especially human resources, to preserve the development and excellence of the organization, the importance of cost reduction and rapid decision-making, unlocking creative and innovative capabilities of individuals, strengthening contentment, affiliation, and job motivation and giving individuals a greater responsibility and a sense of accomplishment in their work.

There is a lot of Studies about defining the importance of administrative empowerment, one of these studies is the study of (Baird & Haiyin, 2009), the results showing that each of the cultural factors such as teamwork and organizational factors such as training and association with bonuses have a clear impact on the general level of employee empowerment adaptation. also the study of (Yoon, Kim, & Shin, 2016), the study concluded that there is a harmonic relationship between trust in authorization with practical skill and transformational leadership and thus reflected positively on the provision of high quality care for patients of long-term hospital care, also study of (Mustafa, 2016) the results were identified that participants employee empowerment score was at a moderate level and organizational stress score was high.

Also other Study of (Ozaralli, 2013), study concluded that there is a statistically significant relationship between administrative empowerment and organizational creativity and the prevailing communication pattern in the organization, and that the transformational leadership pattern has a great role in promoting the concept of administrative empowerment and that it helps in increasing the effectiveness of task forces in providing the opportunity to make decisions. And the study of (AlMadhi & Nusairat, 2011) the impact of administrative, empowerment on the Application of total quality management, results of the study, the study did not find statistically significant differences in the attitudes of respondents towards adopting the concept of total quality management due to their demographic characteristics with the exception of the functional level variable.

Administrative Empowerment Dimensions:

Any administrative process has elements and dimensions that constitute its structure, and administrative empowerment like many administrative terms and processes have many elements and dimensions lies mainly in the professional training, teamwork, creative behavior development, self-motivation, and imitation and simulation (Al-Dosari, 2014: pp. 53-99; Al-Ruwaiq, 2016: pp. 230-258).

While, (Karen, 2006), proposes four approaches to empower employees administratively; employee participation in decision-making, employee participation in planning processes, providing employees with continuous organizational training and support, and continuous praises for good employees. As for (Henkink, 2005: p. 260), he identified four dimensions of empowerment, summarized in impact, efficiency, choice and meaning of work.

There is a lot of studies about defining empowerment dimensions, one of these studies is the study of (Yang & Choi, 2009), which results is showed that more than 80% of the respondents answered that their teams have a great degree of responsibility, knowledge and creativity by giving them freedom and independence and their participation in the decision-making of the institution; and other study of (Harrim & Alkshali, 2008), the dimensions of empowerment were (impact, freedom to act, meaning, competition) while dimensions of work teams’ effectiveness were (performance, innovation, communication, use of resources), and the results of the study concluded that there is a clear impact of empowerment on the effectiveness of the work team.

Study of (Mohammadia, 2016) the study recommended: Adopt functional empowerment approach administratively in the Jordan Tourism Board, so as to raise awareness of this aspect, because of its importance in guiding the creative behavior of employees towards creativity and organizational strengthening, and (Aisha, 2016) the results the study found to confirm hypotheses where he found that there is a correlation between the various administrative empowerment dimensions (the authorization of authority, work teams, training, effective communication, motivation) and organizational creativity, study also recommended that the adoption of small and medium-sized enterprises administrative departments of the concept of empowerment in all its dimensions.

Administrative Empowerment Obstacles:

The administration’s endeavor to empower employees administratively must face several challenges and obstacles, and those challenges could be environmental, human, or organizational, and despite the many benefits of administrative empowerment, “There are many obstacles to activating that system within institutions, including obstacles related to the employee himself in terms of his inability to carry out the tasks entrusted to him” (Baird & Wang, 2009), and (Al-Sabti & Qureshi, 2015; Hassan, 2008) have added some obstacles, including organizational obstacles, administrative obstacles, human obstacles, technical obstacles, and external environment obstacles.

As for (Forrester, 2000: p. 67), he pointed out the obstacles of empowerment that managers do not want to apply the concept of empowerment, due to their fear of losing power and influence, equality between the concepts of empowerment and authorization of authority, and considering authorization as synonymous with empowerment, and implementing empowerment by transferring and simulating successful empowerment programs in other organizations despite the different circumstances of each organization, and not taking into account the needs of the participants in the authority.

Institutional Performance:

The administrative process that accompanies the job performance is the one that constitutes the performance of the institution, and if the balance of any of the previous elements is disturbed, then undoubtedly this will lead to an imbalance in the institution’s path and its institutional performance. Then, the basis is the job performance of employees and how to develop it and increase its rates because it will led to raise the performance rates of the institution, and the concept of performance indicates that it is the performance that exceeds the level of current and expected performance through effective investment of the available resources in the organization and the possession of a competent leadership, and performance is considered one of the most important hubs of professional work in any functional field, and if this performance is unique in a work environment where justice and equality prevails, then it is logical for this performance to take its owner to a prominent position in the organization in which he works.

There is a lot of studies about defining Institutional Performance, one of these studies is the study of (Al-Rabadi, 2009), the result showing there is a statistically significant effect of empowering employees on Institutional performance, in addition to the absence of a statistically significant effect of empowering employees on institutional performance due to personal variables (gender, age, educational qualification, job title), while there are statistically significant differences with respect to the variable of work experience. Other study for (Talib & Al-Naeemi, 2014). The study results: there is a linear interrelationship between the administrative empowerment variables (training, giving the required information, authorization of authority, participation, and organizational performance variables). customer Service, (customer loyalty) the study recommended increasing attention to the administrative empowerment process as it has a prominent role in improving organizational performance.

Defining the Concept of Performance:

Many researchers addressed performance through many hubs, each according to its environment and practical drivers, but all performance definitions were similar, as they constitute common elements and dimensions that are found to measure the dimensions of the employee’s performance and the performance of the administrative institution itself, many researchers have addressed that. Performance has been defined as “Management ability to convert the organization’s inputs into a number of outputs with specific specifications and at the lowest possible cost since the performance does not depend on the amount of effort exerted only but rather depends on the capabilities, skills, and awareness of the staff to play the role that must be done”, (Al-Sakhl et al., 2010: p. 14). So, it is assumed that many administrative institutions in the Kingdom have introduced modern information systems to develop the job performance of employees, in addition to the introduction of modern technologies in administrative work in these institutions.

The job performance was defined as “a function of the ability to carry out the tasks assigned to the employee and the desire to perform these tasks to advance and raise the level of the organization’s performance” (Al-Azzawi & Jawad, 2010: p. 16), and the performance was defined as “the organization’s ability to continue and survive, achieving a balance between the satisfaction of shareholders and employees, and we conclude from this definition that performance is a measure of judgment on the extent to which the organization achieves its main goal, which staying in its market and continuing its activity, in light of competition, and then the organization is able to maintain a balance in rewarding both shareholders and employees” (Al-Dawi, 2010: p. 218).

The “implementation of creative work procedures that enable the organization to reach the highest level of performance and in the long run” (Gittell et al., 2010: p. 495). “The outstanding performance is achieved through the organization’s possession of a supportive culture to make the employees bear the responsibility to carry out the tasks assigned to them to promote lasting organizational success, and the researchers have emphasized that outstanding performance represents the highest level that individuals can achieve through their high mental and intellectual capabilities” (Akdemir et al., 2010: p. 150). So, through previous definitions, the researcher believes that the concept of performance is the result of an individual’s efforts that begins with abilities, role realization, the tasks, and thus the concept of performance refers to the degree of achievement and completion of the tasks entrusted to the individual and then performance is measured, and the researcher defines it procedurally as a set of practical duties, activities and tasks assigned to individuals that should be performed and accomplished to the fullest extent.

Elements of Job performance:

Performance is like any job or administrative term that has many of the elements that make up it, and performance consists of a group of elements which referred to by (Abu Sharkh, 2010: p. 20), the most important of which are: knowledge of job requirements, quality of work, amount of work accomplished, and perseverance.

Factors Affecting Performance and Its Determinants:

The individual performance effects of the job tasks are divided into certain factors that distinguish the individual as a result of internal personal courses such as competencies, previous training courses, or internal training in the institution and personal study through reading everything new related to the job, (Abu Sharkh, 2010: p. 20) indicated the performance determinants, divided into three types; Informative knowledge, Procedural and skill knowledge and Motivation and stimulation.

The researcher found study (Obeid, 2009) about the reality of administrative empowerment and its impact on workers, the study reached a set of results was the most important Empowerment was not clearly defined, due to changes in the organizational structure of the objectives to serve the personal interests of a particular category. The study concluded a set of recommendations, the most important of which are: The need to be in accordance with the work requirements. also the study (Al Shara’a, 2009), study results showing the level of performance of employees for the official role was high, while the level of performance of employees for the additional role was average, while it was found that there were no statistically significant differences in the respondents’ responses to the level of staff performance of the behaviors of both the formal role and the addition.

Performance Dimensions:

Performance includes the dimensions included in this concept, where some focus on the economic aspect of performance, while others intend to take into account the organizational and social aspect, and this is from the premise that performance is a comprehensive concept, represented according to (Al-Dawi, 2010: p. 19) in Organizational dimension of performance, and Social dimension of performance.

3. Research Methodology

Data Collection Methodology:

According to (Kothari, 2004) the questionnaire is regarded as the most extensively used method in various economic, business and social surveys. Kothari (2004) investigated that the questionnaire as a method of data collection is quite popular, particularly in cases of big enquires. It is being adopted by private individuals, research workers, private and public organizations and even by governments. In this method a questionnaire is sent (usually post) to the persons concerned with a request to answer the questions and return the questionnaire, a questionnaire consists of a number of questions printed or typed in a definite order or form of set of forms, and the respondents have to answer the questions on their own.

There are also various definitions cited for questionnaire as a method of data collection. (Pandey & Pandey, 2015) defined the questionnaire is a systematic compilation of questions that are submitted to a sampling of population from which information is desired. That means the questionnaire is from prepared and distributed to secure responses to certain questions. It is a device for securing answers to questions by suing a form which the respondent will fill by himself. Moreover, “questionnaires, if properly formulated, will not normally require high skill and sensitivity to answer in comparison with in-depth or semi-structured interviews” (Jankowicz, 2005). Furthermore, the questionnaire was also defined by (Ranjit Kumar, 2011) as a written list of questions, the answers to which are recorded by respondents. Therefore, in the questionnaire respondents read the questions, interpret what is expected and then write down the answers.

In order to collect the needed data for this research, the study use the secondary resources in collecting data such as books, journals, statistics and web pages, in addition to preliminary resources that not available in secondary resources through distribute questionnaires on study population in order to get their opinions about “The impact of administrative empowerment on employee performance”.

Research methodology depends on the analysis of data on the use of descriptive analysis, which depends on the poll and use the main program (SPSS).

Population and Sampling:

The study population consists of doctors, nurses, technicians and administrators working at King Abdul Aziz Hospital in Makkah. And the total numbers reach (2313) individuals. By applying the equation:

The researcher is used the following Statistical equation to collect sampling (Krejcie, R.V., & Morgan, equation):

S = χ 2 N P ( 1 P ) d 2 ( N 1 ) + χ 2 P ( 1 P )

where:

S: Represents the required sample size;

χ: It is the value of the Chi square at the degree of freedom 1, at the confidence level, where it has a value of (3.841);

N: Is the size of the study population of (2313);

P: The percentage of the adjective in society = 0.5;

d: It is the degree of accuracy and its value is (0.05).

By applying the above equation:

S = 3.841 × 2314 × 0.5 × 0.5 0.05 2 × 2313 + 3.841 × 0.5 × 0.5 = 2222.0185 6.74275 = 329.54 = 330

Thus, the sample size appropriate for the study becomes (330) singles.

Criterion Related Validity:

Internal consistency:

Internal consistency of the questionnaire is measured by a scouting sample, which consisted of fifteen questionnaires, through measuring the correlation coefficients between each question in one field and the whole filed. Table 1 below shows the correlation coefficient and p-value for each field items. As show in the table the p-values are less than 0.05 or 0.01,so the correlation coefficients of this field are significant at α = 0.01 or α = 0.05, so it can be said that the paragraphs of this field are consistent and valid to be measure what it was set for.

Cornbrash’s Coefficient Alpha:

This method is used to measure the reliability of the questionnaire between each field and the mean of the whole fields of the questionnaire. The normal range of Cornbrash’s coefficient alpha value between 0.0 and +1.0, and the higher values reflects a higher degree of internal consistency. As shown in Table 2 bellow the Cornbrash’s coefficient alpha was calculated. The general reliability for all items in each sections ranges from (0.651 - 0.935). This range is considered high; the result ensures the reliability of the questionnaire.

Table 1. Correlation coefficient between each question and the whole questionnaire.

Table 2. The impact administrative empowerment on performance at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah.

Statistical Tools:

To achieve the research goal, researcher used the statistical package for the Social Science (SPSS) for Manipulating and analyzing the data.

- Frequencies and Percentile.

- Alpha-Cranach Test for measuring reliability of the items of the questionnaires.

- Person correlation coefficients for measuring validity of the items of the questionnaires.

- Independent sample t test to test the difference between the means of samples.

- One-way ANOVA test for the difference between means three samples or more.

4. Data Analysis

Population and Sampling:

The population consists of the employees, medical staff and physician’s working at the King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah, 330 Questionnaires were distributed to the research population, all questionnaires are received, and the following tables illustrated the properties of the samples:

Experience:

Table 3 show that 47% from the sample their years’ experience from 10 to 15 years, 23.9% are from 15 to over years, and 17.6% of them from 5 to 10 years, 11.5% are from 1 to 5 years. Figure 1 shows these percentages.

Education:

Table 4 show that 46.4% from the sample’s education level was “Bachelor”, flowed by Diploma with (32.1%), Master degree 14.8%, Secondary with (3.9%), and 2.7% are PhD. Figure 2 show these percentages.

Job title:

Table 5 show that 30.3% from the sample their job is “Doctor”, 18.2% their job title was employer, 16.4% their job title is “Health technician”, 14.5% their job is “Nurse”, 11.5% their job title was Specialist, and 9.1% their job title was Pharmacist. Figure 3 shows these percentages.

Gender:

Table 6 show that 80.9% from the sample are “Male”, 19.1% are “Female”. Figure 4 shows these percentages.

Nationality:

Table 7 shows that 86.4% from the sample their nationality is “Saudi”, 12.1% are “Non-Saudi”. Figure 5 shows these percentages.

Table 3. Show the experience.

Table 4. Show education.

Table 5. Show job title.

Table 6. Show gender.

Table 7. Show nationality.

Figure 1. Show the percentages of experience.

Figure 2. Show the percentages of education.

Figure 3. Show the percentages of job title.

Figure 4. Show the percentages of gender.

Figure 5. Show the percentages of nationality.

The impact administrative empowerment in term of (knowledge) on performance at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah.

1) In item (5) the weight mean equal “3.82” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (The working procedures, regulations and instructions are distinguished by clarity and transparency in the hospital, which positively affects performance), is agree.

2) In item (1) the weight mean equal “3.61” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (The hospital administration allows employees to have easy access to information that helps them in work, which reflects positively on performance), is agree.

3) In item (6) the weight mean equal “3.61” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (The hospital administration encourages workers to be creative and to develop their cognitive abilities, which positively affects performance), is agree.

4) In item (2) the weight mean equal “3.33” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (The hospital administration provides effective and advanced means of communication for employees, which reflects positively on performance), is neutral.

5) In item (4) the weight mean equal “3.26” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (The workers share the new knowledge with the workers in other departments, which has a positive impact on performance), is neutral.

6) In item (3) the weight mean equal “3.24” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (is a management information system that provides information quickly in the hospital, and this reflects positively on performance), is neutral.

According to general mean of these items which equal (3.48) greater than 3 (center point of likert measure) this indicate the general answer is moving towards the positive direction (agree).

The impact of administrative empowerment in term of (Authorization) on performance in King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah (Table 8):

1) In item (1) the weight mean equal “3.68” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (The hospital administration has a clear strategy for authorization of power, which reflects positively on performance), is agree.

2) In item (6) the weight mean equal “3.68” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (There are multiple powers for staff to act on the tasks assigned to them, and this positively affects performance), is agree.

Table 8. The impact administrative empowerment in term of (knowledge) on performance at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah.

3) In item (2) the weight mean equal “3.45” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (The powers granted are commensurate with the nature of jobs for the employees, which reflects positively on performance), is agree.

4) In item (3) the weight mean equal “3.36” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (The hospital administration believes in participating in decision-making by delegating executive and middle management and involving them in decision-making), is neutral.

5) In item (4) the weight mean equal “3.22” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (The hospital staff, in the light of Authorization granted to them, diagnose problems and propose solutions, choose and evaluate them), is neutral.

6) In item (5) the weight mean equal “3.20” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (The hospital administration is confident in the staff’s abilities to perform the tasks assigned to them, which reflects positively on the performance), is neutral.

According to general mean of these items which equal (3.43) greater than 3 (center point of Likert measure) this indicate the general answer is moving towards the positive direction (agree).

The impact administrative empowerment in term of (work Team) on performance at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah.

1) In item (1) the weight mean equal “3.748” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (In light of the job empowerment in the hospital, the employees feel that they work within one team, which positively affects performance), is agree.

2) In item (6) the weight mean equal “3.748” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (The management devised a system of self-monitoring on the work of individuals and teamwork, which positively affects performance), is agree.

3) In item (2) the weight mean equal “3.515” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (The ideas and suggestions of employees in light of their special empowerment are taken seriously when making decisions regarding their work, which positively affects performance), is agree.

4) In item (3) the weight mean equal “3.382” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (Confidence prevails among hospital work departments teams, which positively affects performance), is neutral.

5) In item (4) the weight mean equal “3.252” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (The hospital management supports and encourages the formation of work teams for employees, which positively affects performance), is neutral.

6) In item (5) the weight mean equal “3.103” and p-value equal “0.000” which is less than 0.05, that (Hospital management focuses on team performance rather than individual performance, which positively affects performance), is neutral (see Table 9, Table 10).

Table 9. The impact of administrative empowerment in term of (Authorization) on performance in King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah.

Table 10. The impact of administrative empowerment in term of (work teams) on performance in King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah.

Tablebelow shows the terms order (Table11):

The best terms was knowledge with weighted mean (3.48) and importance agree, followed by term work teams with weighted mean (3.43) and importance agree, finally Authorization with weighted mean (3.43) and importance agree. The weighted mean of all terms was (3.46) and importance agree.

There is a difference in the terms based on Years of Practical experience at significance level α = 0.05:

We use One way ANOVA test to find these differences in terms due to years of experience, the result illustrated in Table 12 which show that the p-value for terms (Work terms, Authorization) is greater than 0.05, that means there is no statistically significant differences at the level of α = 0.05 in work teams and Authorization, but p-value for Knowledge equal (0.023) less than 0.05 this indicate that there is statistically differences between years practical experience at 0.05 level.

There is a difference in the terms based on academic qualification at significance level α = 0.05:

We use One way ANOVA test to find these differences in terms due to academic qualification, the result illustrated in Table 13 which show that the p-value for each terms is less than 0.05, that means there is statistically significant differences at the level of α = 0.05 in each terms.

There is a difference in the terms based on job title at significance level α = 0.05:

We use One way ANOVA test to find these differences in terms due to job title, the result illustrated in Table 14 which show that the p-value for each terms is less than 0.05, that means there is statistically significant differences at the level of α = 0.05 in each terms.

There is a difference in the terms based on gender at significance level α = 0.05:

We use Independent sample t-test to find these differences in terms due to gender, the result illustrated in Table 15 which show that the p-value for each terms is greater than 0.05, that means there is no statistically significant differences at the level of α =0.05 in each terms.

There is a difference in the terms based on nationality at significance level α = 0.05:

We use Independent sample t-test to find these differences in terms due to nationality, the result illustrated in Table 16 which show that the p-value for each terms is less than 0.05, that means there is statistically significant differences at the level of α = 0.05 in each term.

Table 11. The terms order.

Table 12. Which show that difference in the terms based on Years of Practical experience at significance level α = 0.05.

Table 13. Which show difference in the terms based on academic qualification at significance level α = 0.05.

Table 14. Which show that difference in the terms based on job title at significance level α = 0.05.

Table 15. Which show that difference in the terms based on gender at significance level α = 0.05.

Table 16. Which show that difference in the terms based on nationality at significance level α = 0.05.

5. Results

Most of individual’s ages (From 10 to 15 years) with (47%), their education as general (Bachelor) with (46.4%), about 30.3% from the sample their job is “Doctor”, and 80.9% of them are male, and most of them are Saudi with 86.4%.

1) Individuals agree about the impact administrative empowerment in term of (knowledge) on performance at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah, exactly items:

■ The working procedures, regulations and instructions are distinguished by clarity and transparency in the hospital, which positively affects performance.

■ The hospital administration allows employees to have easy access to information that helps them in work, which reflects positively on performance.

2) Most of individual agree in general about “the impact of administrative empowerment in term of (Authorization) on performance in King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah” exactly items:

■ The hospital administration has a clear strategy for Authorization of power, which reflects positively on performance.

■ There are multiple powers for staff to act on the tasks assigned to them, and this positively affects performance.

3) Most of individual agree in general about “the impact administrative empowerment in term of (work team) on performance at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah” exactly items:

■ In light of the job empowerment in the hospital, the employees feel that they work within one team, which positively affects performance.

■ The management devised a system of self-monitoring on the work of individuals and teamwork, which positively affects performance.

4) There are statistically differences between years practical experience at 0.05 level in knowledge.

5) There is a difference in the terms based on academic qualification at significance level 0.05.

6) There is a difference in the terms based on job title at significance level 0.05.

7) There is no statistical difference in the terms based on gender at significance level 0.05.

8) There are statistically significant differences at the level of 0.05 in each terms.

9) There is statistical relation between independent variables and dependent variable at 0.05.

6. Recommendations

1) It is necessary to maintain administrative empowerment in terms of (knowledge) due to its positive impact on performance at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah.

2) The need to maintain the excellence achieved by the hospital in work procedures, regulations, instructions and transparency in health reports and has achieved a positive development on performance.

3) Facilitate employees’ access to information that helps them in their work, which reflects positively on performance.

4) It is necessary to maintain administrative empowerment in terms of (authorization) due to its positive impact on performance.

5) Extending the scope of Authorization of powers to employees, which will positively reflect on performance.

6) Activating and increasing job empowerment in the hospital, and activating work within one team, which positively affects performance.

7) The need to maintain a system of self-monitoring of the individual and team work of the hospital and develop it to further improve performance in King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah.

Limits of the study:

This study is determined by the following limits:

1) Subject limits: The Impact of Administrative Empowerment on the Performance of the King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah.

2) Spatial limits: The field scope of this study is Saudi Arabia.

3) Place Limits: King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah.

4) Time limits: The study will be conducted during the year 2020.

5) Human boundaries: The population of this study includes the staff of administration, doctors, nurses, technicians.

7. Conclusion

The researcher extracts the role and the clear effect of administrative empowerment on the performance of health organizations, through this study which focused on the role of Administrative empowerment represented in knowledge, authorization and work teams and their impact on the performance of King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah, where the researcher concluded after analyzing the data obtained from the Hospital, the high levels of performance as a result the administration’s interest to the dimensions of empowerment represented in the knowledge of manpower, in work, authorization and granting administrative powers to workers, and working within the team work, all factors that led to a positive improvement in public performance during the period of this study in the Hospital, and therefore the administration is supposed to maintain those gains that contributed to the improvement of performance, as the researcher concluded during his field study the presence of interest from the management of the King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in excellence in work procedures, regulations, instructions and transparency in administrative work, and this was achieved by a positive development in performance, also in general the administration's interest in improving and improving performance is also inferred because it is reflected on the rest Health organizations, and thus the researcher concludes that empowerment in health organizations is actually a uniform process The ability of workers in these organizations to make multiple options and convert those options into procedures, which are those measures that aim to increase the degree of autonomy and self-determination of health organization workers to enable them to represent their interests in a responsible and self-determined manner, based on their own authority, and the researcher has concluded his study Some recommendations that he believes contribute to achieving his goals.

Questionnaire

Personal information:

1) Years of Practical experience.

( ) 1 - <5 years ( ) 5 - <10 years ( ) 10 - <15 years ( ) ≥15 years

2) Academic qualification

( ) Secondary ( ) Bachelor ( ) Higher diploma ( ) Master ( ) PhD.

3) Job Title:

( ) Doctor ( ) Specialist ( ) Pharmacist ( ) Nurse ( ) Health technician ( ) Employee

4) Gender:

( ) Male ( ) Female

5) Nationality:

( ) Saudi ( ) Non-Saudi

Dimension I: The impact administrative empowerment in term of (knowledge) on performance at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah.

Dimension II: The impact of administrative empowerment in term of (authorization) on performance in King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah.

Dimension III: The impact of administrative empowerment in term of (work teams) on performance in King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah.

Cite this paper: Asiri, A. (2020) The Impact of Administrative Empowerment on the Performance of King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah (An Applied Study). Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 8, 157-184. doi: 10.4236/jhrss.2020.82010.
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