JWARP  Vol.12 No.6 , June 2020
Comparative Water Efficiency Analysis of Sole and Multiple Cropping Systems under Tunnel Farming in Punjab-Pakistan
Abstract: Water scarcity is the growing concern of present times, requiring its efficient utilization deemed as necessity. Rapidly growing population has significantly exerted pressure on its demand, in Pakistan. In order to fulfill it, all factors of production are required to be used in the possibly most efficient way. Good quality and quantity of water are the growing concerns of producers in Pakistan and around the globe. The efficient water utilization is crucial to optimize the farm returns under the selected sole and multiple cropping systems. This study considered the water efficiency analysis of multiple and sole cropping systems, with the aim of finding out cropping patterns more efficient in terms of water utilization in Pakistan. In order to estimate the water efficiency analysis, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is run to find out the water efficient cropping systems among sole and multiple cropping systems. The Tobit analysis is also used to find out the factors affecting the water efficiency of selected farms in the study area. The results of the study report an inefficient water usage in terms of irrigation, the inefficient use of water instigates the wastage of one of the most important as well as scarce farm inputs especially water, in case of multiple cropping system. Around 51% and 13% of water inefficiency are present under multiple and sole cropping systems, respectively. Basin irrigation is the method for irrigation, used by the farmers of the study area approximating to be 95% - 97%. It is one of the most conventional and least efficient methods of irrigation. Only 2.67 and 4.67 percent of farms were using the Furrow irrigation method, which is way more efficient and steady as compared to Basin irrigation method, respectively. It appears as a requirement that the most efficient methods regarding water application in Pakistan should be recognized. Lack of management in water application on both selected cropping systems resulted in over utilization of water and depletion of one of the fundamental natural resource. In order to overcome the inefficiency in water management, farmers’ farming knowledge, adoption of new irrigation techniques, efficient application of inputs is needed.
Cite this paper: Fatima, H. , Almas, L. and Haroon, S. (2020) Comparative Water Efficiency Analysis of Sole and Multiple Cropping Systems under Tunnel Farming in Punjab-Pakistan. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 12, 455-471. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2020.126027.

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