Back
 OJD  Vol.9 No.2 , May 2020
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Cocaine Addiction
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the clinical data analysis results from a service delivering repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for people with cocaine-use disorder (CUD). Methods: The study was a retrospective investigation of routinely collected data on patients receiving rTMS between 2018 and 2019. Measures used were a cocaine craving Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) self-rated depression measures. Results: The outcome data of 10 patients with CUD were analysed. There was a statistically significant reduction and a large effect size on CUD and depression scales. Conclusions: Reductions in craving and depression indicate the potential benefits to patients and to society of rTMS in treating CUD. Further sufficiently powered RCTs are warranted with studies focusing on the optimization of rTMS treatment and exploring the underlying mechanisms.
Cite this paper: Soomro, H. , O'Neill-Kerr, A. , Neal, L. , Griffiths, C. and Vai, R. (2020) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Cocaine Addiction. Open Journal of Depression, 9, 26-30. doi: 10.4236/ojd.2020.92003.
References

[1]   Bolloni, C., Badas, P., Corona, G., & Diana, M. (2018). Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Cocaine Addiction: Evidence to Date. Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation, 9, 11.
https://doi.org/10.2147/SAR.S161206

[2]   Centre for Research on Globalization (2018). Cocaine, Heroin, Cannabis, Ecstasy: How Big Is the Global Drug Trade?

[3]   Griffiths, C., O’Neill-Kerr, A., De Vai, R., & Da Silva, K. (2019a). Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Generalised Anxiety Disorder in Treatment Resistant Depression. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 31, e2-e7.

[4]   Griffiths, C., O’Neill-Kerr, A., Millward, T., & Da Silva, K. (2019b). Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for Depression: Outcomes in a United Kingdom (UK) Clinical Practice. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 23, 122-127.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13651501.2018.1562077

[5]   Hardy, S., Bastick, L., O’Neill-Kerr, A., Sabesan, P., Lankappa, S., & Palaniyappan, L. (2016). Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Clinical Practice. BJPsych Advances, 22, 373-379.
https://doi.org/10.1192/apt.bp.115.015206

[6]   Janicak, P. G., & Dokucu, M. E. (2015). Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Major Depression. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11, 1549.
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S67477

[7]   Kito, S., Fujita, K., & Koga, Y. (2008). Changes in Regional Cerebral Blood Flow after Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Treatment-Resistant Depression. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 20, 74-80.
https://doi.org/10.1176/jnp.2008.20.1.74

[8]   Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2001). The PHQ-9: Validity of a Brief Depression Severity Measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16, 606-613.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x

[9]   Ma, T., Sun, Y., & Ku, Y. (2019). Effects of Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation on Stimulant Craving in Users of Cocaine, Amphetamine, or Methamphetamine: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13, 1095.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.01095

[10]   Madeo, G., Terraneo, A., Cardullo, S., Gómez Pérez, L. J., Cellini, N., Sarlo, M., Gallimberti, L. et al. (2020). Long-Term Outcome of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in a Large Cohort of Patients with Cocaine-Use Disorder: An Observational Study. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 158.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00158

[11]   National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2015). Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Depression.
https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ipg542

[12]   Office for National Statistics (2019). Drugs Misuse: Findings from the 2018/19 Crime Survey for England and Wales. London: ONS.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1361-3723(18)30105-2

[13]   Politi, E., Fauci, E., Santoro, A., & Smeraldi, E. (2008). Daily Sessions of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Left Prefrontal Cortex Gradually Reduce Cocaine Craving. American Journal on Addictions, 17, 345-346.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10550490802139283

[14]   Public Health England (2017). An Evidence Review of the Outcomes That Can Be Expected of Drug Misuse Treatment in England. London: PHE.

[15]   Zigmond, A. S., & Snaith, R. P. (1983). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, 361-370.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1983.tb09716.x

 
 
Top