Back
 GEP  Vol.8 No.5 , May 2020
Effect of Farming Practices on Honey Production in Boundary of Gishwati Forest National Park
Abstract: Pesticides and inorganic fertilizers applied in agriculture are key factors which affect biodiversity, especially bees, butterfly and other pollinators. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of farming practices on honey production in boundary of Gishwati Forest National Park in Rwanda. Survey was conducted to collect data from 2000 year to 2018 year from 51 members grouped in UNICOAPIGI beekeeping and 73 members of JYAMBERE agricultural cooperatives to establish the impact of agriculture practice on honey production. The results showed that the change in agricultural inputs from 2000 to 2018 (R2 = 0.901) resulted in high corn yield and consequently induced honey reduction (R2 = 0.75). The correlation coefficients for pesticides and inorganic fertilizers used in corn production had strong negative effects on honey production {γ3 = -0.06 for chemical fertilizers (X3) and γ4 = -0.42 for pesticides (X4)}. JYAMBERE Agricultural cooperative with 75.78% of farmers reported that they used pesticides and inorganic fertilizers in corn production. However, 51 beekeepers grouped in UNICOAPIGI cooperative reported a serious decline of honey production from 27 Kg to 6 Kg of honey per hive after the 2008 year, which is suspected to be mainly the effect from applications of pesticides and fertilizers in corn production. The findings illustrated that the roles of honeybees as pollinator exposed them to toxic, especially pesticides applied in agriculture in boundary of Gishwati national forest reserve, therefore, beekeepers proposed that protection of forests and park is not only sufficient to reach sustainable conservation of bee biodiversity but also requires determining the land use pattern and socio-political factors around the Gishwati forest reserve.
Cite this paper: Alexandre, N. , Vincent, N. , Pacifique, U. , Abias, M. , Alexis, S. , Francoise, M. and Jacques, N. (2020) Effect of Farming Practices on Honey Production in Boundary of Gishwati Forest National Park. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 8, 107-119. doi: 10.4236/gep.2020.85007.
References

[1]   Benton, T. G., Vickery, J. A., & Wilson, J. D. (2003). Farmland Biodiversity: Is Habitat Heterogeneity the Key? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 18, 182-188.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(03)00011-9

[2]   Benuszak, J., Laurent, M., & Chauzat, M.-P. (2017). The Exposure of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera; Hymenoptera: Apidae) to Pesticides: Room for Improvement in Research. Science of the Total Environment, 587-588, 423-438.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.062

[3]   Borron, S. (2006). Building Resilience for an Unpredictable Future: How Organic Agriculture Can Help Farmers Adapt to Climate Change. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

[4]   Carvell, C. (2002). Habitat Use and Conservation of Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) under Different Grassland Management Regimes. Biological Conservation, 103, 33-49.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00114-8

[5]   Chamberlain, D. E., Fuller, R. J., Bunce, R. G. H., Duckworth, J. C., & Shrubb, M. (2000). Changes in the Abundance of Farmland Birds in Relation to the Timing of Agricultural Intensification in England and Wales. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 771-788.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2000.00548.x

[6]   Chancellor, R. L., Langergraber, K., Ramirez, S., Rundus, A. S., & Vigilant, L. (2012). Genetic Sampling of Unhabituated Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Gishwati Forest Reserve, an Isolated Forest Fragment in Western Rwanda. International Journal of Primatology, 33, 479-488.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-012-9591-6

[7]   Díaz, S., Settele, J., Brondízio, E., Ngo, H., Guèze, M., Agard, J., Arneth, A., Balvanera, P., Brauman, K., & Butchart, S. (2019). Summary for Policymakers of the Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services of the Intergovernmental Science- Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services.

[8]   Gary, N. E., & Lorenzen, K. (1989). Effect of Methamidophos on Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) during Alfalfa Pollination. Journal of Economic Entomology, 82, 1067- 1072. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/82.4.1067

[9]   Ji, J., Gao, Y., Lü, Q., Wu, Z., Zhang, W., & Zhang, C. (2019). China’s Early Warning System Progress. Science, 365, 332-332.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aay4550

[10]   Johnson, R. M., Ellis, M. D., Mullin, C. A., & Frazier, M. (2010). Pesticides and Honey Bee Toxicity—USA. Apidologie, 41, 312-331.
https://doi.org/10.1051/apido/2010018

[11]   Kotschi, J. (2007). Agricultural Biodiversity Is Essential for Adapting to Climate Change. GAIA-Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society, 16, 98-101.
https://doi.org/10.14512/gaia.16.2.8

[12]   Kremen, C., Williams, N. M., & Thorp, R. W. (2002). Crop Pollination from Native Bees at Risk from Agricultural Intensification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 16812-16816.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.262413599

[13]   Lin, C. Y., & Hu, R. (2003). Students’ Understanding of Energy Flow and Matter Cycling in the Context of the Food Chain, Photosynthesis, and Respiration. International Journal of Science Education, 25, 1529-1544.
https://doi.org/10.1080/0950069032000052045

[14]   Madhusudan, M., & Raman, T. S. (2003). Conservation as If Biological Diversity Matters: Preservation versus Sustainable Use in India. Conservation and Society, 1, 49-59.

[15]   McGowan, P. J., Mair, L., Symes, A., Westrip, J. R., Wheatley, H., Brook, S., Burton, J., King, S., McShea, W. J., & Moehlman, P. D. (2019). Tracking Trends in the Extinction Risk of Wild Relatives of Domesticated Species to Assess Progress against Global Biodiversity Targets. Conservation Letters, 12, e12588.
https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12588

[16]   Namwata, B., Mdundo, K., & Malila, M. (2013). Potentials and Challenges of Beekeeping Industry in Balang’dalalu Ward, Hanang’District in Manyara, Tanzania. Kivukoni Journal, 1, 75-93.

[17]   NISR (2010). Integrated Household Living Conditions Survey.

[18]   Nyandwi, E., & Mukashema, A. (2011). Participatory Geographic Information Systems (P-GIS) for Natural Resource Management and Food Security in Africa: ict4d Article.

[19]   Ochoa-Hueso, R., Delgado-Baquerizo, M., King, P. T. A., Benham, M., Arca, V., & Power, S. A. (2019). Ecosystem Type and Resource Quality Are More Important than Global Change Drivers in Regulating Early Stages of Litter Decomposition. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 129, 144-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2018.11.009

[20]   Pimentel, D., Lach, L., Zuniga, R., & Morrison, D. (2000). Environmental and Economic costs of Nonindigenous Species in the United States. BioScience, 50, 53-66.
https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2000)050[0053:EAECON]2.3.CO;2

[21]   Pimentel, D., Stachow, U., Takacs, D. A., Brubaker, H. W., Dumas, A. R., Meaney, J. J., Onsi, D. E., & Corzilius, D. B. (1992). Conserving Biological Diversity in Agricultural/Forestry Systems. BioScience, 42, 354-362.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1311782

[22]   Pimm, S., Raven, P., Peterson, A., Şekercioğlu, Ç. H., & Ehrlich, P. R. (2006). Human Impacts on the Rates of Recent, Present, and Future Bird Extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 10941-10946.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0604181103

[23]   Pretty, J., & Hine, R. (2012). Pesticide Use and the Environment. In The Pesticide Detox (pp. 23-44). Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge

[24]   Reid, W. V., & Miller, K. (1989). Keeping Options Alive: The Scientific Basis for Conserving Biodiversity. Washington DC: World Resources Institute.

[25]   Ricketts, T. H. (2004). Tropical Forest Fragments Enhance Pollinator Activity in Nearby Coffee Crops. Conservation Biology, 18, 1262-1271.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00227.x

[26]   Rohlf, F. J., & Sokal, R. R. (1995). Statistical Tables. London: Macmillan.

[27]   Rundlöf, M., Nilsson, H., & Smith, H. G. (2008). Interacting Effects of Farming Practice and Landscape Context on Bumble Bees. Biological Conservation, 141, 417-426.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2007.10.011

[28]   National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (2012). The Fourth Population and Housing Census in Rwanda.

[29]   Ryan, J. C. (1992). Conserving Biological Diversity. In L. R. Brown, C. Flavin, S. Postel, & L. Sratke (Eds.), State of the World (pp. 9-26). New York: W. W. Norton.

[30]   Sailer, R. I. (1983). History of Insect Introductions. In C. L. Wilson, & C. L. Graham (Eds.), Exotic Plant Pests and North American Agriculture (pp. 15-38). Cambridge, MA: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-757880-4.50007-5

[31]   Sakschewski, B., Von Bloh, W., Boit, A., Poorter, L., Peña-Claros, M., Heinke, J., Joshi, J., & Thonicke, K. (2016). Resilience of Amazon Forests Emerges from Plant Trait Diversity. Nature Climate Change, 6, 1032-1036.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3109

[32]   Sanchez-Bayo, F., & Goka, K. (2016). Impacts of Pesticides on Honey Bees. In E. D. (Ed.), Chambo Beekeeping and Bee Conservation—Advances in Research (pp. 77-97). London: IntechOpen.
https://doi.org/10.5772/62487

[33]   Sol, J. (2019). Economics in the Anthropocene: Species Extinction or Steady State Economics. Ecological Economics, 165, Article ID: 106392.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2019.106392

[34]   Staveley, J. P., Law, S. A., Fairbrother, A., & Menzie, C. A. (2014). A Causal Analysis of Observed Declines in Managed Honey Bees (Apis mellifera). Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 20, 566-591.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2013.831263

[35]   Uwayo, P., Nsanzumukiza, V. M., Maniragaba, A., Nsabimana, A. P., & Akimanizanye, V. (2020). Contribution of Former Poachers for Wildlife Conservation in Rwanda Volcanoes National Park. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 8, 47-56.
https://doi.org/10.4236/gep.2020.84004

[36]   Vanlauwe, B., Kihara, J., Chivenge, P., Pypers, P., Coe, R., & Six, J. (2011). Agronomic Use Efficiency of N Fertilizer in Maize-Based Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa within the Context of Integrated Soil Fertility Management. Plant and Soil, 339, 35-50.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-010-0462-7

[37]   Western, D., & Pearl, M. C. (1989). Conservation for the Twenty-First Century. New York: Oxford University Press.

[38]   Westphal, C., Steffan-Dewenter, I., & Tscharntke, T. (2003). Mass Flowering Crops Enhance Pollinator Densities at a Landscape Scale. Ecology Letters, 6, 961-965.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00523.x

[39]   Williams, D. F. (1994). Biology, Impact, and Control of Introduced Species. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

[40]   Woyke, J. (1984). Correlations and Interactions between Population, Length of Worker Life and Honey Production by Honeybees in a Temperate Region. Journal of Apicultural Research, 23, 148-156.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00218839.1984.11100624

[41]   Zhou, J., Xue, K., Xie, J., Deng, Y., Wu, L., Cheng, X., Fei, S., Deng, S., He, Z., & Van Nostrand, J. D. (2012). Microbial Mediation of Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks to Climate Warming. Nature Climate Change, 2, 106-110.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1331

 
 
Top