Back
 MSA  Vol.11 No.5 , May 2020
Process Window Expansion of Laser Chemical Machining by Using High Pressure
Abstract: Laser Chemical Machining (LCM) is a non-conventional removal process, based on a precise thermal activation of heterogeneous chemical reactions between an electrolyte and a metallic surface. Due to local overheating during the process, boiling bubbles occur, which can impair the removal quality. In order to reduce the amount of bubbles, the laser chemical process is performed at different process pressures. Removal experiments were performed on Titanium Grade 1 using the electrolyte phosphoric acid at various process pressures, machining speeds and laser powers in order to determine the limit of the process window by evaluating the characteristics of the removal cavities. As a result, the process window for non-disturbed laser chemical machining is widened at higher process pressures. The process pressures have no influence on the geometric shape of the removal. The expansion of the process window is attributed to the fact that at higher process pressures the saturation temperature of the electrolyte rises, so that bubble boiling starts at a higher surface temperature on the workpiece induced by the laser power. The removal rate could be increased by a factor of 2.48 by increasing the process pressures from ambient pressure to 6 bar, thus taking an important step towards the economic efficiency of the laser chemical machining.
Cite this paper: Simons, M. , Radel, T. and Vollertsen, F. (2020) Process Window Expansion of Laser Chemical Machining by Using High Pressure. Materials Sciences and Applications, 11, 296-304. doi: 10.4236/msa.2020.115020.
References

[1]   Martin, A. and Fitz Gerald, B. (2013) Process over Platforms—A Paradigm Shift in Acquisition through Advanced Manufacturing. Center for a New American Security, Washington DC

[2]   Manjaiah, M., Narendranath, S. and Basavarajappa, S. (2014) Review on Non-Conventional Machining of Shape Memory Alloys. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 24, 12-21.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(14)63022-3

[3]   Eckert, S. and Vollertsen, F. (2018) Mechanisms and Processing Limits of Surface Finish Using Laser-Thermochemical Polishing. CIRP Annals—Manufacturing Technology, 67, 201-204.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2018.04.098

[4]   Messaoudi, H., B?hmermann, F., Mikulewitsch, M., von Freyberg, A., Fischer, A., Riemer, O. and Vollertsen, F. (2018) Chances and Limitations in the Application of Laser Chemical Machining for the Manufacture of Micro Forming Dies. MATEC Web of Conferences, 190, 15010.
https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201819015010

[5]   De Silva, A.K.M., Pajak, P.T., McGeogh, J.A. and Harrison, D.K. (2011) Thermal Effects in Laser Assisted Jet Electrochemical Machining. CIRP Annals—Manufacturing Technology, 60, 243-246.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2011.03.132

[6]   B?uerle, D. (2011) Laser Processing and Chemistry. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2011.03.132

[7]   Mehrafsun, S. and Vollertsen, F. (2013) Disturbance of Material Removal in Laser-Chemical Machining by Emerging Gas. CIRP Annals, 62, 195-198.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2013.03.030

[8]   Messaoudi, H., Eckert, S. and Vollertsen, F. (2017) Thermal Analysis of Laser Chemical Machining: Part 1: Static Irradiation. Journal of Materials Science and Surface Engineering, 5, 685-691.
https://doi.org/10.4236/msa.2017.810049

[9]   Mehrafsun, S. and Messaoudi, H. (2018) Dynamic Process Behavior in Laser Chemical Micro Machining of Metals. Journal of Manufacturing and Materials, 2, 54-72.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp2030054

[10]   Eckert, S., Messaoudi, H., Mehrafsun, S. and Voillertsen, F. (2017) Laser-Thermo-chemical Induced Micro-Structures on Titanium. Journal of Materials Science and Surface Engineering, 5, 685-691.

[11]   Zhang, X., Sun, P., Yan, T., Huang, Y., Ma, Z., Zou, B., Zheng, W., Zhou, J., Gong, Y. and Sun, C.Q. (2015) Water’s Phase Diagram: From the Notion of Thermodynamics to Hydrogen-Bond Cooperativity. Progress in Solid State Chemistry, 43, 71-81.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progsolidstchem.2015.03.001

[12]   Simons, M., Radel, T. and Vollertsen, F. (2020) Influence of Laser-Induced Bubble Formation on Laser Chemical Machining. Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, 10, 21-33.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jsemat.2020.102002

 
 
Top