JCDSA  Vol.8 No.4 , December 2018
Elemental Compositions of Some Eye Shadow Products Marketed in Saudi Arabia
This study focuses on the determination, as well as, the composition of some heavy metals contained in 12 eye shadow cosmetic samples. An elemental analysis of heavy metals (Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co, Mn, Pb, and Zn) was performed by X-ray Fluorescence. The constitution of some samples was studied by Powder X-Ray Diffraction. Heavy metals exist as zinc oxide, Titanium dioxide, Iron oxide, Bismuth oxychloride, and lead sulfide. The quantification of selected toxic heavy metals lead, copper and nickel were achieved by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry after digestion with concentrated acids. In all analyzed samples lead had a concentration less than 20 ppm, which indicated good manufacturing practice. Copper and nickel levels were within acceptable concentrations, but overpasses the safe limit appeared in China samples. The prolonged use of cosmetics case an allergic problem for consumers. Therefore, quality controls are highly controlled for imported products with different regulations.
Cite this paper
M. Ali Zainy, F. , Bannani, F. and A. Alotaibi, O. (2018) Elemental Compositions of Some Eye Shadow Products Marketed in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications, 8, 236-243. doi: 10.4236/jcdsa.2018.84024.
[1]   Brown, V. (2013) Metals in Lip Products—A Cause for Concern? Environmental Health Perspectives. Environmental Health Perspectives, 121, a196-106.

[2]   Ungár, T., Martinetto, P., Ribárik, G., Dooryhée, E., Walter, P. and Anne, M. (2002) Revealing the Powdering Methods of Black Makeup in Ancient Egypt by Fitting Microstructure Based Fourier Coefficients to the Whole x-Ray Diffraction Profiles of Galena. Journal of Applied Physics, 91, 2455-2465.

[3]   Draize, J., Woodard, G. and Calvery, H. (1944) Methods for the Study of Irritation and Toxicity of Substances Applied Topically to the Skin and Mucous Membranes. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 82, 377-390.

[4]   Corbett, J., Sharma, R. and Dressler, W. (1999) Cosmetic Toxicology. Toxicology Academic Press, San Diego, 899-918.

[5]   Saeed, M., Muhammad, N. and Khan, H. (2011) Assessment of Heavy Metal Content of Branded Pakistani Herbal Products. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 10, 499-506.

[6]   Bernardi, R. (2002) Protect Children from the Dangers of Lead. US Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, 2-22.

[7]   Al-Dayel, H. and Al-Ajyan, T. (1011) Human Exposure to Heavy Metals from Cosmetics. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 27, 1-11.

[8]   Ullah, H., Noreen, S., Rehman, A., Waseem, A., Zubair, S., Adnan, M. and Ahmad, I. (2013) Comparative Study of Heavy Metals Content in Cosmetic Products of Different Countries Marketed in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10, 10-18.

[9]   Hepp, N., Mindak, W. and Cheng, J. (2009) Determination of Total Lead in Lipstick: Development and Validation of a Microwave-Assisted Digestion, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometric Method. Journal of Cosmetic Science, 60, 405-415.

[10]   Theresa, O., Onebunne, O., Dorcas, W. and Ajani, O. (2011) Potentially Toxic Metals Exposure from Body Creams Sold in Lagos. Researcher, 3, 30-37.

[11]   Tsankov, I., Iordanova, I., Lolova, D., Uzunova, S. and Dinoeva, S. (1981) Hygienic Evaluation of the Content of Heavy Metals (Lead and Copper) in Cosmetic Products. Probl Khig, 7, 127-136.

[12]   AI-Saleh, I. and Coate, L. (1995) Lead Exposure in Saudi Arabia from the Use of Traditional Cosmetics and Medical Remedies. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 17, 29-31.

[13]   Volpe, M., Nazzaro, M., Coppola, R., Rapuano, F. and Aquino, R. (2012) Determination and Assessments of Selected Heavy Metals in Eye Shadow Cosmetics from China, Italy, and USA. Microchemical Journal, 101, 65-69.

[14]   GSO 2170/2011 (2008) Determination of Heavy Metal (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead and Mercury) in Cosmetic Products. Standards Organization for the Gulf Cooperation Council and Yemen.

[15]   Barakat, M. (2011) New Trends in Removing Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 4, 361-367.

[16]   Sainio, E., Jolanki, R., Hakala, E. and Kanerva, L. (2000) Metals and Arsenic in Eye Shadows. Contact Dermatitis, 42, 5-10.

[17]   Basketter, D., Briatico-Vangosa, G., Kaestner, W., Lally, C. and Bontinck, W. (1993) Nickel, Cobalt and Chromium in Consumer Products: A Role in Allergic Contact Dermatitis? Contact Dermatitis, 28, 15-25.

[18]   Allenby, C. and Basketter, D. (1993) An Arm Immersion Model of Compromised Skin. Contact Dermatitis, 28, 129-133.

[19]   Basketter, D., Angelini, G., Ingber, A., Kern, P. and Menné, T. (2003) Nickel, Chromium and Cobalt in Consumer Products: Revisiting Safe Levels in the New Millennium. Contact Dermatitis, 49, 1-7.

[20]   Söğüt, Ö., Reyhanlıoğlu, H., Ezer, M. and Baltaş, H. (2016) Elemental Compostions of Some Cosmetic Products Marketed in Turkey. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 25, 1068-1077.