AJPS  Vol.9 No.12 , November 2018
The Seed Water Sorption Isotherm and Antioxidant-Defensive Mechanisms of Hordeum vulgare L. Primed Seeds
The key successful for seed priming technique was the management of seed imbibition process. This study was aimed to indicate the seed moisture sorption characteristics of Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Samerng 2 in relation to the seed priming technique and its effect on the seed qualities. The experiment was designed by Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications. Seed hydro-priming technique was done under 25 degree Celsius, and 40% - 60% RH. Barley seed moisture content was determined every hour after imbibition for 24 hours. Then, primed barley seed qualities were evaluated at 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 hours of hydrotime. The results revealed that barley seeds were imbibed rapidly from 10.55% to 37.69% seed moisture content during 0 - 9 hours of imbibition. The constantly seed moisture content was continued until 17 hours of imbibition. Radicle was protruded with 42.74% seed moisture content. Seed moisture sorption characteristic equation was Y = 0.0055x3- 0.267x2 + 4.5931x + 13.348. Coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.916. Primed seed germination was not affected by hydrotime. Primed seeds were improved in speed of germination and seedling growth rate. The best primed barley seed vigorous was noted at 14 - 16 hours of hydrotime. In addition, catalase activity (CAT) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) were not significantly different for non-primed and 14 - 16 hours primed seeds. However, lipoxygenase activity (LOX) was increased and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was decreased for 14 - 16 hours primed seeds. Subsequently, 14 - 16 hours primed barley seeds can maintain high seed germination and vigor for 8 - 12 months under 5 degree Celsius. Thus, it could be concluded that hydro-priming for 14 - 16 hours enhances barley seed quality by reducing germination time, induced defenses mechanism, and could be stored for 8 - 12 months.
Cite this paper
Junhaeng, P. , Thobunluepop, P. , Chanprasert, W. , Onwimol, D. , Nakasathien, S. and Pawelzik, E. (2018) The Seed Water Sorption Isotherm and Antioxidant-Defensive Mechanisms of Hordeum vulgare L. Primed Seeds. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 9, 2385-2407. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2018.912173.
[1]   Prachaya, N. and Attachai, J. (1998) Simulation of the Influence of Planting Date on Barley. Academic Paper, 54th Multiple Cropping Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 26 p.

[2]   Yupakanit, P. (2007) Malt and Wort Characteristics of 42 Cereal Rice Varieties Cultivated in Thailand. Kasetsart Journal (Natural Science), 41, 15-20.

[3]   Akaranuchat, P. (2009) Control of Seed-Borne Fungi by Using Radio Frequency to Maintain Barley Seed Quality. Thesis, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 62 p.

[4]   Aziza, A., Asgedom, H. and Becker, M. (2004) Seed Priming Enhances Germination and Seedling Growth of Barley under Conditions of P and Zn Deficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 167, 630-636.

[5]   Ghana, S.G. and Schillinger, W.F. (2003) Seed Priming Winter Wheat for Germination, Emergence, and Yield. Crop Science, 43, 2135-2141.

[6]   Jafar, M.Z., Farooq, M., Cheema, M.A., Afzal, I., Basra, S.M.A., Wahid, M.A., Aziz, T. and Shahid, M. (2012) Improving the Performance of Wheat by Seed Priming Under Saline Conditions. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 198, 38-45.

[7]   Mohamed, A.E. and Hannchi, C. (2012) Seed Priming to Improve Germination and Seedling Growth of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) under Salt Stress. EurAsian Journal of BioSciences, 6, 76-84.

[8]   Hamed, A.N. (2013) The Effects of Seed Priming Techniques in Improving Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Aeluropus Macrostachy. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research, 1, 86-95.

[9]   Asbrouck, J.V. (2006) Seed Priming & Enhancement: Priming Technology. The Training Workshop on Seed Priming & Enhancement, Kasetsart University, Bangkok.

[10]   Bewley, J.D., Bradford, K.J., Hilhorst, H.W.M. and Nonogaki, H. (2013) Seeds: Physiology of Development, Germination, and Dormancy. 3rd Edition, Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London, 391 p.

[11]   Leubner, G. (2006) The Seed Biology Place.

[12]   Lewis, J.M. and Young, T.W. (2002) Brewing. Chapman & Hall, Springer, London.

[13]   Crowe, J.H. and Crowe, L.M. (1992) Membrane Integrity in an Hydrobiotic Organisms: Toward a Mechanism for Stabilizing Dry Seeds. In: Somero, G.N., Osmond, C.B. and Bolis, C.L., Eds., Water and Life, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 87-103.

[14]   Bradford, K.J. and Bewley, J.D. (2002) Seeds: Biology, Technology and Role in Agriculture. In: Chrispeels, M.J. and Sadava, D.E., Eds., Plants, Genes and Crop Biotechnology, 2nd Edition, Jones and Bartlett, Boston, Chapter 9, 210-239.

[15]   Zheng, G., Wilen, R.W., Slinkard, A.E. and Gusta, L.V. (1994) Enhancement of Canola Seed Germination and Seedling Emergence at Low Temperature by Priming. Crop Science, 34, 1589-1593.

[16]   Sharma, A.D., Rathore, S.V.S., Srinivasan, K. and Tyagi, R.K. (2014) Comparison of Various Seed Priming Methods for Seed Germination, Seedling Vigour and Fruit Yield in Okra (Abelmoschuse sculentus L., Moench). Scientia Horticulturae, 165, 75-81.

[17]   Kazem, G.G., Afsaneh, C.J., Safar, N. and Mohammad, M. (2010) Effects of Hydro-Priming Duration on Seedling Vigour and Grain Yield of Pinto Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 38, 109-113.

[18]   Naceur, D. (2012) Seed Hydropriming Effect on Triticum durum and Hordeum vulgare Germination, Seedling Growth and Resistance to Fusarium culmorum. Plant Pathology Journal, 11, 77-86.

[19]   Ibrahim, N.D., Bhadmus, Z. and Singh, A. (2013) Hydro-Priming and Re-Drying Effects on Germination, Emergence and Growth of Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 21, 157-164.

[20]   International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) (2011) International Rules for Seed Testing. Seed Science and Technology. The International Seed Testing Association, Bassersdof, 540 p.

[21]   Clewer, A.G. and Scarisbrick, D.H. (2001) Practical Statistics and Experimental Design for Plant and Crop Science. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Hoboken, 332 p.

[22]   Demir, I., Ermis, S., Mavi, K. and Matthews, S. (2008) Mean Germination Time of Pepper Seed Lots (Capsicum annuum L.) Predicts Size and Uniformity of Seedlings in Germination Tests and Transplant Modules. Seed Science and Technology, 36, 21-30.

[23]   Coolbear, P., Francis, A. and Grierson, D. (1984) The Effect of Low Temperature Pre-Sowing Treatment on the Germination Performance and Membrane Integrity of Artificially Aged Tomato Seeds. Journal of Experimental Botany, 35, 1609-1617.

[24]   Åman, P., Westerluan, E. and Theander, O. (1994) Determination of Starch Using a Thermostable α-Amylase. In: Bemiller, J.N., Manners, D.J. and Sturgeon, R.J., Eds., Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry, Academic Press, New York, 111-115.

[25]   Lam, H.S. and Proctor, A. (2000) Rapid Method for Milled Rice Total Lipid and Free Fatty Acid Determination. AAES Research Series, 291-295.

[26]   Walde, P. and Nastruzzi, C. (1991) Application of a New, Simple and Economic Colorimetric Method for the Determination of Non-Esterified Fatty Acids in Vegetable Oils. Food Chemistry, 39, 249-256.

[27]   Aebi, H. (1984) Catalase in Vitro. Methods in Enzymology, 105, 121-126.

[28]   Perten, H. (1966) A Colorimetric Method for the Determination of Alpha-Amylase Activity (ICC Method). International Association for Cereal Chemistry, 43, 336-342.

[29]   Alexander, R.R., Griffiths, J.M. and Willkinson, M.L. (1985) Basic Biochemical Methods. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

[30]   Juliano, B.O., Perez, C.M. and Blakeney, A.B. (1981) International Cooperative Testing on the Amylose Content of Milled Rice. Starch, 33, 157-162.

[31]   McGrance, S.J., Cornell, H.J. and Rix, C.J. (1998) A Simple and Rapid Colorimetric Method for the Determination of Amylose in Starch Products. Starch, 50, 158-163.

[32]   Juan, G., Luis, A. and David, B. (2006) Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Makal (Xanthosomayu catanensis) Starch. Starch, 58, 300-307.

[33]   Oberley, L.W. and Spitz, D.R. (1985) Assay of Superoxide Dismutase Using Nitroblue Tetrazolium. In: Greenwald, R.A., Ed., Handbook of Methods for Oxygen Radical Research, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 217-221.

[34]   Dhindsa, R.S., Dhindsa, P.P. and Thorpe, T.A. (1981) Leaf Senescence: Correlated with Increase Leaves of Membrane Permeability and Lipid Peroxidation and Decreased Levels of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase. Journal of Experimental Botany, 32, 93-101.

[35]   Shi, Q.H., Zhu, Z.J., Xu, M., Qian, Q.Q. and Yu, J.Q. (2006) Effect of Excess Manganese on the Antioxidant System in Cucumis sativus L. under Two Light Intensities. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 58, 197-205.

[36]   Meshehdani, T., Pokorny, J., Davídek, J. and Pánek, J. (1990) The Lipoxygenase Activity of Rapeseed. Food, 34, 727-734.

[37]   Zomoradian, A. and Tavakoli, R.A. (2007) The Adsorption-Desorption Hysteresis Effect on Pistachio Nuts. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 9, 259-265.

[38]   Zomorodian, A. (1979) Thin-and-Thick-Layer Drying Characteristics for Iranaian Rough Rice Varieties. M.S. Thesis, Shiraz University, Shiraz.

[39]   Arogba, S.S. (2001) Effect of Temperature on the Moisture Sorption Isotherm of a Biscuit Containing Processed Mango (Mangifera indica) Kernel Flour. Journal of Food Engineer, 48, 121-125.

[40]   Hii, C.L., Law, C.L. and Cloke, M. (2009) Modeling Using a New Thin Layer Drying Model and Product Quality of Cocoa. Journal of Food Engineer, 90, 191-198.

[41]   Cheng, Z. and Bradford, K.J. (1999) Hydrothermal Time Analysis of Tomato Seed Germination Responses to Priming Treatments. Journal of Experimental Botany, 50, 89-99.

[42]   Schwember, A.R. and Bradford, K.J. (2011) Oxygen Interacts with Priming, Moisture Content and Temperature to Affect the Longevity of Lettuce and Onion Seeds. Seed Science Research, 21, 175-185.

[43]   Vitor, H.V.M., Nascente, A.S., Neves, P.C.F., Taillebois, J.E. and Oliveira, F.H.S. (2016) Seed Hydropriming in Upland Rice Improves Germination and Seed Vigor and Has No Effects on Crop Cycle and Grain Yield. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 10, 1534-1542.

[44]   Ahmadi, A., Mardeh, A.S., Poustini, K. and Jahromi, M.E. (2007) Influence of Osmo and Hydropriming on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars under Different Moisture and Temperature Conditions. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10, 4043-4049.

[45]   Ghassemi, G.K., Aliloo, A.A., Valizadeh, M. and Moghaddam, M. (2008) Effects of Hydro and Osmo-Priming on Seed Germination and Field Emergence of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 36, 29-33.

[46]   Hamdollah, E. and Kamyar, K. (2011) Effect of Seed Priming on Germination Properties and Seedling Establishment of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis). Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 3, 113-116.

[47]   Singh, R. (2017) Effects of Hydro-Priming on Seed Germination and Vigour of Aegle marmelos. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 6, 446-449.

[48]   Hussain, S., Khan, F., Hussain, H.A. and Nie, L. (2016) Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Seed Priming-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Rice Cultivars. Front Plant Science, 7, 116.

[49]   Ventura, L., Donà, M., Macovei, A., Carbonera, D., Buttafava, A., Mondoni, A., Rossi, G. and Blestrazzi, A. (2012) Understanding the Molecular Pathways Associated with Seed Vigor. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 60, 196-206.

[50]   Simon, E.W. (1984) Early Events in Germination. In: Marray, D.R., Ed., Germination and Reserve Mobilization, Academic Press, Cambridge, 77-115.
Sen Gupta, A., Webb, R.P., Holaday, A.S. and Allen, R.D. (1993) Over Expression of Superoxide Dismutase Protects Plants from Oxidative Stress. Plant Physiology, 103, 1067-1073.

[51]   Thobunluepop, P. (2008) Characterization of a Botanical Fungicide from Thai Origin and Its Efficiency in Rice Production. PhD Thesis, Cuvillier Verlag, Göttingen, 156 p.

[52]   Lee, S.S. and Kim, J.H. (1999) Morphological Change, Sugar Content, and α-Amylase Activity of Rice Seeds under Various Priming Conditions. Korean Journal of Crop Science, 44, 138-142.

[53]   Dhingra, H.R. (1984) Physiological and Biochemical Studies on the Effect of Salt Stress on Maize (Zea mays L.) Pollen. PhD Thesis, HAU, Hisar.

[54]   Wang, J., Fujimoto, K., Miyazawa, T., Endo, Y. and Kitamura, K. (1990) Sensitivity of Lipoxygenase-Lacking Soybean Seeds to Accelerated Ageing and Their Chemiluminescence Levels. Phytochemistry, 29, 3739-3742.

[55]   McCord, J.M. (2000) The Evolution of Free Radicals and Oxidative Stress. American Journal of Medicine, 108, 652-659.

[56]   Smith, M.T. and Berjak, P. (1995) Deteriorative Changes Associated with the Loss of Viability of Stored Desiccation-Tolerant and Desiccation-Sensitive Seeds. In: Kigel, J. and Galili, G., Eds., Seed Development and Germination, Marcel Dekker, New York, 853 p.

[57]   McDonald, M.B. (1999) Seed Deterioration: Physiology, Repair and Assessment. Seed Science and Technology, 27, 177-237.

[58]   Bailly, C., Benamar, A., Corbineau, F. and Côme, D. (1996) Changes in Malondialdehyde Content and in Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and Glutathione Reductase Activities in Sunflower Seeds as Related to Deterioration during Accelerated Aging. Physiology Plant, 97, 104-110.