AiM  Vol.8 No.11 , November 2018
Prevention of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A/H5N1 Infection by Passive Immunotherapy Using Antiserum
The rapid epidemic of highly pathogenic A/H5N1 avian influenza virus by transmission from poultry to humans triggered global unrest in the pandemic of novel influenza. If a human trophic strain of avian influenza viruses replicates in livestock including pigs and chickens, it may have high infectivity and pathogenicity to humans. The most effective method of reducing the outbreaks of influenza would be prophylaxis with an effective vaccine as well as anti-viral drugs including Oseltamivir and Zanamivir hydrate. In this study, chicken antiserum against A/H5N1 virus was produced: the antisera from immunized adult chicken had a strong binding activity to A/H5N1 viral antigens by ELISA. Furthermore, the antiserum strongly inhibited hemaggregation of erythrocytes and cytopathic effects in MDCK cells, indicating a strong neutralization activity against A/H5N1 infections. Interestingly, the mortality rate of chicks inoculated with A/H5N1 virus was dramatically decreased with the antiserum injection. These results suggest that antiserum may be a potentially effective protective and therapeutic modality for A/H5N1 infection.
Cite this paper
Adachi, K. , Suryaman, G. , Soejoedono, R. , Handharyani, E. and Tsukamoto, Y. (2018) Prevention of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A/H5N1 Infection by Passive Immunotherapy Using Antiserum. Advances in Microbiology, 8, 874-884. doi: 10.4236/aim.2018.811058.
[1]   Horman, W.S.J., Nguyen, T.H.O., Kedzierska, K., Bean, A.G.D. and Layton, D.S. (2018) The Drivers of Pathology in Zoonotic Avian Influenza: The Interplay Between Host and Pathogen. Frontiers in Immunology, 9, 1812.

[2]   Chatziprodromidou, I.P., Arvanitidou, M., Guitian, J., Apostolou, T., Vantarakis, G. and Vantarakis, A. (2018) Global Avian Influenza Outbreaks 2010-2016: A Systematic Review of Their Distribution, Avian Species and Virus Subtype. Systematic Reviews, 7, 17.

[3]   Suarez, D.L. and Schultz-Cherry, S. (2000) Immunology of Avian Influenza Virus: A Review. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 24, 269-283.

[4]   Alexander, D.J. and Brown, I.H. (2000) Recent Zoonoses Caused by Influenza A Viruses. Revue Scientifique et Technique, 19, 197-225.

[5]   Harfoot, R. and Webby, R.J. (2017) H5 Influenza, a Global Update. Journal of Microbiology, 55, 196-203.

[6]   McIntosh, E.D.G. (2018) Healthcare-Associated Infections: Potential for Prevention through Vaccination. Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, 6, 19-27.

[7]   Poland, G.A. (2006) Vaccines against Avian Influenza—A Race against Time. New England Journal of Medicine, 354, 1411-1413.

[8]   Rimmelzwaan, G.F. and Osterhaus, A.D. (2001) Influenza Vaccine: New Developments. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 1, 491-496.

[9]   Artois, J., Ippoliti, C., Conte, A., Dhingra, M.S., Alfonso, P., Tahawy, A.E., Elbestawy, A., Ellakany, H.F. and Gilbert, M. (2018) Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Outbreaks in Different Poultry Farm Types in Egypt: The Effect of Vaccination, Closing Status and Farm Size. BMC Veterinary Research, 14, 187.

[10]   Baz, M., Luke, C.J., Cheng, X., Jin, H. and Subbarao, K. (2013) H5N1 Vaccines in Humans. Virus Research, 178, 78-98.

[11]   Lu, L., Yu, L. and Kwang, J. (2007) RETRACTED: Baculovirus Surface-Displayed Hemagglutinin of H5N1 Influenza Virus Sustains Its Authentic Cleavage, Hemagglutination Activity, and Antigenicity. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 358, 404-409.

[12]   Takada, A., Kuboki, N., Okazaki, K., Ninomiya, A., Tanaka, H., Ozaki, H., Itamura, S., Nishimura, H., Enami, M., Tashiro, M., Shortridge, K.F. and Kida, H. (1999) A Virulent Avian Influenza Virus as a Vaccine Strain against a Potential Human Pandemic. Journal of Virology, 73, 8303-8307.

[13]   Holla, S.K., Rao, H.A., Shenoy, D., Boloor, A. and Boyanagari, M. (2018) The Role of Fresh Frozen Plasma in Reducing the Volume of Anti-Snake Venom in Snakebite Envenomation. Tropical Doctor, 48, 89-93.

[14]   Bacon, L.D., Hunter, D.B., Zhang, H.M., Brand, K. and Etches, R. (2004) Retrospective Evidence That the MHC (B Haplotype) of Chickens Influences Genetic Resistance to Attenuated Infectious Bronchitis Vaccine Strains in Chickens. Avian Pathology, 33, 605-609.

[15]   Clavijo, V. and Flórez, M.J.V. (2018) The Gastrointestinal Microbiome and Its Association with the Control of Pathogens in Broiler Chicken Production: A Review. Poultry Science, 97, 1006-1021.

[16]   Swayne, D.E., Spackman, E. and Pantin-Jackwood, M. (2014) Success Factors for Avian Influenza Vaccine Use in Poultry and Potential Impact at the Wild Bird-Agricultural Interface. EcoHealth, 11, 94-108.

[17]   Torchetti, M.K., Killian, M.L., Dusek, R.J., Pedersen, J.C., Hines, N., Bodenstein, B., White, C.L. and Ip, H.S. (2015) Novel H5 Clade Reassortant (H5N1) Virus from a Green-Winged Teal in Washington, USA. Genome Announcements, 3, pii: e00195-15.

[18]   Ip, H.S., Torchetti, M.K., Crespo, R., Kohrs, P., DeBruyn, P., Mansfield, K.G., Baszler, T., Badcoe, L., Bodenstein, B., Shearn-Bochsler, V., Killian, M.L., Pedersen, J.C., Hines, N., Gidlewski, T., DeLiberto, T. and Sleeman, J.M. (2015) Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21, 886-890.

[19]   Mcelwain, T.F. and Thumbi, S.M. (2017) Animal Pathogens and Their Impact on Animal Health, the Economy, Food Security, Food Safety and Public Health. Revue Scientifique et Technique, 36, 423-433.

[20]   Tsukamoto, M., Hiroi, S., Adachi, K., Kato, H., Inai, M., Konishi, I., Tanaka, M., Yamamoto, R., Sawa, M., Handharvani, E. and Tsukamoto, Y. (2011) Antibodies against Swine Influenza Virus Neutralize the Pandemic Influenza Virus A H1N1. Molecular Medicine Reports, 4, 209-214.

[21]   Reed, L.J. and Muench, H. (1938) A Simple Method of Estimating Fifty Percent Endo-Points. American Journal of Hygiene, 27, 493-797.

[22]   Adachi, K., Handharvani, E., Sari, D.K., Takama, K., Fukuda, K., Endo, I., Yamamoto, R., Sawa, M., Tanaka, M., Konishi, I. and Tsukamoto, Y. (2008) Development of Neutralization Antibodies against Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Using Ostrich (Struthio camelus) Yolk. Molecular Medicine Reports, 1, 203-209.

[23]   Kamiyama, Y., Adachi, K., Handharyani, E., Soejoedono, R.D., Kusano, T., Inai, M., Tsukamoto, M., Kashiwagi, S. and Tsukamoto, Y. (2011) Protection from Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Infection with Antibody-Impregnated Filters. Virology Journal, 8, 54.

[24]   Adachi, K., Kato, T., Kirimura, N., Kubota, Y., Shiba, H. and Tsukamoto, Y. (2014) Double Infections with Avian A/H5N1 and Swine A/H1N1 Influenza Viruses in Chickens. American International Journal of Biology, 2, 58-94.

[25]   Bosch, F.X., Orlinch, M., Klenk, H.D. and Rott, R. (1979) The Structure of the Hemagglutinin, a Determinant for the Pathogenicity of Influenza Viruses. Virology, 95, 197-207.

[26]   Yang, Z.Y., Wei, C.J., Kong, W.P., Wu, L., Xu, L., Smith, D.F. and Nabel, G.J. (2007) Immunization by Avian H5 Influenza Hemagglutinin Mutants with Altered Receptor Binding Specificity. Science, 317, 825-828.

[27]   Dapat, C., Kondo, H., Dapat, I.C., Baranovich, T., Suzuki, Y., Shobugawa, Y., Saito, K., Saito, R. and Suzuki, H. (2013) Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Profile of Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Viruses during the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 Influenza Seasons in Japan. Antiviral Research, 99, 261-269.

[28]   McKimm-Breschkin, J.L. (2013) Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitors: Antiviral Action and Mechanisms of Resistance. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7, 25-36.