AJPS  Vol.9 No.9 , August 2018
Yield and Uptake of Phosphorus by Wheat and Canola Grown after Two Years of Forage Legume and Annual Crops
Annual legumes have been shown to enhance the growth and phosphorus (P) uptake by following rotational crops. However, there is lack of information on the effect of perennial forage legumes included in rotation for a short duration on yield and P uptake of crops like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) grown after the forage legume. A field study was conducted in four soil zones of Saskatchewan, Canada to assess: 1) the effect of two years of forage legume versus annual cereal, oilseed and grain legume on yield and P uptake of wheat and canola grown in the two subsequent years and 2) the effect of the complete four-year rotation on soil P dynamics and P balance. Four different crop sequences (alfalfa-alfalfa, red clover-red clover, barley-pea and barley-flax) employed over the first two years of crop rotation were compared as treatments followed by wheat and canola. Wheat grain yield was improved 32% - 60% by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) rotations at three of the four sites (P = 0.008, P = 0.001, P < 0.0001) compared to annual grains, while grain P uptake was enhanced 38% - 43% by red clover and alfalfa rotation at two sites (P = 0.013, P = 0.033). In the following year, positive yield benefits (55% - 64%) of having two years of alfalfa and red clover were observed at three sites. Four years of continuous cropping with a limited addition of fertilizer P resulted in a negative soil P balance and significant depletion of soil P fertility at all locations.
Cite this paper
Miheguli, R. , Schoenau, J. and Jefferson, P. (2018) Yield and Uptake of Phosphorus by Wheat and Canola Grown after Two Years of Forage Legume and Annual Crops. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 9, 1807-1825. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2018.99132.
[1]   Brady, NC. and Weil, R.R. (2002) The Nature and Properties of Soils. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.

[2]   Alamgir, M., McNeill, A., Tang, C. and Marschner, P. (2012) Changes in Soil P Pools during Legume Residue Decomposition. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 49, 70-77.

[3]   Holford, I.C.R. (1997) Soil Phosphorus: Its Measurement, and Its Uptake by Plants. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 35, 227-239.

[4]   Hinsinger, P., Plassard, C., Tang, C. and Jaillard B. (2003) Origins of Root-Mediated pH Changes in the Rhizosphere and Their Responses to Environmental Constraints: A Review. Plant and Soil, 248, 43-59.

[5]   Hodgkin, E.P. and Hamilton, B.H. (1993) Fertilizers and Eutrophication in Southwestern Australia: Setting the Scene. Fertilizer Research, 36, 95-103.

[6]   Rose, T.J., Hardiputra, B. and Rengel, Z. (2010) Wheat, Canola and Grain Legume Access to Soil Phosphorus Fractions Differs in Soils with Contrasting Phosphorus Dynamics. Plant and Soil, 326, 159-170.

[7]   Ae, N., Arihara, J., Okada, K., Yoshihara, T. and Johansen, C. (1990) Phosphorus Uptake by Pigeon Pea and Its Role in Cropping System of Indian Continent. Science, 248, 477-480.

[8]   Stutter, M.I. and Richards, S. (2012) Relationships between Soil Physicochemical, Microbiological Properties, and Nutrient Release in Buffer Soils Compared to Field Soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 41, 400-409.

[9]   Latif, M.A., Mehuys, G.R., Mackenzie, A.F., Alli, I. and Faris, M.A. (1992) Effects of Legumes on Soil Physical Quality in a Maize Crop. Plant and Soil, 140, 15-23.

[10]   Peoples, M.B., Ladha, J.K. and Herridge, D.F. (1995) Enhancing Legume N2 Fixation through Plant and Soil Management. Plant and Soil, 174, 83-101.

[11]   Hassan, H.M., Marschner, P., McNeill, A. and Tang, C. (2012) Grain Legume Pre-Crops and Their Residues Affect the Growth, P Uptake and Size of P Pools in the Rhizosphere of the Following Wheat. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 48, 775-785.

[12]   Veneklaas, E.J., Stevens, J., Cawthray, G.R., Turner, S., Grigg, A.M. and Lambers, H. (2003) Chickpea and White Lupin Rhizosphere Carboxylates Vary with Soil Properties and Enhance Phosphorus Uptake. Plant and Soil, 248, 187-197.

[13]   Richardson, A.E. (2001) Prospects for Using Soil Microorganisms to Improve the Acquisition of Phosphorus by Plants. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 28, 897-906.

[14]   Nuruzzaman, M., Lambers, H., Bolland, M.D.A. and Veneklaas, E.J. (2006) Distribution of Carboxylates and Acid Phosphatase and Depletion of Different Phosphorus Fractions in the Rhizosphere of a Cereal and Three Grain Legumes. Plant and Soil, 281, 109-120.

[15]   Smith, S.E., Read, D.J. and Harley, J.L. (1997) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Academic Press, London.

[16]   Shane, M.W. and Lambers, H. (2005) Cluster Roots: A Curiosity in Context. Plant and Soil, 274, 101-125.

[17]   Kamh, M., Horst, W.J., Amer, F., Mostafa, H. and Maier, P. (1999) Mobilization of Soil and Fertilizer Phosphate by Cover Crops. Plant and Soil, 211, 19-27.

[18]   Nuruzzaman, M., Lambers, H., Bolland, M.D.A. and Veneklaas, E.J. (2005) Phosphorus Uptake by Grain Legumes and Subsequently Grown Wheat at Different Levels of Residual Phosphorus Fertiliser. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 56, 1041-1047.

[19]   Hens, M. and Hocking, P.J. (2004) An Evaluation of the Phosphorus Benefits from Grain Legumes in Rotational Cropping Using 33P Isotopic Dilution. Proceedings for the 4th International Crop Science Congress, Brisbane, 26 September-1 October 2004.

[20]   Horst, W.J., Kamh, M., Jibrin, J.M. and Chude, V.O. (2001) Agronomic Measures for Increasing P Availability to Crops. Plant and Soil, 237, 211-223.

[21]   Doran, J.W. and Smith, M.S. (1991) Role of Cover Crops in the Nitrogen Cycle. In: Hargrove, W.L., Ed., Cover Crop for Clean Water, Soil and Water Conservation Society, Ankeny, 85-90.

[22]   Sheaffer, C.C. and Seguin, P. (2003) Forage Legumes for Sustainable Cropping Systems. Journal of Crop Production, 8, 187-216.

[23]   Campbell, C.A., Lafond, G.P., Biederbeck, V.O. and Winkleman, G.E. (1993) Influence of Legumes and Fertilization on Deep Distribution of Available Phosphorus (Olsen-P) in a Thin Black Chernozemic Soil. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 73, 555-565.

[24]   Wang, D. and Anderson, D.W. (1998) Direct Measurement of Organic Carbon Content in Soils by the Leco CR-12 Carbon Analyzer. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 29, 15-21.

[25]   Rhoades, J.D. (1982) Cation Exchange Capacity. In: Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. and Keeney, D.R., Eds., Methods of Soil Analyses, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd Edition, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 149-167.

[26]   Qian, P., Schoenau, J.J. and Karamanos, R.E. (1994) Simultaneous Extraction of Available Phosphorus and Potassium with a New Soil Test—A Modification of Kelowna Extraction. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 25, 627-635.

[27]   Qian, P. and Schoenau, J.J. (2010) Ion Supply Rates Using Ion-Exchange Resins. In: Carter, M.R., Ed., Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis, Lewis, Boca Raton, 197-206.

[28]   Thomas, R.L., Sheard, R.W. and Moyer, J.R. (1967) Comparison of Conventional and Automated Procedures for Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Analysis of Plant Material Using a Single Digestion. Agronomy Journal, 59, 240-248.

[29]   Astatke, A., Mohamed Saleem, M.A. and Wakeel, El.A. (1995) Soil Water Dynamics under Cereal and Forage Legume Mixtures on Drained Vertisols in the Ethiopian Highlands. Agricultural Water Management, 27, 17-24.

[30]   Jefferson, G.P., Selles, F., Zentner, P.R., Lemke, R. and Muri, B.R. (2013) Barley Yield and Nutrient Uptake in Rotation after Perennial Forages in the Semiarid Prairie Region of Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 93, 809-816.

[31]   Daroub, S.H., Ellis, B.G. and Robertson, G.P. (2001) Effect of Cropping and Low-Chemical Input Systems on Soil Phosphorus Fractions. Soil Science, 166, 281-291.

[32]   Rasse, D.P., Smucker, A.J.M. and Santos, D. (2000) Alfalfa Root and Shoot Mulching Effects on Soil Hydraulic Properties and Aggregation. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64, 725-731.

[33]   Seeling, B. and Zasoski, R.J. (1993) Microbial Effects in Maintaining Organic and Inorganic Solution Phosphorus Concentrations in Grassland Topsoil. Plant and Soil, 148, 277-284.

[34]   Friesen, D.K., Rao, I.M., Thomas, R.J., Oberson, A. and Sanz, J.I. (1997) Phosphorus Acquisition and Cycling in Crop and Pasture Systems in Low Fertility Tropical Soils. Plant and Soil, 196, 289-294.

[35]   Oberson, A., Friesen, D.K., Tiessen, H., Morel, C. and Stahel, W. (1999) Phosphorus Status and Cycling in Native Savanna and Improved Pastures on an Acid Low-P Colombian Oxisol. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 55, 77-88.

[36]   McKenzie, R.H., Stewart, J.W.B., Dormaar, J.F. and Schaalje, G.B. (1992) Long-Term Crop Rotation and Fertilizer Effects on Phosphorus Transformations: II. In a Luvisolic Soil. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 72, 581-589.

[37]   Vu, D.T., Armstrong, R.D., Sale, P.W.G. and Tang, C. (2010) Phosphorus Availability for Three Crop Species as a Function of Soil Type and Fertilizer History. Plant and Soil, 337, 497-510.

[38]   Reddy, D.D., Subba Rao, A. and Takkar, P.N. (1999) Effects of Repeated Manure and Fertilizer Phosphorus Additions on Soil Phosphorus Dynamics under a Soybean-Wheat Rotation. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 28, 150-155.

[39]   Motavalli, P.P. and Miles, R.J. (2002) Soil Phosphorus Fractions after 111 Years of Animal Manure and Fertilizer Applications. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 36, 35-42.