ENG  Vol.10 No.7 , July 2018
Applying Prim’s Algorithm to Identify Isolated Areas for Natural Disaster Prevention and Protection
ABSTRACT
Based on the principle of “pre-disaster prevention outweighs rescue during disasters”, this study targets areas threatened by natural disasters, and develops an automatic algorithm based on the Prim algorithm to serve as an automatic identification system. In the face of natural disasters that disable key facilities in the region and prevent settlements from contacting the outside world or outsiders from sending rescuers to the settlements, the proposed system helps to identify whether these regions will become isolated areas and conduct disaster mitigation and relief resource allocation before any natural disaster in order to reduce potential disaster losses. An automatic identification system, based on the threshold of channel blocking due to broken roads and bridges, determines through the decision tree model and relevant patterns whether such regions will become isolated areas by identifying areas based on the results of model analysis. The proposed system’s identification results are verified by actual case histories and comparisons; the results can be used to correctly identify isolated areas. Finally, Microsoft Visual Studio C # and Google Map are employed to apply the results and to produce an information mode for the determination and decision support of isolated areas affected by natural disasters.
Cite this paper
Wang, W. and Hsieh, M. (2018) Applying Prim’s Algorithm to Identify Isolated Areas for Natural Disaster Prevention and Protection. Engineering, 10, 417-431. doi: 10.4236/eng.2018.107029.
References
[1]   Chen, L.C., Wu, J.Y. and Lai, M.J. (2006) The Evolution of the Natural Disaster Management System in Taiwan. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, 29, 633-638 (In Chinese).
https://doi.org/10.1080/02533839.2006.9671159

[2]   Macgill, S.M. and Siu, Y.L. (2004) The Nature of Risk. Journal of Risk Research, 7, 315-352.
https://doi.org/10.1080/1366987042000176253

[3]   Birkmann, J., Teichman, K.V., Welle, T., González, M. and Olabarrieta, M. (2010) The Unperceived Risk to Europe’s Coasts: Tsunamis and the Vulnerability of Cadiz. Spain. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 10, 2659-2675.
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-10-2659-2010

[4]   Sönke, K., Eckstein, D. and Melchior, I. (2016) The Global Climate Risk Index 2017. Germanwatch e.V., Berlin.

[5]   Efraim, T., Ramesh, S. and Dursun, D. (2010) Decision Support and Business Intelligence Systems. 9th Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.

[6]   Comfort, L.K., Waugh, W.L. and Cigler, B.A. (2012) Emergency Management Research and Practice in Public Administration: Emergence, Evolution, Expansion, and Future Directions. Public Administration Review, 72, 539-547.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2012.02549.x

[7]   Burnett, J.J. (1998) A Strategic Approach to Managing Crises. Public Relation Review, 24, 475-488.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0363-8111(99)80112-X

[8]   Kocher, M.G., Pahlke, J. and Trautmann, S.T. (2013) Time Pressure in Risky Decisions. Management Science, 59, 2380-2391.
https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.2013.1711

[9]   Nunamaker Jr., J.F., Chen, M. and Purdin, T.D.M. (1991) Systems Development in Information Systems Research. Journal of Management Information Systems, 7, 89-106.
https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.1990.11517898

[10]   Walls, J.G., Widmeyer, G.R. and El Sawy, O.A. (1992) Building an Information Systems Design Theory for Vigilant EIS. Information Systems Research, 3, 36-59.
https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.3.1.36

[11]   Markus, M.L., Majchrzak, A. and Gasser, L. (2002) A Design Theory for Systems that Support Emergent Knowledge Processes. MIS Quarterly, 26, 179-212.

[12]   March, S.T. and Smith, G.F. (1995) Design and Natural Science Research on Information Technology Salvatore. Decision Support Systems, 15, 251-266.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-9236(94)00041-2

[13]   Hevner, A.R. (2007) A Three Cycle View of Design Science Research. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, 19, Article 4.

[14]   Iivari, J. (2007) A Paradigmatic Analysis of Information Systems as a Design Science. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, 19, Article 5.

[15]   Peffers, K., Tuunanen, T., Rothenberger, A.M. and Chatterjee, S. (2007) A Design Science Research Methodology for Information Systems Research. Journal of Management Information Systems, 24, 45-78.
https://doi.org/10.2753/MIS0742-1222240302

[16]   Canadian Government.
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/alert-alerte/h1n1/guidance_lignesdirectrices/cdricp-cdeicp-eng.php

[17]   Huang, C.N., Liou, J.H.J. and Chuang, Y.C. (2014) A Method for Exploring the Interdependencies and Importance of Critical Infrastructures. Knowledge-Based Systems, 55, 66-74.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knosys.2013.10.010

[18]   Taylor, C. and VanMarcke, E. (2006) Infrastructure Risk Management Processes: Natural, Accidental, and Deliberate Hazards.

[19]   Rinaldi, S.M., Peerenboom, J.P. and Kelly, T.K. (2001) Identifying, Understanding, and Analyzing Critical Infrastructure Independencies. IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 21, 11-25.
https://doi.org/10.1109/37.969131

[20]   Ted, G.L. (2006) Critical Infrastructure Protection in Homeland Security-Defending a Networked Nation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken.

[21]   Wu, C.C., Huang, S.C., Hsieh, C.H. and Chien, S.W. (2011) Disaster Impact Analysis on Critical Infrastructures: Using Urban Areas as an Example. Seminar of Taiwan Disaster Management, Taipei.

[22]   The World Bank (2010) Safer Homes, Stronger Communities: A Handbook for Reconstructing after Disasters. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/290301468159328458/text/528390
PUB0safe101Official0Use0Only1.txt


[23]   Michael, K.L. and Prater, C.S. (2003) Assessing Community Impacts of Natural Disasters. Natural Hazards Review, 4, 176-185.
https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1527-6988(2003)4:4(176)

[24]   Cutter, S.L., Boruff, B.J. and Shirley, W.L. (2003) Social Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards. Social Science Quarterly, 84, 242-261.
https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6237.8402002

[25]   Committee on Assessing the Costs of Natural Disasters (1999) The Impacts of Natural Disasters: A Framework for Loss Estimation. National Academy Press, Washington DC.

[26]   McLoughlin, D. (1985) A Framework for Integrated Emergency Management. Public Administration Review, 45, 165-172.
https://doi.org/10.2307/3135011

[27]   Chen, C.H. (2004) A Study on the Slope Failure Hazard along the Coastal Road-11th Provincial Highway. Master Thesis, Department of National Resources and Environmental Studies, National Dong Hwa University. (In Chinese)

[28]   Yang, W.H. (2010) Evaluation Processes of Bridge Hazards and Inventory of Bridges Damaged by Disasters. Graduate Institute of Construction Engineering and Management, National Central University. (In Chinese)

[29]   Chen, C.N. and Yeh, Y.L. (2010) Evaluation of Disaster Rescue in Mountain Tribes. Journal of Taiwan Agricultural Engineering, 56, 61-70. (In Chinese)

[30]   Chen, Y.J., Lin, S.C., Wang, Y.T. and Li, Z.R. (2011) Potential Assessment of Road Collapse Disaster in Mountain Area. Taiwan Highway Engineering, 37, 5-24.

[31]   Chen, J.Y. (2012) Wufeng Township, Hsinchu County Refuge in Evacuation Planning of Mechanism and Asylum. Master Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, National Central University. (In Chinese)

[32]   Pan, Y.X. (2015) Discussion of the Rural Settlements Isolation Effects Occurs. Department of Social and Regional Development, National Taipei University of Education, Taipei. (In Chinese)

[33]   Hung, C.Y. and Lin, H.M. (2012) The Study of Disaster System for Hai-Duan Township in Taitung County. Journal of Disaster Management, 2, 17-41. (In Chinese)

[34]   Cormen, T.H., Leiserson, C.E., Rivest, R.L. and Stein, C. (2009) Introduction to Algorithms. 3rd Edition, MIT Press, Cambridge, 631-638.

[35]   Sudhakar, T.D. and Srinivas, K.N. (2011) Power System Reconfiguration Based on Prim’s Algorithm. 1st International Conference on Electrical Energy Systems, Newport Beach, 3-5 January 2011, 12-20.
https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEES.2011.5725295

[36]   Dimitrijevic, S. and Rajakovic, N. (2011) An Innovative Approach for Solving the Restoration Problem in Distribution Networks. Electric Power Systems Research, 81, 1961-1972.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2011.06.005

[37]   Ahuja, R.K., Magnanti, T.L. and Orlin, J.B. (1993) Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms and Applications. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

[38]   Gfeller, B., Santoro, N. and Widmayer, P. (2011) A Distributed Algorithm for Finding All Best Swap Edges of a Minimum-Diameter Spanning Tree. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 8, 1-12.
https://doi.org/10.1109/TDSC.2009.17

[39]   Deng, Y., Chen, Y., Zhang, Y. and Mahadevan, S. (2012) Fuzzy Dijkstra Algorithm for Shortest Path Problem under Uncertain Environment. Applied Soft Computing, 12, 1231-1237.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2011.11.011

[40]   Hong-Chi Shih, J.-S.P., Ho, J.-H. and Liao, B.-Y. (2013) Fault Node Recovery Algorithm for a Wireless Sensor Network. IEEE Sensors Journal, 13, 2683-2689.
https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2013.2255591

 
 
Top