JTR  Vol.6 No.2 , June 2018
First Nationwide Survey of the Prevalence of TB/HIV Co-Infection in Ghana
ABSTRACT
Background: To better understand the extent of the magnitude of tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection in Ghana, a baseline study was conducted to establish the national prevalence of the dual infection. The study aimed to determine the most prevalent HIV serotype (HIV-1 or HIV-2) in TB patients (new and old cases); genotype mycobacterial species causing TB/HIV co-infection and determine their drug susceptibility patterns. Methods: Sputum and dried blood samples were collected from 503 TB patients from 67 health facilities nationwide between December 2007 and November 2008. All samples were processed for mycobacterial and HIV testing using conventional and molecular methods. Results: A total of 517 paired sputum samples were received from 517 patients. A total 503 patients [335 (66.6%) males; 168 (33.4%) females] had at least one culture positive sample. Majority (93.0%) of the patients were new cases while 7.0% were old cases. All 503 TB isolates were Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Of 503 blood samples, 74 were positive for HIV (14.7%), comprising 71 (14.1%) and 3 (0.6%) for HIV-1 and HIV-1 & 2 respectively; none was positive for HIV-2 alone. The seroprevalence of HIV in newly diagnosed TB patients and those already on treatment, was 69/468 (14.7%) and 5/35 (14.3%) respectively (p > 0.05). Differentiation of isolates from TB/HIV co-infected patients showed that 70/74 (94.6%) were Mycobacterium tuberculosis while 4/74 (5.4%) were Mycobacterium africanum. Monoresistance to isoniazid and rifampicin were 4/74 (5.4%) and 1/74 (1.4%) respectively; resistance to both drugs (multi-drug resistant-MDR) was not observed. Sixty nine (93.2%) isolates were susceptible to both drugs. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV infection in TB patients was 14.7%. TB/HIV was common among the sexually active age group (25 - 34 years). Majority of the TB isolates were M. tuberculosis which were susceptible to both isoniazid and rifampicin. HIV-1 was the common serotype infecting TB patients in Ghana.
Cite this paper
Addo, K. , Ampofo, W. , Owusu, R. , Bonsu, C. , Nartey, N. , Mensah, G. , Addo, S. , Bonney, K. , Kumi, J. , Hesse, A. , Addo, N. and Bonsu, F. (2018) First Nationwide Survey of the Prevalence of TB/HIV Co-Infection in Ghana. Journal of Tuberculosis Research, 6, 135-147. doi: 10.4236/jtr.2018.62013.
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