IJOHNS  Vol.7 No.3 , May 2018
Clinico-Epidemiological Pattern and Treatment of Epistaxis in a Tertiary Hospital in South Western Nigeria
ABSTRACT
Background/Objectives: Epistaxis is a common presentation and may constitute a major challenge to the parents and the health care givers. This study aimed at determining the clinico-epidemiological pattern, presentation and etiology of epistaxis. Materials and Methods: This prospective study of all patients that presented with epistaxis via the Ear, Nose and Throat department of a tertiary institution in Nigeria. The study was carried out between June 2012 and July 2017. Data were obtained from patients who gave consent by using pre-tested interviewer assisted questionnaire. All the data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: The prevalence of epistaxis in this study was 12.2%. The peak age group was 1-10 years with epistaxis prevalence of 36.4%. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Anterior epistaxis was more common than posterior epistaxis accounted for 80.1% and 7.4% respectively. Single episode of epistaxis was seen in 78.4% of the patients while recurrent epistaxis occurred in 21.6%. Unilateral epistaxis was 62.5%, bilateral epistaxis was 37.5% while right nasal bleeding accounted for 35.8%. The main local causes of epistaxis were trauma 29.5%, infective rhinosinusitis 18.8% and sinonasal tumours 12.5%. Severe epistaxis requiring blood transfusion was seen in 2.8% of the patients and death was recorded in 2.3%. Majority 110 (62.5%) were managed by observation alone, 20 (11.4%) by conservative therapy and 22 (12.5%) had surgical excision. Blood transfusion was given in 5. The outcome of treatment was good recovery in 79.0% while patients’ satisfaction with treatment was noted in 84.1%. Conclusion: Epistaxis is a common sinonasal presentation with effect on quality of life. In our center commonest site of nose bleeds was local mainly from traumatic, inflammatory and neoplastic aetiology.
Cite this paper
Adegbiji, W. , Olajide, G. , Olatoke, F. and Nwawolo, C. (2018) Clinico-Epidemiological Pattern and Treatment of Epistaxis in a Tertiary Hospital in South Western Nigeria. International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, 7, 88-97. doi: 10.4236/ijohns.2018.73012.
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