ABSTRACT Background/Objectives: Epistaxis is a common presentation and may constitute a major challenge to the parents and the health care givers. This study aimed at determining the clinico-epidemiological pattern, presentation and etiology of epistaxis. Materials and Methods: This prospective study of all patients that presented with epistaxis via the Ear, Nose and Throat department of a tertiary institution in Nigeria. The study was carried out between June 2012 and July 2017. Data were obtained from patients who gave consent by using pre-tested interviewer assisted questionnaire. All the data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: The prevalence of epistaxis in this study was 12.2%. The peak age group was 1-10 years with epistaxis prevalence of 36.4%. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Anterior epistaxis was more common than posterior epistaxis accounted for 80.1% and 7.4% respectively. Single episode of epistaxis was seen in 78.4% of the patients while recurrent epistaxis occurred in 21.6%. Unilateral epistaxis was 62.5%, bilateral epistaxis was 37.5% while right nasal bleeding accounted for 35.8%. The main local causes of epistaxis were trauma 29.5%, infective rhinosinusitis 18.8% and sinonasal tumours 12.5%. Severe epistaxis requiring blood transfusion was seen in 2.8% of the patients and death was recorded in 2.3%. Majority 110 (62.5%) were managed by observation alone, 20 (11.4%) by conservative therapy and 22 (12.5%) had surgical excision. Blood transfusion was given in 5. The outcome of treatment was good recovery in 79.0% while patients’ satisfaction with treatment was noted in 84.1%. Conclusion: Epistaxis is a common sinonasal presentation with effect on quality of life. In our center commonest site of nose bleeds was local mainly from traumatic, inflammatory and neoplastic aetiology.
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Adegbiji, W. , Olajide, G. , Olatoke, F. and Nwawolo, C. (2018) Clinico-Epidemiological Pattern and Treatment of Epistaxis in a Tertiary Hospital in South Western Nigeria. International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, 7, 88-97. doi: 10.4236/ijohns.2018.73012.
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