ABSTRACT Many researchers recently focus on Specific Learning Disabilities due to the significant percentage of students recently diagnosed with SLD (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study basically aims in investigating the effect of Morphological Skills in written expression and spelling through an intervention project. The sample of the research consisted of 7 participants who coped with significant difficulty in written speech and orthography. Their chronological age was between 10;01 (y;m) and 12;08 (M = 11.07, SD = 0.05). The project lasted for a 10-week period (March 2017 - May 2017). Semi-structured interviews with participants’ parents, teachers and special educators were also conducted in order to increase the credibility and validity of the results. A screening test was also designed in order to evaluate the qualitative elements of the participants’ progress with accuracy. The results from Friedman non-parametric statistical test showed statistically significant elimination of errors in general (χ2F(1)=7.000, p= 0.008<0.05), in nouns (χ2F(1)=7.000, p= 0.008<0.05), in verbs (χ2F(1)=7.000, p= 0.008<0.05) and in adjectives (χ2F(1)=4.000, p= 0.046<0.05).
Cite this paper
Charitaki, G. , Charitaki, G. , Soulis, S. , Soulis, S. , Tzivinikou, S. , Tzivinikou, S. , Peklari, E. and Peklari, E. (2018) Morphological Skills: A Key Parameter in Dealing with Written Expression and Spelling in Specific Learning Disabilities. Creative Education, 9, 879-900. doi: 10.4236/ce.2018.96065.
 Alevizou, E. (2002). Special Learning Difficulties of Child and Adolescent. The Case of Dyslexia. Counseling-Supporting Programs, Bachelor Thesis, Kalamata: Technological Educational Institution.
 American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5®). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association Publishing.
 Andrianopoulou, A. (2014). Specific Learning Difficulties, Types and Therapeutic Intervention. Bachelor Thesis, Kalamata: Higher Technological Educational Institute.
 Berninger, V. W., & O’Malley May, M. (2011). Evidence-Based Diagnosis and Treatment for Specific Learning Disabilities Involving Impairments in Written and/or Oral Language. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44, 167-183. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219410391189
 Berninger, V. W., Nagy, W., Tanimoto, S., Thompson, R., & Abbott, R. D. (2015). Computer Instruction in Handwriting, Spelling, and Composing for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities in Grades 4-9. Computers & Education, 81, 154-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.10.005
 Bouwer, R., Koster, M., & van den Bergh, H. (2018). Effects of a Strategy-Focused Instructional Program on the Writing Quality of Upper Elementary Students in the Netherlands. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110, 58-71. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000206
 Brown, G., Irving, E., & Keegan, P. (2008). An Introduction to Educational Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation. Auckland, NZ: Pearson Education.
 Conti-Ramsden, G., Ullman, M. T., & Lum, J. A. (2015). The Relation between Receptive Grammar and Procedural, Declarative, and Working Memory in Specific Language Impairment. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1090.
 Dienes, Z., & Berry, D. (1997). Implicit Learning: Below the Subjective Threshold. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4, 3-23. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03210769
 Dimitriadou, I. (2014). Grammar with Another Optics. Worksheets for Children with Learning Difficulties. Athens: ikid Bookstore.
 Ehri, L. C. (2014). Orthographic Mapping in the Acquisition of Sight Word Reading, Spelling Memory, and Vocabulary Learning. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18, 5-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2013.819356
 Gena, A. (2004). Children with Mild Learning and Behavioral Disorders: Prerequisites and Teaching Methodology for Their General Classroom Education. In A. Kalantzi-Azizi, & M. Zaphiropoulou (Ed.), The School Adaptation (pp. 194-221). Athens: Ellinika Grammata.
 Georgala Μ. G., & Charitaki G. ,et al. (2016). Investigating Language Attainments in Students with Down Syndrome [Διερεúνηση των Γλωσσικων Επιδóσεων των μαθητων με σúνδρομο Down] Panhellenic Conference of Educational Sciences 2015, 340-353.
 Gillespie, A., & Graham, S. (2014). A Meta-Analysis of Writing Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities. Exceptional Children, 80, 454-473. https://doi.org/10.1177/0014402914527238
 Gopnik M. ,et al. (1997). Language Deficits and Genetic Factors Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1, 5-9.
 Gopnik M., & Crago M. ,et al. (1991). Familial Aggregation of a Developmental Language Disorder Cognition 39, 1-50.
 Graham, S., & Hebert, M. A. (2010). Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading. A Carnegie Corporation Time to Act Report. Washington DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.
 Joanisse, M. F., & Seidenberg, M. S. (1998). Specific Language Impairment: A Deficit in Grammar or Processing? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2, 240-247. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(98)01186-3
 Moll, K., Gobel, S. M., Gooch, D., Landerl, K., & Snowling, M. J. (2016). Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder: Processing Speed, Temporal Processing, and Working Memory. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49, 272-281. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219414547221
 Pinker, S. (1989). The Language Instinct. New York: Harper Collins.
 Rice, M. L., & Wexler, K. (1996). A Phenotype of Specific Language Impairment: Extended Optional Infinitives. In M. L. Rice (Ed.), Towards a Genetics of Language (pp. 215-237). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
 Sanders, E. A., Berninger, V. W., & Abbott, R. D. (2018). Sequential Prediction of Literacy Achievement for Specific Learning Disabilities Contrasting in Impaired Levels of Language in Grades 4 to 9. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 51, 137-157. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219417691048
 Shanks, D. R., & John, M. F. (1994). Characteristics of Dissociable Human Learning Systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 17, 367-395. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00035032
 Snowling, M. (2000). Dyslexia. Oxford: Blackwell.
 Stergiou, E. (2009). Specific Learning Difficulties: Emotional Components and Family Environment. Bachelor Thesis, Ioannina: Technological Educational Institution of Epirus.
 Tanimoto, S., Thompson, R., Berninger, V. W., Nagy, W., & Abbott, R. D. (2015). Computerized Writing and Reading Instruction for Students in Grades 4-9 with Specific Learning Disabilities Affecting Written Language. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 31, 671-689. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12110
 Tzivinikou, S., & Papoutsaki, K. (2016). Studying Teaching Methods, Strategies and Best Practices for Young Children with Special Educational Needs. Early Child Development and Care, 186, 971-980. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2015.1071101
 Ullman, M. T., Corkin, S., Coppola, M., Hickok, G., Growdon, J. H., Koroshetz, W. J., & Pinker, S. (1997). A Neural Dissociation within Language: Evidence That the Mental Dictionary Is Part of Declarative Memory, and That Grammatical Rules Are Processed by the Procedural System. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 266-276. https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.19188.8.131.526
 Vogindroukas, Ι., & Grigoriadou, Ε., (2000). [Eνθετο 《Ειδικεç Μαθησιακεç Δυσκολíεç - Δυσορθογραφγα》]. Θεματα ειδικηç αγωγηç, 10.