MSCE  Vol.6 No.4 , April 2018
The Aggregation of Bentonite Using Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) as a Flocculant
ABSTRACT
Sedimentation tests of bentonite suspension were carried out by adding various concentrations of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) with different molecular weights as flocculant below and above lower critical solution temperature (LCST). Also, the effect of PNIPAM on aggregation of bentonite was investigated by sedimentation rate, turbidity of supernatant. Additionally, XRD patterns and SEM photographs were measured in order to consider aggregation mechanism of PNIPAM. The sedimentation rate and turbidity for the PNIPAM with large molecular weight or PNIPAM solution of high concentration above LCST were faster and clearer than those with small molecular weight or low concentration. From XRD patterns, the peak of bentonite sediment with PNIPAM shifted to the low-angle side, suggesting that a part of PNIPAM chain entered between bentonite layers. Furthermore, it was confirmed by SEM photographs that PNIPAM covered bentonite surface after sedimentation test. It was indicated that PNIPAM adsorbs on the bentonite surface and aggregates each bentonite particle above LCST. From these results, PNIPAM works as a flocculant and the PNIPAM with large molecular weight has a good ability.
Cite this paper
Nakamura, A. and Murakami, K. (2018) The Aggregation of Bentonite Using Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) as a Flocculant. Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 6, 94-108. doi: 10.4236/msce.2018.64011.
References
[1]   Suzuki, S., Prayongphan, S., Ichikawa, Y. and Chae, B.-G. (2005) In situ Observations of the Swelling of Bentonite Aggregates in NaCl Solution. Applied Clay Science, 29, 89-98.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2004.11.001

[2]   Clem, A.G. and Doehler, R.W. (1963) Industrial Applications of Bentonite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 10, 272-283.
http://www.clays.org/journal/archive/volume%2010/10-1-272.pdf
https://doi.org/10.1346/CCMN.1961.0100122


[3]   Rodrigues, F.A., Monteiro, P.J.M. and Sposito, G. (1999) The Alkali-Silica Reaction: The Surface Charge Density of Silica and Its Effect on Expansive Pressure. Cementand Concrete Research, 29, 527-530.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(98)00220-8

[4]   Yong, S. and Hubble, M.A. (2008) Polyelectrolyte Titrations of Synthetic Mineral Microparticle Suspensions to Evaluate Charge Characteristics. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical Engineering Aspects, 331, 175-182.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2008.08.003

[5]   Amadio, T.M., Hotza, D., Rodrigues, J.B., Blosi, M., Costa, A.L. and Dondi, M. (2017) Bentonite Functionalized by Impregnation with TiO2, Ag, Pd and Au Nanoparticles. Applied Clay Science, 146, 1-6.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2017.05.028

[6]   Park, J.-H., Shin, H.-J., Kim, M.-H., Kim, J.-S., Kang, N., Lee, J.-Y., Kim, K.-T., Lee, J.I. and Kim, D.-D. (2016) Application of Montmorillonite in Bentonite as Pharmaceutical Excipient in Drug Delivery Systems. Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation, 46, 363-375.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40005-016-0258-8

[7]   Razakamanantsoa, A.R., Barast, G. and Djeran-Maigre, I. (2012) Hydraulic Performance of Activated Calcium Bentonite Treated by Polyionic Charged Polymer. Applied Clay Science, 59-60, 103-114.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2012.01.022

[8]   Magzoub, M.I., Nasser, M.S., Hussein, I.A., Benamor, A., Onaizi, S.A., Sutan, A.S. and Mahmoud, M.A. (2017) Effect of So-dium Carbonate Addition, Heat and Agitation on Swelling and Rheological Behavior of Ca-Bentonite Colloidal Dispersions. Applied Clay Science, 147, 176-183.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2017.07.032

[9]   Wilkinson, N., Metaxas, A., Brichetto, E., Wickramaratne, S., Reineke, T.M. and Dutcher, C.S. (2017) Ionic Strength Dependence of Aggregate Size and Morphology On Polymer-Clay Flocculation. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical Engineering Aspects, 529, 1037-1046.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2017.06.085

[10]   Wilkinson, N., Metaxas, A., Quinney, C., Wickramaratne, S., Reineke, T.M. and Dutcher, C.S. (2018) pH Dependence of Bentonite Aggregate Size and Morphology on Polymer-Clay Flocculation. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical Engineering Aspects, 537, 281-286.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2017.10.007

[11]   Karagüzel, C., Centinel, T., Boylu, F., Cunku, K. and Celic, M.S. (2010) Activation of (Na, Ca)-Bentonites with Soda and MgO and Their Utilization as Drilling Mud. Applied Clay Science, 48, 398-404.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2010.01.013

[12]   Villabona-Estupinán, S., de Almeida Rodrigues, J. and Nascimento, R.S.V. (2017) Understanding the Clay-PEG (and Hydrophobic Derivatives) Interactions and Their Effect on Clay Hydration and Dispersion: A Comparative Study. Applied Clay Science, 143, 89-100.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2017.03.021

[13]   Song, K., Wu, Q., Li, M.-C., Wojtanowicz, A.K., Dong, L., Zhang, X., Ren, S. and Lei, T. (2016) Performance of Low Solid Bentonite Drilling Fluids Modified by Cellulose Nanoparticles. Journal of Natural Gas Scienceand Engineering, 34, 1403-1411.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2016.08.036

[14]   Yang, L., Jiang, G., Shi, Y., Lin, X. and Yang, X. (2017) Application of Ionic Liquid to a High-Performance Calcium-Resistant Additive for Filtration Control of Bentonite/Water-Based Drilling Fluids. Journalof Materials Science, 52, 6362-6375.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-0870-7

[15]   Afolabi, R.O., Orodu, O.D. and Efeovbokhan, V.E. (2017) Properties and Application of Nigerian Bentonite Clay Deposits for Drilling Mud Formulation: Recent Advances and Future Prospect. Applied Clay Science, 143, 39-49.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2017.03.009

[16]   Xie, G., Luo, P., Deng, M., Su, J., Wang, Z., Gong, R., Xie, J., Deng, S. and Duan, Q. (2017) Intercalation Behavior of Branched Polyethylenemine into Sodium Bentonite and Its Effect on Rheological Properties. Applied Clay Science, 141, 95-103.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2017.02.018

[17]   Sasmal, D., Singh, R.P. and Tripathy, T. (2015) Synthesis and Flocculation Characteristics of a Novel Biodegradable Flocculating Agent Amylopecting-poly(acrylamideco-N-methylacrylamide). Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical Engineering Aspects, 482, 575-584.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2015.07.017

[18]   Kadooka, H., Kiso, Y., Goto, S., Tanaka, T., Jami, M.S. and Iwata, M. (2017) Flocculation Behavior of Colloidal Suspension by Use of Inorganic and Polymer Flocculants in Powder Form. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 18, 169-175.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2017.05.011

[19]   Addai-Mensah, J., Yeap, K.Y. and MaFarlane, A.J. (2007) The Influential Role of Pulp Chemistry, Flocculant Structure Type and Shear Rate on Dewaterability of Kaolinite and Smectite Clay Dispersions under Coquette Taylor Flow Conditions. Powder Technology, 179, 79-83.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2006.11.007

[20]   O’Shea, J.-P. and Tallón, C. (2011) The Effect of Salt Concentration and pH om the Solid-Liquid Separation of Silica Suspensions with a Temperature-Responsive Flocculant. Separation and Purification Technology, 82, 167-176.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2011.09.007

[21]   Franks, G.V., O’Shea, J.-P. and Forbes, E. (2014) Controlling Thickener Underflow Rheology using a Temperature Responsive Flocculant. AIChE Journal, 60, 2940-2948.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/aic.14469/full
https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.14469


[22]   Schwarz, S., Ponce-Vargas, S.M., Licwa-Claverie, A. and Steinbach, C. (2012) Chitosan and Mixtures with Aqueous Biocompatible Temperature Sensitive Polymer as Flocculants. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical Engineering Aspects, 413, 7-12.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2012.03.048

[23]   Indulekha, S., Arunkumar, P., Bahadur, D. and Srivastava, R. (2017) Dual Responsive Magnetic Composite Nanogels for Thermos-Chemotherapy. Colloids and Surfaces B. Biointerfaces, 155, 304-313.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2017.04.035

[24]   Hashimoto, T., Takahashi, A., Urushisaki, M. and Sakaguchi, T. (2010) Synthesis of Poly(vinyl ether) Polyols with Pendant Oxyethylene Chains and Properties of Hydrophilic, Thermos-Responsive Polyurethanes Prepared Therefrom. Polymer Chemistry, 48, 1641-1648.
https://doi.org/10.1002/pola.23930
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pola.23930/abstract

[25]   Winnik, F.M., Ringsdorf, H. and Venzmer, J. (1990) Methanol-Water as a Co-Nonsolvent System for Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). Macromolecules, 23, 2415-1416.
https://doi.org/10.1021/ma00210a048

[26]   Cheng, H., Shen, L. and Wu, C. (2006) LLS and FTIR Studies on the Hysteresis in Association and Dissociation of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Chains in Water. Macromolecules, 39, 2325-2329.
https://doi.org/10.1021/ma052561m

[27]   Etika, K.C., Liu, L., Cox, M.A. and Grunlan, J.C. (2016) Clay-Mediated Carbon Nanotube Dispersion in Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical Engineering Aspects, 489, 19-26.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2015.09.024

[28]   Zhang, F., Wu, W., Zhang, X., Meng, X., Tong, G. and Deng, Y. (2016) Temperature-Sensitive Poly-NIPAm Modified Cellulose Nanofibril Cryogel Microspheres for Controlled Drug Release. Cellulose, 23, 415-425.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10570-015-0799-4
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0799-4

[29]   Liu, L., Zeng, J., Zhao, X., Tian, K. and Liu, P. (2017) Independent Temperature and pH Dual-Responsive PMAA/PNIPAM Microgels as Drug System: Effect of Swelling Behavior of the Core and Shell Materials in Fabrication Process. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical Engineering Aspects, 526, 48-55.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2016.11.007

[30]   Depa, K., Strachota, A., Slouf, M., Brus, J. and Cimrová, V. (2017) Synthesis of Conductive Doubly Filled Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-Polyaniline-SiO2 Hydrogels. Sensors and Actuators: B Chemical, 244, 616-634.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2016.12.121

[31]   O’Shea, J.-P., Qiao, G.G. and Franks, G.V. (2010) Solid-Liquid Separations with a Temperature-Responsive Polymeric Flocculant: Effect of Temperature and Molecular Weight on Polymer Adsorption and Deposition. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 348, 9-23.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2010.04.063

[32]   Ng, W.S., Connal, L.A., Forbes, E., Mohanarangam, K. and Franks, G.V. (2017) In Situ Investigation of Aggregate Sizes Formed using Thermos-Responsive Polymers: Effect of Temperature and Shear. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 494, 139-152.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2017.01.067

[33]   Lemanowicz, M., Gierczycki, A., Kuznik, W., Sancewicz, R. and Imiela, P. (2014) Determination of Lower Critical Solution Temperature of Thermosensitive Flocculants. Minerals Engineering, 69, 170-176.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2014.07.022

[34]   Sawada, S., Kimura, R. and Murakami, K. (2016) Preparation of Thermo-Responsive Separation Membrane and Evaluation of Its Separation Properties. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, 42, 107-112. (In Japanese)

[35]   Murakami, K., Watanabe, A., Kato, T. and Sugawara, K. (2013) Transition Temperature Control of Adsorption-Desorption Property of PNIPAM/Mesoporous Silica Composite by Addition of Crosslinking Agent. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical Engineering Aspects, 419, 223-227.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2012.11.074

[36]   Fujishige, S. (1987) Intrinsic Viscosity-Molecular Weight Relationships for Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Solutions. Polymer Journal, 19, 297-300.
https://www.nature.com/articles/pj198731
https://doi.org/10.1295/polymj.19.297


[37]   Orucogle, E. and Schroeder, P.A. (2016) Investigating the Expanding Behavior and Thermal Stability of HDPy Modified Organo-Bentonite by X-Ray Diffraction Technique. Applied Clay Science, 132-133, 90-95.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2016.05.021

[38]   Nakamaura, A., Sugawara, K., Nakajima, S. and Murakami, K. (2017) Adsorption of Cs Ions using a Temperature-Responsive Polymer/Magnetite/Zeolite Composite Adsorption and Separation of the Adsorbent from Water using High-Gradient Magnetic Separation. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical Engineering Aspects, 527, 63-69.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2017.05.032

[39]   Liu, Q., Zhang, P., Qing, A., Lan, Y., Shi, J. and Lu, M. (2006) Synthesis of Rapid Responsive Gels Comprising Hydrophilic Backbone and Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Graft Chains by RAFT Polymerization and End-Linking Process. Polymer, 47, 6963-6969.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2006.08.009

[40]   Kurecic, M., Sfiligj-Smole, M. and Stana-Kleinschek, K. (2012) UV Polymerization of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogel. Materials and Technology, 46, 87-91.
https://www.dlib.si/details/URN:NBN:SI:DOC-EM3QGTGJ
http://mit.imt.si/Revija/izvodi/mit121/kurecic.pdf


[41]   Fan, R.-D., Du, S.-Y., Reddy, K.R. and Yang, Y.-L. (2017) Impacts of Presence of Lead Contamination on Settling Behavior and Microstructure of Clayey Soil-Calcium Bentonite Blends. Applied Clay Science, 142, 109-119.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2016.10.042

[42]   Gupta, B., Rakesh, A., Melvin, A.A., Pandey, A.C. and Prakash, R. (2014) In-Situ Synthesis of Polyaniline Coated Montmorillonite (Mt) Clay using Fe3+ Intercalated Mt as Oxidizing Agent. Applied Clay Science, 95, 50-54.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2014.02.009

[43]   Clegg, F., Breen, C. and Khairuddin (2014) Synergistic and Competitive Aspects of the Adsorption of Poly(ethylene glycol) and Poly(vinyl alcohol) onto Na-Bentonite. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 118, 13268-13278.
https://doi.org/10.1021/jp507772t

[44]   Hou, X.-J., Li, H., Liu, Q., Cheng, H., He, P. and Li, S. (2015) Theoretical Study for the Interlamellar Aminoalcohol Functionalization of Kaolinite. Applied Surface Science, 347, 439-447.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.04.117

[45]   Li, J., Song, X., Pan, J., Zhong, L., Jiao, S. and Ma, Q. (2013) Adsorption and Flocculation of Bentonite by Chitosan with Varying Degree of Deacetylation and Molecular Weight. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 62, 4-12.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.08.009

 
 
Top