There are complex and perfect coagulation, anticoagulation and fibrinolysis systems in the human body and their fine regulatory mechanisms. Once the coagulation system and its regulatory mechanisms are destroyed, bleeding or thrombosis will occur very soon. In the blood coagulation, the blood viscoelasticity changes. Therefore, the thrombus elasticity measurement technology can be used to continuously monitor the changing blood viscoelasticity in order to study the process of coagulation. The results of the interaction among the various components of the blood can be obtained from coagulation to fibrinolysis by bedside detection. The traditional electromagnetic induction sensors, based on conventional coil inductance, are manufactured complexly, high cost and non-linear. Therefore, this paper proposes a non-Newtonian fluid viscoelasticity measurement method based on the piezoelectric effect. We use the piezoelectric bimorphs with the diameter of 21 mm and the total thickness of 0.38 mm and DSM coupling probes with the length of 3 mm, 5 mm and 7 mm to design the piezoelectric bimorphs driver. The viscoelasticity of different non-Newtonian fluids is tested. The vibration amplitudes of the piezoelectric bimorphs and liquid surfaces range from 0.43 μm to 3.52 μm. Consequently, the feasibility of in vitro detection of thrombus is confirmed in principle and the above scheme is validated theoretically and experimentally, which provides the basis for the measurement of blood viscoelasticity, the in vitro detection of thrombus and the manufacture of blood coagulation instrument.
Cite this paper
Kou, J. , Li, Y. , Yang, P. and Zhang, J. (2017) A Novel Blood Coagulation Measuring Method Based on the Viscoelasticity of Non-Newtonian Fluid. World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 5, 134-151. doi: 10.4236/wjet.2017.54B015.
 Qari, M. (2005) High Throughput Coagulation Analyzers Review. Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening, 8, 353-360.
 Lippi, G., Favaloro, E.J., Franchini, M. and Guidi, G.C. (2009) Milestones and Perspectives in Coagulation and Hemostasis. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, 35, 9-22. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1214144
 Herbstreit, F., Winter, E., Peters, J. and Hartmann, M. (2010) Monitoring of Haemostasis in Liver Transplantation: Comparison of Laboratory Based and Point of Care Tests. Anaesthesia, 65, 44-49.
 Kitchen, D.P., Jennings, I., Kitchen, S., Woods, T.A. and Walker, I.D. (2015) Bridging the Gap between Point-of-Care Testing and Laboratory Testing in Hemostasis. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, 41, 272-278.
 Collet, J.-P., Shuman, H., Ledger, R.E., Lee, S. and Weisel, J.W. (2005) The Elasticity of an Individual Fibrin Fiber in a Clot. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 9133-9137.
 Seidel, H., Rahman, M. and Scharf, R. (2011) Monitoring of Antiplatelet Therapy. Hämostaseologie, 31, 41-51. https://doi.org/10.5482/ha-1146
 Luddington, R. (2005) Thrombelastography/Thromboelastometry. International Journal of Laboratory Hematology, 27, 81-90.
 Tanaka, K.A., Szlam, F., Sun, H.Y., Taketomi, T. and Levy, J.H. (2007) Thrombin Generation Assay and Viscoelastic Coagulation Monitors Demonstrate Differences in the Mode of Thrombin Inhibition between Unfractionated Heparin and Bivalirudin. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 105, 933-939.
 Wanaka, K., Asada, R., Miyashita, K., Kaneko, M., Endo, H. and Yatomi, Y. (2015) Novel HIT Antibody Detection Method Using Sonoclot® Coagulation Analyzer. Thrombosis Research, 135, 127-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2014.10.024
 Evans, P.A., et al. (2008) Rheometry and Associated Techniques for Blood Coagulation Studies. Medical Engineering & Physics, 30, 671-679.
 Miyashita, T. and Kuro, M. (1998) Evaluation of Platelet Function by Sonoclot Analysis Compared with Other Hemostatic Variables in Cardiac Surgery. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 87, 1228.
 Wan, P., Tong, H.S., Zhang, X.Q., Duan, P.K., Tang, Y.Q. and Su, L. (2014) Diagnosis of Overt Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Critically Ill Adults by Sonoclot Coagulation Analysis. International Journal of Hematology, 100, 125-131.
 Brissaud, M., Ledren, S. and Gonnard, P. (2003) Modelling of a Cantilever Non-Symmetric Piezoelectric Bimorph. Journal of Micromechanics & Microengineering, 13, 832. https://doi.org/10.1088/0960-1317/13/6/306
 Brissaud, M. (2004) Modelling of Non-Symmetric Piezoelectric Bimorphs. Journal of Micromechanics & Microengineering, 14, 1507.
 Wang, Q., Quek, S.T., Sun, C.T. and Liu, X. (2001) Analysis of Piezoelectric Coupled Circular Plate. Smart Materials & Structures, 10, 229.