OJAS  Vol.7 No.4 , October 2017
ADSL, AMPD1, and ATIC Expression Levels in Muscle and Their Correlations with Muscle Inosine Monophosphate Content in Dapulian and Hybridized Pig Species
ABSTRACT
We investigated the relationship between muscle inosine monophosphate (IMP) content and mRNA levels of ADSL, AMPD1, and ATIC in Dapulian (DPL), Landrace × Dapulian (LDPL), and Duroc × Landrace × Dapulian (DLDPL) hybridized pigs. Methods: The total RNA in longissimus dorsi was isolated from Dapulian (DPL), Landrace × Dapulian (LDPL) and Duroc × Landrace × Dapulian (DLDPL) hybridized pigs, weighed about 95.0 kg, n = 8/species. The internal genes with highest stability (YWHAZ and RPL4) were chosen from 11 common internal genes using Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and geNorm software. The mRNA levels of ADSL, AMPD1 and ATIC genes were corrected with YWHAZ and RPL4 genes. The muscular IMP content was determined by HPLC. The muscular IMP content in DPL was higher than that in LDPL and DLDPL, 25.00% (p < 0.05) and 15.56% (p > 0.05), respectively. The muscular mRNA level of ADSL gene in DPL and LDPL was higher than that in DLDPL, 24.14% and 12.07%, respectively (p < 0.05). The muscular mRNA level of ATIC gene in DPL and LDPL was higher than that in DLDPL, 66.67% and 33.33%, respectively (p < 0.05). The muscular mRNA level of AMPD1 gene in DPL and LDPL was higher than that in DLDPL, 14.49% and 33.26%, respectively. Furthermore, the IMP content was positively correlated with the mRNA level of ADSL, AMPD1 and ATIC genes, respectively (p < 0.05). The mRNA level of ADSL gene was highly related to that of AMPD1 and ATIC gene, respectively (p < 0.01), while that of AMPD1 gene was not strongly correlated with that of ATIC gene (p > 0.05). The muscular mRNA level of AMPD1, ADSL and ATIC genes and the muscular IMP content in DPL were highest, followed by those in LDPL and DLDPL. The muscular IMP content was positively correlated with the muscular mRNA level of ADSL, AMPD1 and ATIC genes, respectively.
Cite this paper
Zhu, R. , Wang, Y. , Wang, H. , Lin, S. , Sun, S. , Huang, B. and Hu, H. (2017) ADSL, AMPD1, and ATIC Expression Levels in Muscle and Their Correlations with Muscle Inosine Monophosphate Content in Dapulian and Hybridized Pig Species. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 7, 393-404. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2017.74030.
References
[1]   Zhang, G.Q., Ma, Q.G. and Ji, C. ( 2008) Effects of Dietary Inosinic Acid on Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, and Deposition of Inosinic Acid in Broilers. Poultry Science, 87, 1364-1369.
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00193

[2]   Wifall, T.C., Faes, T.M., Taylor-Burds, C.C., et al. (2007) An Analysis of 5’-Inosine and 5’-Guanosine Monophosphate Taste in Rats. Chemical Senses, 32, 161-172.
https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjl043

[3]   Boutchueng-Djidjou, M., Collard-Simard, G., Fortier, S., et al. (2015) The Last Enzyme of the de novo Purine Synthesis Pathway 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Ribonucleotide Formyltransferase/IMP Cyclohydrolase (ATIC) Plays a Central Role in Insulin Signaling and the Golgi/Endosomes Protein Network. Mol Cell Proteomics, 14, 1079-1092.
https://doi.org/10.1074/mcp.M114.047159

[4]   Li, J.L., Li, H.T., Gao, L.F., et al. (2011) SNPs Site Analysis and Expression Characterization of ATIC Gene in Swine. Journal of Northeast Agricultural University, 42, 22-25.

[5]   Ye, M.H., Chen, J.L., Zhao, G.P., et al. (2010) Correlation between Polymorphisms in ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART Genes with Inosine 5’-Monophosphate (IMP) Contents in Beijing-You Chickens. British Poultry Science, 51, 609-613.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2010.508486

[6]   Zikanova, M., Skopova, V., Hnizda, A., Krijt, J., et al. (2010) Biochemical and Structural Analysis of 14 Mutant ADSL Enzyme Complexes and Correlation to Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Adenylosuccinate Lyase Deficiency. Human Mutation, 31, 445-455.
https://doi.org/10.1002/humu.21212

[7]   Chai, L.J., Chu, M.X., Wen, J., et al. (2005) Study on Polymorphisms of AMPD1 Gene and Its Association with IMP Content in Chickens. Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica, 36, 1112-1120.

[8]   Han, W., Zhang, X.Y., Li, H.F., et al. (2009) Effects of Single and Pyramiding Genotypes of ADSL and GARS-AIRS—GART Genes on Baier Chicken Muscle Inosine Monophosphate (IMP) Contents. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology, 17, 577-581.

[9]   Gong, L.L. (2011) Genetic Variation and Expression of ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART Genes and Their Associations with Meat Quality in Chicken. Yangzhou University, Yangzhou.

[10]   Hu, J., Yu, P., Ding, X., et al. (2015) Genetic Polymorphisms of the AMPD1 Gene and Their Correlations with IMP Contents in Fast Partridge and Lingshan Chickens. Gene, 574, 204-209.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.008

[11]   Shu, J.T., Bao, W.B., Zhang, H.X., et al. (2007) Correlation between Adenylosuccinate Lyase (ADSL) Gene Polymorphism and Inosine Monophosphate Acid (IMP) Content in Domestic Fowl and Genetic Relationship between Red Jungle Fowl and Domestic Fowl. Hereditas, 29, 343-348.
https://doi.org/10.1360/yc-007-0343

[12]   Shu, J.T., Ji, W.L., Bao, W.B., et al. (2007) The Effect of ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART Genes on Inosine Monophate Content in Chicken Meat. Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica, 38, 786-791.

[13]   Shu, J.T., Bao, W.B., Zhang, X.Y., et al. (2008) Association and Haplotype Analysis of purH Gene with Inosine Monophosphate Content in Chickens. Animal Biotechnology, 19, 310-314.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10495390802391785

[14]   Shu, J.T., Bao, W.B., Zhang, X.Y., et al. (2009) Combined Effect of Mutations in ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART Genes on IMP Content in Chickens. British Poultry Science, 50, 680-686.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660903391709

[15]   Shu, J.T., Bao, W.B., Wu, X.S., et al. (2009) Analysis of the Polymorphisms of AIRC Gene and Its Genetic Effect on IM P Content in Chicken. Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica, 40, 155-160.

[16]   Zhang, H.F., Gao, G.L., Wang, H.W., et al. (2014) Effects of Different Breeds and Raising Modes on Meat Flavors and Candidate Genes Expression Levels. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology, 22, 1018-1026.

[17]   Morisaki, H. and Morisaki, T. (2008) AMPD Genes and Urate Metabolism. Nihon Rinsho, 66, 771-777.

[18]   Liu, H., Xu, Y., Zhao, L.L., et al. (2008) Molecular Cloning and Mutation Site Analysis of AMPD1 Gene in Swine. Yi Chuan, 30, 175-178.
https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1005.2008.00175

[19]   Liu, H. (2008) Molecular Cloning, Expression and Genetic Variation of AMPD1 Gene in Wild Boar and Swine. Northeast Agricultural University, Haerbin.

[20]   Zhang, X.D., Zhang, S.J., Ding, Y.Y., et al. (2015) Association between ADSL, GARS-AIRS-GART, DGAT1, and DECR1 Expression Levels and Pork Meat Quality Traits. Genetics and Molecular Research, 14, 14823-14830.
https://doi.org/10.4238/2015.November.18.47

[21]   Hu, H.M., Guo, J.F., Zhu, R.S., et al. (2011) Comparison of Inosinic Acid and Intramuscular Fat Content in Longissimus Muscles of Different Breed Pigs. Journal of Yangzhou University (Agricultural and Life Science Edition), 32, 34-36.

[22]   Yao, Z.L., Liu, G.Q., Yan, W.M., et al. (2012) Changes and the Relationship of Inosine-5’-Monophosphate and Biogenic Amine of Chilled Pork during Storage. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 33, 184-191.

[23]   Zhu, R.S., Hu, H.M., Han, H., et al. (2008) Research on Inosinic Acid and Intramuscular Fat Content in Musle of Laiwu Pigs. Acta Ecologiac Animalis Domastici, 29, 63-65.

[24]   Cinar, M.U., Islam, M.A., Uddin, M.J., et al. (2012) Evaluation of Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Porcine Alveolar Macrophages in Response to LPS and LTA. BMC Research Notes, 5, 107.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-5-107

[25]   Martino, A., Cabiati, M., Campan, M., et al. (2011) Selection of Reference Genes for Normalization of Real-Time PCR Data in Minipig Heart Failure Model and Evaluation of TNF-α mRNA Expression. Journal of Biotechnology, 153, 92-99.

[26]   Nygard, A.B., JØrgensen, C.B., Cirera, S., et al. (2007) Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Pig Tissues using SYBR Green qPCR. BMC Molecular Biology, 8, 67.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2199-8-67

[27]   Time, E., Mario, V.P., Jo, V., et al. (2006) Development of a New Set of Reference Genes for Normalization of Real-Time RT-PCR Data of Porcine Backfat and Longissimus Dorsi Muscle, and Evaluation with PPARGC1A. BMC Biotechnolgy, 6, 41-48.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6750-6-41

[28]   Huggett, J., Dheda, K., Bustin, S., et al. (2005) Real-Time RT-PCR Normalisation: Strategies and Considerations. Genes and Immunity, 6, 279-284.
https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.gene.6364190

[29]   Chapman, J.R. and Waldenstrðm, J. (2015) With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies. PLoS ONE, 10, e0141853.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141853

[30]   Dundas, J. and Ling, M. (2012) Reference Genes for Measuring mRNA Expression. Theory in Biosciences, 131, 215-223.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12064-012-0152-5

[31]   Facci, M.R., Auray, G., Meurens, F., et al. (2011) Stability of Expression of Reference Genes in Porcine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear and Dendritic Cells. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 141, 11-15.

[32]   Chen, Q.M., Zeng, Y.Q., Wei, S.D., et al. (2010) Study on Flavor Precursors, Nutritional and Eating Quality of Meat for Different Pig Breeds. Journal of Agriculture & Life Sciences, 36, 299-305.

[33]   Xu, S.J., Yu, D.B., Wang, F., et al. (2012) Analysis of Sequence Characters of ADSL Gene and Correlation between Gene Expression and IMP Content in Duck. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 45, 774-785.

[34]   Zhang, S.J., Liu, L.Y., Yin, Z.J., et al. (2014) Comparison on IMP Content in Longissimus Dorsi Muscle in Pigs and Related Genes Expression. Food and Fermentation Industries, 40, 187-192.

[35]   Chen, J.L., Zhao, G.P., Zheng, M.Q., et al. (2008) Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Contents of Intramuscular Fat and Inosine-5’-Monophosphate and Carcass Traits in Chinese Beijing-You Chickens. Poultry Science, 87, 1098-1104.

[36]   Zheng, G.X.Y., Ravi, A., Calabrese, J.M., et al. (2011) A Latent Pro-Survival Function for the Mir-290-295 Cluster in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells. PLOS Genetics, 7, e1002054.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002054

 
 
Top