ABSTRACT The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) based satellite lightning grid data for 10 year period (1998-2007) were used to study the association of rainfall and stability index with lightning parameter over Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) region. The spatial variation of flash rate density (FRD) is found to be (40 fl·km-2·yr-1) higher over northern region of IGP as compare to that of eastern IGP region. The annual variation of FRD exhibits bimodal distributions, while the precipitation rate shows unimodal distributions. The results show that the FRD peaked 2 months (pre-monsoon) in advance to the monsoon months where rainfall peak occurred due to environmental lapse rates more than 7.0°C/km during pre-monsoon which is evident from the temperature profile for correlation coefficient between temperature (700 mb) and FRD with coefficient of 0.70, p ≤ 0.0001 during pre-monsoon. The annual variation of lifted index show negative value over March to September due to intense insolation, convective available potential energy (CAPE) and also availability of moisture. The convective cloud transform into thundercloud with the development of mixed-phase (cloud water + ice) which subsequently produce the lightning. During monsoon, seasonal thermal heating diminishes and even on revival after break monsoon period, K-index is found to be less as the orography does not allow the highly moist air of low temperature to reach to large height above freezing level. They can be referred as maritime clouds of intermediate height with moderate updraft and hence minimum lightning activity during the monsoon season. Lifted index are proved to be indicators of thunderstorm conditions. This is because that rising air parcel is much warmer than its surroundings and can accelerate rapidly and create severe thunderstorms.
Cite this paper
Tinmaker, M. , Aslam, M. and Chate, D. (2017) Association of Rainfall and Stability Index with Lightning Parameter over the Indo-Gangetic Plains. American Journal of Climate Change, 6, 443-454. doi: 10.4236/ajcc.2017.63023.
 Soriano, L.R., Pablo, F. and Diez, E.G. (2001) Relationship of Precipitation and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning in the Iberian Peninsula. Monthly Weather Review, 129, 2998-3003. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<2998:RBCPAC>2.0.CO;2
 Ezcurra, A., Areitio, J. and Herrero, I. (2002) Relationships between Cloud to Ground Lightning and Surface Rainfall during 1992-1996 in the Spanish Basque Country Area. Atmospheric Research, 61, 239-250.
 Defer, E., Lagouvardos, K. and Kotroni, V. (2005) Lighting Activity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, D24210.
 Price, C. and Federmesser, B. (2006) Lightning-Rainfall Relationships in Mediterranean Winter Thunderstorms. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L07813.
 Katsanos, D., Lagouvardos, K., Kotroni, V. and Argiriou, A. (2007) Relationship of Lightning Activity with Microwave Brightness Temperatures and Spaceborne Radar Reflectivity Profiles in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 46, 1901-1912. https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JAMC1454.1
 Basu, G.C. and Mondal, D.K. (2002) A Forecasting Aspect of Thunder Squall over Calcutta and Its Parameterization, during Pre-Monsoon Season. Mausam, 53, 271-280.
 Chaudhari, H.S., Sawaisarje, G.S., Ranalkar, M.R. and Sen, P.N. (2010) Thunderstorms over a Tropical Indian Station, Minicoy: Role of Vertical Wind Shear. Journal of Earth System Science, 119, 603-615. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-010-0044-3
 Litta, A.J., Idicula, S.M., Mohanty, U.C. and Prasad, S.K. (2012) Comparison of Thunderstorms from WRF-NMM and WRF-ARW Models over East Indian Region. Scientific World Journal, 2012, Article ID: 951870.
 Chakraborty, R., Saha, U., Singh, A.K. and Maitra, A. (2017) Association of Atmospheric Pollution and Instability Indices: A Detailed Investigation over an Indian Urban Metropolis. Atmospheric Research, 196, 83-96.
 Balogun, E.E. (1981) Seasonal and Spatial Variation of Thunderstorm Activity over Nigeria. Weather, 36, 192-197. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1477-8696.1981.tb05398.x
 Oladipo, E.O. and Mornu, M.E. (1985) Characteristics of Thunderstorms in Zaria, Nigeria. Weather, 40, 316-322. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1477-8696.1985.tb03720.x
 Prasad, S.K. and Pawar, B.C. (1985) Climatological Studies of Thunderstorm to the West and East of the Western Ghats in the State of Maharashtra and Goa: Part I. Mausam, 4, 107.
 Sivaramkrishnan, T.R. (1990) An Analytical Study of Thunderstorm over Sriharikota. Mausam, 41, 489-491.
 Price, C. and Rind, D. (1994) Modeling and Global Lightning Distributions in a General Circulation Model. Monthly Weather Review, 122, 1930-1939.
 Moid, S.A. (1995) A Climatological Study of Thunderstorms at Mohanbari Airport. Mausam, 46, 202-204.
 Williams, E.R., Chan, T. and Boccippio, D.J. (2004) Islands as Miniature Continents: Another Look at the Land-Ocean Lightning Contrast. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, D16206. https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003833
 Manohar, G.K., Kandalgaonkar, S.S. and Tinmaker, M.I.R. (1999) Thunderstorm Activity over India and the Indian Southwest Monsoon. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 4169-4188. https://doi.org/10.1029/98JD02592
 Kandalgaonkar, S.S., Tinmaker, M.I.R., Kulkarni, J.R., Nath, A. and Kulkarni, M.K. (2005) Spatio-Temporal Variability of Lightning Activity over the Indian Region. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, D11108.
 Kandalgaonkar, S.S., Tinmaker, M.I.R., Nath, A.S., Kulkarni, M.K. and Trimbake, H.K. (2005) Study of Thunderstorm and Rainfall Activity over the Indian Region. Atmosfera, 18, 91-101.
 Manohar, G.K. and Kesarkar, A.P. (2005) Climatology of Thunderstorm Activity over the Indian Region: III. Latitudinal and Seasonal Variation. Mausam, 56, 581-592.
 Tinmaker, M.I.R., Aslam, M.Y., Ghude, S.D. and Chate, D.M. (2016) Lightning Activity with Rainfall during El Nino and La Nina Events over India. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-016-1883-x
 Chate, D.M., Tinmaker, M.I.R., Aslam, M.Y. and Ghude, S.D. (2017) Climate Indicators for Lightning over Sea, Sea-Land Mixed and Land-Only Surfaces in India. International Journal of Climatology, 37, 1672-1679.
 Christian, H.J., et al. (1999) Global Frequency and Distribution of Lightning as Observed by the Optical Transient Detector (OTD). 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, Guntersville, 7-11 June 1999, 726-729.
 Bond, D.W., Steiger, S., Zhang, R., Tie, X. and Orville, R.E. (2002) The Importance of NOx Production by Lightning in the Tropics. Atmospheric Environment, 36, 1509-1519. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00553-2
 Cecil, D.J., Buechler, D.E. and Blakeslee, R.J. (2014) Gridded Lightning Climatology from TRMM-LIS and OTD: Dataset Description. Atmospheric Research, 135-136, 404-414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.06.028
 Boccippio, D.J., Goodman, S.J. and Heckman, S. (2000) Regional Differences in Tropical Lightning Distribution. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 39, 2231-2248.
 Albrecht, R.I., Goodman S.J., Petersen W.A., Buechler, D.E., Bruning E.C., Blakeslee R.J. and Christian, H.J. (2011) The 13 Years of TRMM Lightning Imaging Sensor: From Individual Flash Characteristics to Decadal Tendencies. 14th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, Rio de Janeiro, 8-12 August 2011, 1-4.
 Weston, K.J. (1972) The Dry Line of Northern Indian and Its Role in Cumulonimbus Convection. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 98, 519-532.
 Lohar, D., Pal, B. and Chakravarty, B. (1994) Sea Breeze Activity at an Inland Station Kharagpur (India)—A Case Study. Boundary Layer Meteorology, 67, 427-434.
 Sadhukhan, I. and De, U.K. (1998) Pre-Monsoon and Convective Development over Gangetic West Bengal during 1980-1989. International Journal of Radio and Space Physics, 27, 102-109.
 Sikka, D.R. and Gadgil, S. (1980) On the Maximum Cloud Zone and the ITCZ over Indian Longitude during Southwest Monsoon. Monthly Weather Review, 108, 1840-1853. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<1840:OTMCZA>2.0.CO;2
 Williams, E.R. (1994) Global Circuit Response to Seasonal Variations in Global Surface Air Temperature. Monthly Weather Review, 172, 1917-1929.
 Ananthakrishnan, R. and Pathan, J.M. (1991) A Climatological Singularity around Mid-August in the Summer Monsoon Rainfall of India. Current Science, 60, 439-445.
 Williams, E.R., et al. (2002) Contrasting Convective Regimes over the Amazon: Implications for Cloud Electrification. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, 8082.
 Rutledge, S.A., Williams, E.R. and Keenan, T.D. (1992) The Down under Doppler and Electricity Experiment (DUNDEE): Overview and Preliminary Results. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 73, 3-16.
 Halverson, J., Rickenbach, T., Roy, B., Pierce, H. and Williams, E.R. (2002) Environmental Characteristics of Convective Systems during TRMM-LBA. Monthly Weather Review, 130, 1493-1509.
 Cifelli, R., Petersen, W.A., Carey, L.D. and Rutledge, S.A. (2002) Radar Observations of the Kinematic Microphysical and Precipitation Characteristics of Two MCSs in TRMM LBA. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, 1-44.
 Galway, J.G. (1956) The Lifted Index as a Predictor of Latent Instability. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 37, 528-529.
 Schulz, P. (1989) Relationships of Several Stability Indices to Convective Weather Events in Northeast Colorado. Weather Forecasting, 4, 73-80.