ABSTRACT Goals of this research are: 1) to examine the role of gender, 2) to explore the relationship between perceived instructors’ verbal aggressiveness, socio-communicative and students’ Machiavellian tactics, 3) to investigate the influence of instructors’ verbal aggressiveness on their socio-communicative and students’ Machiavellian tactics in physical education context and 4) to propose a students’ and instructors’ typology which will be the final over-bridging of verbal aggressiveness and Machiavellianism through communication . The sample consisted of 269 students (141 males, 128 females) aged 12 - 14 years old (M = 12.6, SD = 0.65) from secondary public schools who completed three types of questionnaires during physical education classes. The results supported the internal consistency of the instruments. According to the results of the study, statistically significant differences were observed in perceived instructors’ verbal aggressiveness, responsiveness, assertiveness and students’ amoral manipulation, desire for control, desire for status, distrust of others between the genders of the students. Correlational analysis indicated that perceived instructors’ verbal aggressiveness was positively related to assertiveness, amoral manipulation, desire for control, desire for status, distrust of others and was negatively related to responsiveness. The results of regression analysis revealed that perceived instructors’ verbal aggressiveness could significantly predict the variables of responsiveness, assertiveness, desire for status and distrust of others. Three behavioral types are revealed: 1) the unrestraint, 2) the responsive, and 3) the distrustful, where verbal aggressiveness appears to be connected with Machiavellianism through communication in these particular combinations.
Cite this paper
Bekiari, A. (2017) Verbally Aggressive Instructors and Machiavellian Students: Is the Socio-Communicative Style an Over-Bridging?. Psychology, 8, 1437-1454. doi: 10.4236/psych.2017.810095.
 Allen, J. L., Long, K. M., O’mara, J., & Judd, B. B. (2008). Students’ Predispositions and Orientations toward Communication and Perceptions of Instructor Reciprocity and Learning. Communication Education, 57, 20-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634520701670908
 Andersen, J. F., Norton, R. W., & Nussbaum, J. F. (1981). Three Investigations Exploring Relationships between Perceived Teacher Communication Behaviors and Student Learning. Communication Education, 30, 377-392. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634528109378493
 Andreou, E. (2004). Bully/Victim Problems and Their Association with Machiavellianism and Self-Efficacy in Greek Primary School Children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 297-309. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709904773839897
 Ashton, M. C., Lee, K., & Son, C. (2000). Honesty as the Sixth Factor of Personality: Correlations with Machiavellianism, Primary Psychopathy, and Social Adroitness. European Journal of Personality, 14, 359-368. https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-0984(200007/08)14:4<359::AID-PER382>3.0.CO;2-Y
 Aylor, B., & Oppliger, P. (2003). Out-of-Class Communication and Student Perceptions of Instructor Humor Orientation and Socio-Communicative Style. Communication Education, 52, 122-134. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634520302469
 Aziz, A., & Vallejo, D. (2007). An Exploratory Study of the Facets of Type A Personality and Scores on the Machiavellian Behavior (MACH-B) Scale. Psychological Reports, 101, 555-560. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.101.2.555-560
 Bekiari, A. (2012). Perceptions of Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Physical Education Students’ Affective Learning. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 115, 325-335. https://doi.org/10.2466/06.11.16.PMS.115.4.325-335
 Bekiari, A. (2014). Verbal Aggressiveness and Leadership Style of Sports Instructors and Their Relationship with Athletes’ Intrinsic Motivation. Creative Education, 5, 114-121. https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2014.52018
 Bekiari, A. (2016). Insights into Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Students’ Machiavellianism through Leadership Style and Motivational Climate. European Scientific Journal, 12, 90-110. https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2016.v12n25p90
 Bekiari, A. (2017). Exploring Relations between Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness and Students’ Fair Play Behaviours and Machiavellianism. International Journal of Physical Education, 54, 26-39.
 Bekiari, A., & Balla, K. (2017). Instructors and Students Relations: Argumentativeness, Leadership and Goal Orientations. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 5, 128-143. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2017.57009
 Bekiari, A., & Digelidis, N. (2015). Measuring Verbal Aggressiveness in Sport and Education. International Journal of Physical Education, 52, 12-21.
 Bekiari, A., & Hasanagas, N. (2015). Verbal Aggressiveness Exploration through Complete Social Network Analysis: Using Physical Education Students’ Class as an Illustration. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 3, 30-49. https://doi.org/10.11114/ijsss.v3i3.729
 Bekiari, A., & Hasanagas, N. (2016a). Sociological Insights in the Education System: ‘‘Unlocking’’ the Power Relations. Thessaloniki: AfoiKyriakidi Editions S.A.
 Bekiari, A., & Hasanagas, N. (2016b). ‘‘Educating’’ in Physical Education. Theoretical Approaches and Practical Inquiries. Thessaloniki: AfoiKyriakidi Editions S.A.
 Bekiari, A., & Hasanagas, N. (2016c). Suggesting Indicators of Superficiality and Purity in Verbal Aggressiveness. An Application in Adult Education Class Networks of Prisoners. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 279-292. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2016.43035
 Bekiari, A., & Manoli, P. (2016). EFL Teacher Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness and Student Socio-Affective Strategy Use and Affective Learning: Exploring Possible Associations. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, 5, 154-171.
 Bekiari, A., & Pachi, V. (2017). Insights into Bullying and Verbal Aggressiveness through Social Network Analysis. Journal of Computer and Communications, 5, 79-101. https://doi.org/10.4236/jcc.2017.59006
 Bekiari, A., & Petanidis, D. (2016). Exploring Teachers’ Verbal Aggressiveness through Interpersonal Attraction and Students’ Intrinsic Motivation. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 72-85. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2016.412007
 Bekiari, A., & Pylarinou, M. (2017). Instructor Argumentativeness and Socio-Communicative Style and Student Discipline: Using Physical Education Students’ Class as an Illustration. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 5, 122-136. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2017.53011
 Bekiari, A., & Sakellariou, K. (2003). Perceived Instructor Verbal Aggressiveness and Student State Learning in Physical Education. Italian Journal of Sport Sciences, 1, 251-256.
 Bekiari, A., & Spyropoulou, S. (2016). Exploration of Verbal Aggressiveness and Interpersonal Attraction through Social Network Analysis: Using University Physical Education Class as an Illustration. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 145-155. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2016.46016
 Bekiari, A., & Syrmpas, I. (2015). Coaches’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Motivational Climate as Predictors of Athletes’ Satisfaction. British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 9, 318-329. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJESBS/2015/17757
 Bekiari, A., & Tsaggopoulou, T. (2016). Verbal Aggressiveness and Affective Learning in Physical Education. Advances in Physical Education, 6, 406-418. https://doi.org/10.4236/ape.2016.64041
 Bekiari, A., & Tsiana, I. (2016). Exploring Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Students’ Personal Orientations and Reasons of Discipline in Physical Education Class. Advances in Physical Education, 6, 158-168. https://doi.org/10.4236/ape.2016.63018
 Bekiari, A., Deliligka, S., & Hasanagas, N. (2017). Analysing Networks of Verbal Aggressiveness and Motivation. Psychology, 8, 495-515. https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2017.83031
 Bekiari, A., Deliligka, S., & Koustelios, A. (2016). Examining Relations of Aggressive Communication in Social Networks. Social Networking, 6, 38-52. https://doi.org/10.4236/sn.2017.61003
 Bekiari, A., Digelidis, N., & Sakellariou, K. (2006). Perceived Verbal Aggressiveness of Coaches in Volleyball and Basketball: A Preliminary Study. Psychological Reports, 103, 526-530.
 Bekiari, A., Kokaridas, D., & Sakellariou, K. (2005). Verbal Aggressiveness of Physical Education Teachers and Students’ Self-Reports of Behaviour. Psychological Reports, 96, 493-498. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.96.2.493-498
 Bekiari, A., Kokaridas, D., & Sakellariou, K. (2006). Associations of Students’ Self-Reports of Their Teacher’s Verbal Aggression, Intrinsic Motivation, and Perceptions of Reasons for Discipline in Greek Physical Education Classes. Psychological Reports, 98, 451-461. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.98.2.451-461
 Bekiari, A., Koustelios, A., & Sakellariou, K. (2000). Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness from Universities in Greece. Studi e Ricerche, 5, 225-232.
 Bekiari, A., Nikolaidou, Z., & Hasanagas, N. (2017). Typology of Motivation and Aggression on the Basis of Social Network Variables: Examples of Complementary and Nested Behavioral Types through Conventional Statistics. Social Networking, 6, 135-147. https://doi.org/10.4236/sn.2017.62008
 Bekiari, A., Pachi, V., & Hasanagas, N. (2017). Investigating Bullying Determinants and Typologies with Social Network Analysis. Journal of Computer and Communications, 5, 11-27. https://doi.org/10.4236/jcc.2017.57002
 Bekiari, A., Patsiaouras, A., Kokaridas, D., & Sakellariou, K. (2006). Verbal Aggressiveness and State Anxiety of Volleyball Players and Coaches. Psychological Reports, 99, 630-634. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.99.2.630-634
 Bekiari, A., Perkos, S., & Gerodimos, V. (2015). Verbal Aggression in Basketball: Perceived Coach Use and Athlete Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 15, 96-102.
 Bekiari, Α., Hasanagas, Ν., Theoharis, D., Kefalas, Ι., & Vasilou, Α. (2015). The Role of Mathematical Object and the Educational Environment to Students’ Interpersonal Relationships: An Application of Full Social Network Analysis. In Hellenic Mathematical Society (Ed.), Proceedings of the 32nd Congress Greek Mathematical Society (with International Participation) (pp. 799-812). Athens: Hellenic Mathematical Society.
 Bereczkei, T. (2015). The Manipulative Skill: Cognitive Devices and Their Neural Correlates Underlying Machiavellian’s Decision Making. Brain and Cognition, 99, 24-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2015.06.007
 Buford, K. (2010). Native American Son: The Life and Sporting Legend of Jim Thorpe. New York: Knopf.
 Christie, R., & Geis, F. L. (1970). Machiavellianism. New York: Academic Press.
 Corzine, J. B., & HozierJr, G. C. (2005). Exploratory Study of Machiavellianism and Bases of Social Power in Bankers. Psychological Reports, 97, 356-362. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.97.2.356-362
 Cranmer, G. A., & Martin, M. M. (2015). An Examination of Aggression and Adaption Traits with Moral Foundation. Communication Research Reports, 32, 360-366. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824096.2015.1089848
 Dahling, J. J., Whitaker, B. G., & Levy, P. E. (2009). The Development and Validation of a New Machiavellianism Scale. Journal of Management, 35, 219-257. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206308318618
 Frymier, A. B., & Houser, M. L. (1997). The Role of Communication in Learning: Does Talking Make You Learn More. In National Communication Association (Ed.), Proceedings of Annual Meeting of the National Communication Association. Chicago, IL: National Communication Association.
 Gorham, J., & Christophel, D. M. (1992). Students’ Perceptions of Teacher Behaviors as Motivating and Demotivating Factors in College Classes. Communication Quarterly, 40, 239-252. https://doi.org/10.1080/01463379209369839
 Hamilton, M., & Hample, D. (2011). Testing Hierarchical Models of Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness. Communication Methods and Measures, 5, 250-273. https://doi.org/10.1080/19312458.2011.596991
 Hasanagas, N., & Bekiari, A. (2015). Depicting Determinants and Effects of Intimacy and Verbal Aggressiveness Target through Social Network Analysis. Sociology Mind, 5, 162-175. https://doi.org/10.4236/sm.2015.53015
 Hasanagas, N., & Bekiari, A. (2017). An Exploration of the Relation between Hunting and Aggressiveness: Using Inmates Networks at Prison Secondary School as an Illustration. Social Networking, 6, 19-37. https://doi.org/10.4236/sn.2017.61002
 Hasanagas, N., Bekiari, A., & Vasilos, P. (2017). Friendliness to Animals and Verbal Aggressiveness to People: Using Prison Inmates Education Networks as an Illustration. Social Networking, 6, 224-238. https://doi.org/10.4236/sn.2017.63015
 Hassandra, M., Bekiari, A., & Sakellariou, K. (2007). Physical Education Teacher’s Verbal Aggression and Student’s Fair Play Behaviors. The Physical Educator, 64, 94-101.
 Horn, T. S. (2002). Coaching Effectiveness in Sport Domain: Advances in Sport Psychology. Journal of Psychology, 7, 134-149.
 Infante, D. A., & Rancer, A. S. (1996). Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness: A Review of Recent Theory and Research. Annals of the International Communication Association, 19, 319-352. https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.1996.11678934
 Infante, D. A., & Wigley, I. C. J. (1986). Verbal Aggressiveness: An Interpersonal Model and Measure. Communications Monographs, 53, 61-69. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637758609376126
 Kassing, J. W., & Infante, D. A. (1999). Aggressive Communication in the Coach-Athlete Relationship. Communication Research Reports, 16, 110-120. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824099909388708
 Kearney, P. (1984). Perceptual Discrepancies in Teacher Communication Style. Communication Education, 13, 95-105.
 Kearney, P., & McCroskey, J. C. (1980). Relationships among Teacher Communication Style, Trait and State Communication Apprehension and Teacher Effectiveness. Communication Yearbook, 4, 533-551.
 Lamke, L. K., Sollie, D. L., Durbin, R. G., & Fitzpatrick, J. A. (1994). Masculinity, Femininity and Relationship Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Interpersonal Competence. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 11, 535-554. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407594114003
 Láng, A., & Birkás, B. (2015). Machiavellianism and Parental Attachment in Adolescence: Effect of the Relationship with Same-Sex Parents. SAGE Open, 5, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244015571639
 Láng, A., & Lénárd, K. (2015). The Relation between Memories of Childhood Psychological Maltreatment and Machiavellianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 77, 81-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.12.054
 Locke, K. D., & Christensen, L. (2007). Re-Construing the Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal and Its Relationship with Self-Consistency. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 389-402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2006.04.005
 Manoli, P., & Bekiari, A. (2015). EFL Teachers’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Students’ Intrinsic Motivation and Social-Affective Strategy Use: Investigating Possible Relations. Advances in Research, 5, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.9734/AIR/2015/19692
 Martin, M. M., Myers, S. A., & Mottet, T. P. (2006). Students’ Machiavellianism and Motives for Communicating with Instructors. Psychological Reports, 98, 861-864. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.98.3.861-864
 Mazer, J. P., Barnes, K., Grevious, A., & Boger, C. (2013). Coach Verbal Aggression: A Case Study Examining Effects on Athlete Motivation and Perceptions of Coach Credibility. International Journal of Sport Communication, 6, 203-213. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsc.6.2.203
 McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1996). Human Communication Theory and Research: Traditions and Models. In D. W. Stacks, & M. B. Salwen (Eds.), An Integrated Approach to Communication Theory and Research (pp. 233-242). New York: Routledge.
 McDonald, M. M., Donnellan, M. B., & Navarrete, C. D. (2012). A Life History Approach to Understanding the Dark Triad. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 601-605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.12.003
 Mudrack, P. E., & Mason, E. S. (1995). Extending the Machiavellianism Construct: A Brief Measure and Some Unexplored Relationships. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10, 187.
 Mudrack, P. E., Bloodgood, J. M., & Turnley, W. H. (2012). Some Ethical Implications of Individual Competitiveness. Journal of Business Ethics, 108, 347-359. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-1094-4
 Myers, S. A. (2002). Perceived Aggressive Instructor Communication and Student State Motivation, Learning, and Satisfaction. Communication Reports, 15, 113-121. https://doi.org/10.1080/08934210209367758
 Myers, S. A., & Rocca, K. A. (2000). The Relationship between Perceived Instructor Communicator Style, Argumentativeness, and Verbal Aggressiveness. Communication Research Reports, 17, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824090009388745
 Myers, S. A., Edwards, C., Wahl, S. T., & Martin, M. M. (2007). The Relationship between Perceived Instructor Aggressive Communication and College Student Involvement. Communication Education, 56, 495-508. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634520701466398
 Norton, R. W. (1978). Foundation of a Communicator Style Construct. Human Communication Research, 4, 99-112. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1978.tb00600.x
 Olson, M. (2000). Power and Prosperity: Outgrowing Communist and Capitalist Dictatorships: Outgrowing Communist and Capitalist Dictatorships. New York: Basic Books.
 Pan, Y., & Sparks, J. R. (2012). Predictors, Consequence, and Measurement of Ethical Judgments: Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Business Research, 65, 84-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.02.002
 Paulhus, D. L., & Williams, K. M. (2002). The Dark Triad of Personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and Psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 556-563. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00505-6
 Piko, B. F., & Keresztes, N. (2006). Physical Activity, Psychosocial Health and Life Goals among Youth. Journal of Community Health, 31, 136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-005-9004-2
 Porter, H., Wrench, J. S., & Hoskinson, C. (2007). Superior/Subordinate Relationships: Understanding the Effects of a Supervisor’s Temperament on Employee Motivation, Job Satisfaction, Perception’s of a Superior’s Socio-Communicative Style, and Superior’s Level of Approachability. Communication Quarterly, 55, 129-153. https://doi.org/10.1080/01463370600998517
 Potter, W. J., & Emanuel, R. (1990). Students’ Preferences for Communication Styles and Their Relationship to Achievement. Communication Education, 39, 234-249. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634529009378805
 Rancer, A. S., & Avtgis, T. A. (2014). Argumentative and Aggressive Communication: Theory, Research, and Application (2nd ed.). New York: Peter Lang.
 Richmond, V. P., & Martin, M. M. (1998). Socio-Communicative Style. In J. C. Mccroskey (Ed.), Communication and Personality: Trait Perspectives (pp. 133-148). Baton Rouge, LA: Hampton Public Relations.
 Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C. (1990). Reliability and Separation of Factors on the Assertiveness-Responsiveness Measure. Psychological Reports, 67, 449-450. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19184.108.40.2069
 Rocca, K. A. (2004). College student Attendance: Impact of Instructor Immediacy and Verbal Aggression: Brief Report. Communication Education, 53, 185-195. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634520410001682447
 Rocca, K. A., & McCroskey, J. C. (1999). The Interrelationship of Student Ratings of Instructors’ Immediacy, Verbal Aggressiveness, Homophily, and Interpersonal Attraction. Communication Education, 48, 308-316. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634529909379181
 Ryumshina, L. I. (2013). Family Influence on Formation of Children’s Manipulative Attitudes. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE), 1, 14-18.
 Schrodt, P. (2003). Students’ Appraisals of Instructors as a Function of Students’ Perceptions of Instructors’ Aggressive Communication. Communication Education, 52, 106-121. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634520302468
 Shafer, W. E., & Simmons, R. S. (2008). Social Responsibility, Machiavellianism and Tax Avoidance: A Study of Hong Kong Tax Professionals. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 21, 695-720. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513570810872978
 Snavely, W. B. (1981). The Impact of Social Style upon Person Perception in Primary Relationships. Communication Quarterly, 29, 132-143. https://doi.org/10.1080/01463378109369398
 Syrmpas, I., & Bekiari, A. (2015). The Relationship between Perceived Physical Education Teacher’s Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness with Students’ Interpersonal Attraction. Inquiries in Sport & Physical Education, 13, 21-32.
 Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2011). A Punitive Environment Fosters Children’s Dishonesty: A Natural Experiment. Child Development, 82, 1751-1758. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01663.x
 Teven, J. J. (2007). Teacher Caring and Classroom Behavior: Relationships with Student Affect and Perceptions of Teacher Competence and Trustworthiness. Communication Quarterly, 55, 433-450. https://doi.org/10.1080/01463370701658077
 Teven, J. J., & McCroskey, J. C. (1997). The Relationship of Perceived Teacher Caring with Student Learning and Teacher Evaluation. Communication Education, 46, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634529709379069
 Theoharis, D., & Bekiari, A. (2016a). The Influence of Mathematics and Learning Environment in Verbal Aggressiveness and Interpersonal Relations: A Dynamic Analysis of Social Networks. In International Mathematical Society (Ed.), Proceedings of the 8th Congress International Mathematical Society (pp. 415-428). Berlin: International Mathematical Society.
 Theoharis, D., & Bekiari, A. (2016b). Social Networks Analysis of Centrality: Case Study in Leadership Networks. In Greek Mathematical Society (Ed.), Proceedings of the 33nd Congress Greek Mathematical Society (with International Participation) (pp. 250-260). Athens: Greek Mathematical Society.
 Theoharis, D., & Bekiari, A. (2017a). Applying Social Network Indicators in the Analysis of Verbal Aggressiveness at the School. Journal of Computer and Communications, 5, 169-181. https://doi.org/10.4236/jcc.2017.57015
 Theoharis, D., & Bekiari, A. (2017b). Cumulative Hierarchy Analysis (Katz Centrality) on Leadership Networks of Learning Communities. In International Mathematical Society (Ed.), Proceedings of the 9th Congress International Mathematical Society (pp. 285-297). Berlin: International Mathematical Society.
 Theoharis, D., Bekiari, A., & Koustelios, A. (2017). Exploration of Determinants of Verbal Aggressiveness and Leadership through Network Analysis and Conventional Statistics. Using School Class as an Illustration. Sociology Mind, 7, 27-43. https://doi.org/10.4236/sm.2017.72003
 Thomas, C. E., Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C. (1994). The Association between Immediacy and Socio-Communicative Style. Communication Research Reports, 11, 107-114. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824099409359946
 Thweatt, K. S., & McCroskey, J. C. (1998). The Impact of Teacher Immediacy and Misbehaviors on Teacher Credibility. Communication Education, 47, 348-358. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634529809379141
 Waller, R., Gardner, F., Hyde, L. W., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2012). Do Harsh and Positive Parenting Predict Parent Reports of Deceitful-Callous Behavior in Early Childhood? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 946-953. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02550.x
 Walter, H. L., Anderson, C. M., & Martin, M. M. (2005). How Subordinates’ Machiavellianism and Motives Relate to Satisfaction with Superiors. Communication Quarterly, 53, 57-70. https://doi.org/10.1080/01463370500056051
 Wanzer, M. B., & Frymier, A. B. (1999). The Relationship between Student Perceptions of Instructor Humor and Students’ Reports of Learning. Communication Education, 1, 48-62. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634529909379152
 Wheeless, V. E., & Lashbrook, W. B. (1987). Style. In J. C. McCroskey, & J. A. Daly (Eds.), Personality and Interpersonal Communication (pp. 243-272). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
 Wrench, J. S., & Punyanunt-Carter, N. M. (2005). Advisor-Advisee Communication Two: The Influence of Verbal Aggression and Humor Assessment on Advisee Perceptions of Advisor Credibility and Affective Learning. Communication Research Reports, 22, 303-313. https://doi.org/10.1080/000368105000317599
 Zagenczyk, T. J., Restubog, S. L. D., Kiewitz, C., Kiazad, K., & Tang, R. L. (2014). Psychological Contracts as a Mediator between Machiavellianism and Employee Citizenship and Deviant Behaviors. Journal of Management, 40, 1098-1122. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311415420