JGIS  Vol.7 No.6 , December 2015
Modelling of Potential Pipeline Impact Radius and High Consequence Area in a Wetland Sub-Region of Nigeria
ABSTRACT
Crude oil transportation through pipelines presents danger to communities along its path. In the Niger Delta region of Nigeria for instance, pipeline vandalism occurs indiscriminately and regularly, such that every segment of a pipeline network becomes a potential target and possibly source of oil spill hazard. In terms of pipeline hazard and risk distribution, the oil plume’s ability to migrate freely in wetlands and encroachment on pipeline right of ways by people increases chances of wider contact and exposure opportunities to inhabitants and the environment. Despite several efforts to mitigate pipeline hazards in the oil and gas sector, none has been effective in Nigeria partly due to paucity of data in public domain and poor public participation. Therefore considering the environmental and human health challenges associated with oil spills, an alternative method was developed using multi-criteria decision analysis to model 1) pipeline hazard zones, 2) potential pipeline impact radius, and 3) high consequence areas with four attribute layers, i.e. land cover, population, river and pipeline to encourage public participation. The model identified land use areas, communities and rivers likely to be susceptible to pipeline hazards and areas requiring regular monitoring and possible intervention. Meanwhile the model sensitivity test indicated that the river layer was most sensitive, while transferability was limited to similar criteria variables. The model can stimulate public participation in pipeline hazard management while policy makers and regulators would find it relevant in oil spill impact mitigation.

Cite this paper
Whanda, S. , Sani, Y. and Bulus, G. (2015) Modelling of Potential Pipeline Impact Radius and High Consequence Area in a Wetland Sub-Region of Nigeria. Journal of Geographic Information System, 7, 692-709. doi: 10.4236/jgis.2015.76056.
References
[1]   Achebe et al. (2012) Analysis of Oil Pipeline Failure in the Oil and Gas Industries in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. Hong Kong. Proceeding of the International Multi Conference of Engineers and Computer Sciences, Hong Kong, 14-16 March 2012, 2012 Special Section p 1. IAENG, 6.

[2]   Kandiyoti, R. (2012) Pipelines Flowing oil and Crude Politics. London: I. B. Tauris& Co. Ltd.

[3]   Shittu, et al. (2011) Generic Mapping of Human Activity-Based Exposure Scenarios to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Con-taminats in an Oil Producing Area of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. WIT Transactions on Biomedicine and Health, 15, 79-90.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/EHR110081

[4]   ASME (2004) Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines: ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31 Supplement to ASME B31.8, New York: The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

[5]   Benedict, A. (2011) Tragedy of Commons: Analysis of Oil Spillage, Gas Flaring and Sustainable Development of the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, 4, 200.

[6]   Adebayo A. and Dada, S.A. (2008) An Evaluation of the Causes of Oil Pipeline Incidents in Oil and Gas Industries in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3, 279-281.

[7]   Steiner, R. (2010) Double standard Shell Practices in Nigeria Compared with International Standards to Prevent and Control Pipeline Oil Spills and the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spills. Milieudefensie, Amsterdam.

[8]   US Department of Transport (2011) Pipeline & Hazardous Materials Safety Administration: Fact Sheet High Consequence Areas (HCA).
http://primis.phmsa.dot.gov/comm/FactSheets/FSHCA.htm

[9]   Kiefner, J.F. (2011) Pipeline Integrity Basic.
http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/NR/rdonlyres/30E79F4C-212C-4A8B-B84D-6E185601F1BB/0/Day1Kiefner_PIPELINEINTEGRITYBASICS.pdf

[10]   Shittu, W. (2014) Mapping of Oil Spill Human Health Risk in Rivers State, Niger Delta, Nigeria. PhD Thesis Presented to the School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham.

[11]   Malczewski, J. (1999) GIS and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

[12]   Gomez, E.G. and Lins, M.P. (2002) Integrating Geographical Information Systems and Multi-Criteria Methods: A Case Study. Annals of Operations Research, 116, 243-269.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021344700828

[13]   Chakhar, S. and Mousseau, V. (2008) GIS-Based Multicriteria Spatial Modelling Generic Framework. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 22, 1159-1196.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13658810801949827

[14]   Carver, S. (1991) Integrating Multi-Criteria Evaluation with Geographical Information System. International Journal of Geographical Science, 5, 321-339.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02693799108927858

[15]   Ascough II, J.C., Rector, H.C., Hoag, D.L., Mcmaster, G.S., Vandenberg, B.C., Shaffer, M.A., Weltz, M.A. and Ahjua, L.R. (2002) Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems: Overview, Application and Future Research Directions.
http://www.iemss.org/iemss2002/proceedings/pdf/volume%20tre/290_ascough%202.pdf

[16]   Malczewski, J. (2006) GiIS-Based Multicriteria Decision Analysis: A Survey of the Literature. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 20, 703-726.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13658810600661508

[17]   DurgaRao, K. (2005) Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Forecasting Urban Water Requirements: A Case Study of Dehraduncuty, India. Landscape and Urban Planning, 71, 163-174.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2004.03.001

[18]   Store, R. and Kangas, J. (2001) Integrating Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation and Expert Knowledge for GIS-Based Habitat Suitability Modelling. Landscape and Urban Planning, 55, 79-93.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(01)00120-7

[19]   Monprapussorn, S., Thaitakoo, D., Banomyong, R. and Watts, D.J. (2007) The Application of Geographic Information System and Multi Criteria Decision Analysis; Towards Waste Transport Sustainability. Environmental Informatics Archives, 5, 480-487.

[20]   Eastman, J.R., Jin, W., Kyem, P.A.K. and Toledano, T. (1995) Raster Procedures for Multicriteria/Multiobjective Decisions. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 61, 539-547.

[21]   Jiang, H. and Eastman, J.R. (2000) Application of Fuzzy Measures in Multi-Criteria Evaluation in GIS. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 14, 173-184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/136588100240903

[22]   Jankwoski, P. (1995) Integrating Geographic Information Systems and Multiple Criteria Decision Making Methods. International Journal of Geographical Information System, 9, 251-273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02693799508902036

[23]   Joerin, F., Theriault, M. and Musy, A. (2001) Using GIS and Outranking Multicriteria Analysis for Land-Use Suitability Assessment. International Journal of Analysis for Land-Use Suitability Assessment, 15, 153-174.

[24]   Boroushaki, S. and Malczewski, J. (2008) Implementing and Extension of Analytical Hierarchy Process Using Ordered Weighted Averaging Operators with Fuzzy Quantifiers in ArcGIS. Computers and Geosciences, 34, 399-410.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2007.04.003

[25]   Geneletti, D. (2008) Incorporating Biodiversity Asset in Spatial Planning: Methodological Proposal and Development of a Planning Support System. Landscape and Urban Planning, 80, 252-265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.08.005

[26]   Wood, L.J. and Dragicevic, S. (2007) GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation and Fuzzy Sets to Identify Priority Sites for Marine Protection. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, 2539-2558.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-006-9035-8

[27]   Saaty, T. (1980) Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGrawHill, New York.

[28]   Saaty, R. (1987) The Analytic Hierarchy Process—What It Is and How It Is Used. Mathematical Modelling, 9, 161-176.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0270-0255(87)90473-8

[29]   Saaty, T. (2008) Decision Making with the Analytical Hierarchy Process. International Journal of Service Science, 1, 83-98.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJSSCI.2008.017590

[30]   Dawotola, A.W., Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M. and Vrijling, J.K. (2010) Multi Criteria Decision Analysis Framework for Risk Management of Oil and Gas Pipelines. In: Ale, P. and Zio, Eds., Reliability, Risk and Safety, Taylor and Francis Group, London, 307-314.

[31]   Dai, F.C., Lee, C.F. and Zhange, X.H. (2001) GIS-Based Geo-Environmental Evaluation for Urban Land-Use Planning: A Case Study. Engineering Geology, 61, 257-271.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0013-7952(01)00028-X

[32]   Chang, N., Parvathinathan, G. and Breeden, J.B. (2008) Combining GIS with Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision-Making for Landfill Sitting in a Fast-Growing Urban Region. Journal of Environmental Management, 87, 139-153.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.01.011

[33]   Nobrega, R.A.A., O’hara, C.G., Sadasivuni, R. and Dumas, J. (2009) Bridging Decision-Making Process and Environmental Needs in Corridor Planning. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 20, 622-637.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777830910990744

[34]   Heywood, I., Cornelius, S. and Carver, S. (2006) An Introduction to Geographical Information Systems. 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Limited, Harlow.

[35]   Girard, L.F. and De Toro, P. (2007) Integrated Spatial Assessment: A Multicriteria Approach to Sustainable Development of Cultural and Environmental Heritage in San Marco Dei Cavoti, Italy. Central European Journal of Operations Research, 15, 281-299.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10100-007-0031-1

[36]   Meyer, B.C. and Grabaum, R. (2008) Mulbo: Model Framework for Multicriteria Landscape Assessment and Optimisation. A Support System for Spatial Land Use Decisions. Landscape Research, 33, 155-179.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01426390801907428

[37]   Brody, S.D., Grover, H., Bernhardt, S., Tang, Z., Whitaker, B. and Spence, C. (2006) Identifying Potential Conflicts Associated with Oil and Gas Exploration in Texas State Coastal Waters: A Multicriteria Spatial Analysis. Environmental Management, 38, 597-617.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-005-0265-4

[38]   Gomez-Delgado, M. and Tarantola, S. (2006) Global Sensitivity Analysis, GIS and Multi-Criteria Evaluation For a Sustainable Planning of a Hazardous Waste Disposal Site in Spain. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 20, 449-466.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13658810600607709

[39]   Sani, Y., Christopher, I., Shittu, W. and Jibril, E. (2010) Land Fill Site Selection for Municipal Solid Waste Management Using Geographic Information System and Multicriteria Evaluation. American Journal of Scientific Research, 10, 34-49.

[40]   Brito, A.J. and de Almeida, A.T. (2009) Multi-Attribute Risk Assessment for Risk Ranking of Natural Gas Pipelines. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 94, 187-198.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2008.02.014

[41]   Alencar, M.H. and de Almeida, A.T. (2010) Assigning Priorities to Actions in a Pipeline Transporting Hydrogen Based on a Multicriteria Decision Model. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 35, 3610-3619.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.01.122

[42]   Batzias, F.A., Siontorou, C.G. and Spanidis, P.M.P. (2011) Designing a Reliable Leak Bio-Detection System for Natural Gas Pipeline. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186, 35-58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.09.115

[43]   Brito, A.J., de Almeida, A.T. and Mota, C.M.M. (2010) A Multicriteria Model for Risk Sorting of Natural Gas Pipelines Based on ELECTRE TRI Integrating Utility Theory. European Journal of Operational Research, 200, 812-821.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2009.01.016

[44]   Dey, P.K. (2002) An Integrated Assessment Model for Cross-Country Pipelines. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 22, 703-721.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0195-9255(02)00020-3

[45]   Dey, P.K. (2010) Managing Project Risk Using Combined Analytic Hierarchy Process and Risk Map. Applied Soft Computing, 10, 990-1000.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2010.03.010

[46]   Lins, P.H.C. and de Almeida, A.T. (2012) Multidimensional Risk Analysis of Hydrogen Pipelines. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 37, 13545-13554.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2012.06.078

[47]   Kassali, R., Ayanwale, A.B. and Williams, S.B. (2009) Farm Location and Determinants of Agricultural Productivity in the Oke-Ogun Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 11, 1-18.

[48]   Abenan, A.T., Jean, K.K., Bachir, S.M., Armand, A.K., Serge, D.K., Tanoh, K.J.J., Adiow, S.H.K., Jean-Patrice, J.J. and Jean, B. (2012) Contribution of Multicriteria Analysis and GIS for the Specific Vulnerability Mapping to Agricultural Inputs of Groundwater in Bonoua Area (Southeast of Cote D’ivoire). Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, 18, 11-18.

[49]   Allen, W.A. (2011) GIS Tutorial: Spatial Analysis Workbook. ESRI Press, Redlands.

[50]   ESRI (2006) An Overview of Modelbuilder. ArcGIS 9.2 Desktop Help. Environmental System Research Institute, Inc.
http://webhelp.esri.com/arcgisdesktop/9.2/index.cfm?TopicName=An_overview_of_ModelBuilder

[51]   Longley, P.A., Goodchild, M.F., Maguire, D.J. and Rhind, D.W. (2011) Geographic Information System and Science. 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken.

[52]   Mitchell, A. (2012) The Esri Guide to GIS Analysis, Volume 3: Modelling Suitability, Movement, and Interaction. ESRI Press, Redlands.

[53]   Chen, K., Blong, R. and Jacobson, C. (2001) MCE-Risk: Integrating Multicriteria Evaluation and GIS for Risk Decision-Making in Natural Hazards. Environmental Modelling and Software, 16, 387-397.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1364-8152(01)00006-8

[54]   United Nations Environmental Programme (2011) Environmental assessment of Ogoniland, Nairobi Kenya: UNEP. DEP/1337/GE.

[55]   Department of Environmental Affairs (2010) Framework for the Management of Contaminated Land (Part 1 of 3).
http://sawic.environment.gov.za/documents/562.pdf

[56]   Guadalupo-Blanco River Authority (2011) Oil and Gas Pipeline Failure.
http://www.gbra.org/documents/hazardmitigation/update/Section15-PipelineFailure.pdf

[57]   Gay, J., Shepard, O., Thyden, M. and Whitman, M. (2010) The Health Effects of Oil Contamination: A Compilation of Research.
http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-121510-203112/unrestricted/Health_Effects_of_Oil_Contamination_-_Final_Report.pdf

 
 
Top