NS  Vol.7 No.12 , November 2015
Comparative Adaptability Assessment of Two Mangroves from Indian Sundarbans: Some Biochemical Appearances
ABSTRACT
Comparative adaptability against salinity was assessed between the two wellknown mangroves (Avicennia marina and Heritiera fomes) from Indian Sundarbans in vitro. Occurrence of H. fomes is intermittent in and around of this mangrove swamp. A harmony has to maintain between ROS production and efficient scavenging of ROS by the plant itself for sustainability. In the present work, extent of salt tolerance was evaluated by mainly two ways: i) accumulation of free amino acids in the cytoplasm for proficient osmotic adjustment and ii) promoting elevated amount of antioxidants (both enzymes and secondary metabolites) with respect to substrate salinity. Occurrence of free amino acids (Alanine, Leucine and Proline) in A. marinaare well correlated (p ≤ 0.01) with the increasing salinity and H. fomes (Alanine and Phenyl Alanine) correlation value showed p ≤ 0.05. ROS scavenging reflected through ABTS, DPPH and Fe2+ chelating activity and results indicating that A. marina have some advantage over the other investigated taxa. Amount of phenols and flavonoids also designated the same. Additional number of isoforms of two antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase and super oxide dismutase) occurred in A. marina as the salinity enhanced, but in case of H. fomes, which was lacking. The experimental results might be designated towards the comfortable adaptability to A. marina, rather to H. fomes.



Cite this paper
Dasgupta, N. , Chowdhury, P. and Das, S. (2015) Comparative Adaptability Assessment of Two Mangroves from Indian Sundarbans: Some Biochemical Appearances. Natural Science, 7, 519-534. doi: 10.4236/ns.2015.712053.
References
[1]   Food and Agricultu. ral Organization, United Nations (FAO) (2007) The World’s Mangroves 1980-2005. FAO Forestry Paper 153, FAO, Rome, 153 p.

[2]   Alongi, D.M. (2009) The Energetics of Mangrove Forests. Springer, Dordrecht, 216 p.

[3]   Giri, C., Ochieng, E., Tieszen, L.L., Zhu, Z., Singh, A., Loveland, T., Masek, J. and Duke. N.C. (2011) Status and Distribution of Mangrove Forests of the World Using Earth Observation Satellite Data. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 20, 154-159.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00584.x

[4]   Gilman, E., Ellison, J., Duke, N. and Field, C. (2008) Threats to Mangroves from Climate Change and Adaptation Options: A Review. Aquatic Botany, 89, 237-250.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2007.12.009

[5]   Duke, N.C., Meynecke, J.O., Dittmann, S., Ellison, A.M., Anger, K., Berger, U., Cannicci, S., Diele, K., Ewel, K.C., Field, C.D., Koedam, N., Lee, S.Y., Marchand, C., Nordhaus, I. and Dahdouh-Guebas, F. (2007) A World without Mangroves? Science, 317, 41-42.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.317.5834.41b

[6]   Chanda, S. and Datta, S.C. (1986) Prospects and Problems of a Mangrove Ecosystem in Western Sundarbans (India). Transactions of the Bose Research Institute, 49, 47-57.

[7]   Nandy, P., Dasgupta, N. and Das, S. (2009) Differential Expression of Physiological and Biochemical Characters of Some Indian Mangroves towards Salt Tolerance. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 15, 151-160.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-009-0017-7

[8]   Banerjee, L.K. (1999) Mangroves of Orissa Coast and Their Ecology. Bishen Singh Mohendra Pal Singh, DehraDun, p 41.

[9]   Parani, M., Lakshmi, M., Zeigenhagen, B., Fladung, M., Senthilkumar, P. and Parida, A. (2000) Molecular Phylogeny of Mangroves VII.PCR/RFLP of trnS-pbsC and rbcL Gene Regions in 24 Mangrove and Mangrove Associate Species. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 100, 454-460.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s001220050059

[10]   Upadhaya, V.P., Ranjan R. and Singh J.S. (2002) The Human Mangrove Conflicts—The Way Out. Current Science, 83, 1328-1336.

[11]   Alim, A. (1979) Instruction Manual for Plantations in Coastal Areas. In: White, K.L., Ed., Research Considerations in Coastal Afforestation, Food and Agricultural Organization, UNDP/FAO Project BDG/72/005, Forest Research Institute, Chittgong, 65-75.

[12]   Kathiresan, K. (2008) Threats to Mangroves. Degradation and Destruction of Mangroves. Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, 476-483.

[13]   IUCN (2013) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. www.iucnredlist.org

[14]   Takemura, T., Hanagata, N., Sugihara, K., Baba, S., Karube, I. and Dubinsky, Z. (2000) Physiological and Biochemical Responses to Salt Stress in the Mangrove, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Aquatic Botany, 68, 15-28.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3770(00)00106-6

[15]   Yan, L. and Guizhu, C. (2007) Physiological Adaptability of Three Mangrove Species to Salt Stress. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 27, 2208-2214.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1872-2032(07)60052-3

[16]   Hibino, T., Meng, Y.-L., Kawamitsu, Y., Uehara, N., Matsuda, N., Tanaka, Y., Ishikawa, H., Baba, S., Takabe, T., Wada, K., Ishii, T. and Takabe, T. (2001) Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Two Kinds of Betaine-Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in Betaine-Accumulating Mangrove Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. Plant Molecular Biology, 45, 353-363.

[17]   Popp, M., Polania, J. and Weiper, M. (1993) Physiological Adaptations to Different Salinity Levels in Mangrove. In: Lieth, H. and Al Masoom, A., Eds., Towards the Rational Use of High Salinity Tolerant Plants, Springer, Dordrecht, 217-224.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1858-3_22

[18]   Parida, A., Das, A.B. and Das, P. (2002) NaCl Stress Causes Changes in Photosynthetic Pigments, Proteins and Other Metabolic Components in the Leaves of a True Mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora, in Hydroponic Cultures. Journal of Plant Biology, 45, 28-36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03030429

[19]   Morgan, J.M. (1984) Osmoregulation and Water Stress in Higher Plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 35, 299- 348.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.35.060184.001503

[20]   Kura-Hotta, M., Mimura, M., Tsujimura, T., Wash-itani-Nemoto, S. and Mimura, T. (2001) High Salt Treatment Induced Na+ Extrusion and Low Salt Treatment Induced Na+ Accumulation in Suspension Cultured Cells of the Mangrove Plant, Bruguiera sexangula. Plant, Cell and Envi-ronment, 24, 1105-1112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0016-8025.2001.00761.x

[21]   Mimura, T., Hura-Hotta, M., Tsujimura, T., Ohnishi, M., Miura, M., Okazaki, Y., Mimura, M., Maeshima, M. and Washitani-Nemoto, S. (2003) Rapid Increase of Vacuolar Volume in Response to Salt Stress. Planta, 216, 397-402.

[22]   Joseph, B. and Jini, D. (2011) Development of Salt Stress-Tolerant Plants by Gene Manipulation of Antioxidant Enzymes. Asian Journal of Agricultural Research, 5, 17-27.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ajar.2011.17.27

[23]   Flowers, T.J., Troke, P.F. and Yeo, A.R. (1977) The Mechanism of Salt Tolerance in Halophytes. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 28, 89-121.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.28.060177.000513

[24]   Greenway, H., Munns, R. and Wolfe, J. (1983) In-teractions between Growth, Cl? and Na+ Uptake, and Water Relations of Plants in Saline Environments. I. Slightly Vacuolated Cells. Plant, Cell and Environment, 6, 567-574.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.1983.tb01170.x

[25]   Muns, R. and Tester, M. (2008) Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 59, 651-681.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092911

[26]   Kamel, M. (2008) Osmotic Adjustment in Three Succulent Species of Zygophyllaceae. African Journal of Ecology, 46, 96-104.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00823.x

[27]   Aziz, I. and Khan, M.A. (2001) Experimental Assessment of Salinity Tolerance of Ceriops tagal Seedlings and Saplings from the Indus Delta, Pakistan. Aquatic Botany, 70, 259-268.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3770(01)00160-7

[28]   Parida, A.K. and Das, A.B. (2005) Salt Tolerance and Salinity Effects on Plants: A Review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 60, 324-349.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2004.06.010

[29]   Flowers, T.J. and Colmer, T.D. (2008) Salinity Tolerance in Halophytes. New Phytologist, 179, 945-963.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02531.x

[30]   Rabie, G.H. and Almadini, A.M. (2005) Role of Bio-Inoculants in Development of Salt Tolerance of Vicia faba Plants under Salinity Stress. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4, 210-222.

[31]   Davies, K.J.A. (2000) Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Defenses and Damage Removal, Repair and Replacement Systems. IUBMB Life, 50, 279-289.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15216540051081010

[32]   Tiwari, A.K. (2001) Imbalance in Antioxidant Defense and Human Diseases: Multiple Approach of Natural Antioxidant Therapy. Current Science, 8, 1179-1187.

[33]   Bandarnayake, W.M. (2002) Bioactivities, Bioactive Compounds and Chemical Constituents of Mangrove Plants. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 10, 421-452.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021397624349

[34]   Ravikumar, S., Gnanadesigan, M., Suganthi, P. and Ramalakshmi, A. (2010) Antibacterial Potential of Chosen Mangrove Plants against Isolated Urinary Tract Infectious Bacterial Pathogens. International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 2, 94-99.

[35]   Ravikumar, S., Ramanathan, G., Inbaneson, S.J. and Ramu, A. (2011) Antiplasmodial Activity of Two Marine Polyherbal Preparations from Chaetomorpha antennina and Aegiceras corniculatum against Plasmodium falciparum. Parasitology Research, 108, 107-113.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-2041-5

[36]   Shahidi, F. (2000) Antioxidants in Food and Food Antioxidants. Food/Nahrung, 44, 158-163.

[37]   Cushnie, T.P.T. and Lamb, A.J. (2005) Antimicrobial Activity of Flavonoids. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 26, 343-356.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2005.09.002

[38]   Alam, N., Hossain, M., Khalil, M.I., Moniruzzaman, M., Sulaiman, S.A. and Gan, S.H. (2011) High Catechin Concentrations Detected in Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 11, 65.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-11-65

[39]   Vadlapudi, V. and Naidu, K.C. (2009) Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of Selected Mangrove Plants. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2, 1742-1745.

[40]   Krishnamoorthy, M., Sasikumar, J.M., Shamna, R., Pandiarajan, C., Sofia, P. and Nagarajan, B. (2011) Antioxidant Activities of Bark Extract from Mangroves, Bruguiera cylindrica (L.) Blume and Ceriops decandra Perr. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 43, 557-562.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.84972

[41]   Li, Y.X., Yu, S.J., Liu, D., Proksch, P. and Lin, W.H. (2012) Inhibitory Effects of Polyphenols toward HCV from the Mangrove Plant Excoecaria agallocha L. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letter, 22, 1099-1102.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.11.109

[42]   Ostrowskaa, J., ?uczaja, W., Kasackab, I., Ró?ańskic, A. and El?bieta, S.E. (2004) Green Tea Protects against Ethanol-Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Organs. Alcohol, 32, 25-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2003.11.001

[43]   Zurina, H., Yam, M.F., Mariam, A., Ahmad, P. and Pauzi, M.Y. (2010) Antidiabetic Properties and Mechanism of Action of Gynura procumbens Water Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Molecules, 15, 9008-9023.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules15129008

[44]   Lee, H.-W., Hakim, P., Rabu, A.H. and Sani, A. (2012) Antidiabetic Effect of Gynura procumbens Leaves Extracts Involve Modulation of Hepatic Carbohydrate Metabolism in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6, 796-812.

[45]   Arnao, M.B. (2000) Some Methodological Problems in the Determination of Antioxidant Activity Using Chromogen Radicals: A Practical Case. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 11, 419-421.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(01)00027-9

[46]   Duan, X.J., Zhang, W.W., Li, X.M. and Wang, B.G. (2006) Evaluation of Antioxidant Property of Extract and Fractions Obtained from a Red Alga, Polysiphonia urceolata. Food Chemistry, 95, 27-43.

[47]   Imlay, J.A. (2003) Pathways of Oxidative Damage. Annual Review of Microbiology, 57, 395-408.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.micro.57.030502.090938

[48]   Diplock, A.T. (1997) Will the “Good Fairies” Please Prove to Us That Vitamin E Lessens Human Degenerative of Disease? Free Radical Research, 27, 511-532.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10715769709065791

[49]   Yildirim, A., Mavi, A. and Kara, A.A. (2001) Determination of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities Rumex crispus L. Extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 4083-4089.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0103572

[50]   Aboul-Enein, A., El-Baz, F., El-Baroty, G., Youssef, A. and Abd El-Baky, H. (2003) Antioxidant Activity of Algal Extracts on Lipid Peroxidation. Journal of Medical Sciences, 3, 87-98.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jms.2003.87.98

[51]   Dupon, F.M. (1992) Salt-Induced Changes in Ion Transport: Regulation of Primary Pumps and Secondary Transporters. In: Cooke, D.T. and Clarkson, D.T., Eds., Transport and Receptor Proteins of Plant Membranes, Plenum Press, New York, 91-100.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-3442-6_8

[52]   Allen, G.J., Wyn Jones, R.G. and Leigh, R.A. (1995) Sodium Transport Measured in Plasma Membrane Vesicles Isolated from Wheat Genotypes with Differing K+/Na+ Discrimination Traits. Plant, Cell & Environment, 18, 105-115.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.1995.tb00344.x

[53]   Shi, H., Ishitani, M., Kim, C. and Zhu, J.K. (2000) The Arabidopsis thaliana Salt Tolerance Gene SOS1 Encodes a Putative Na+/H+ Antiporter. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 6896-6901.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.120170197

[54]   Garbarino, J. and Dupon, F.M. (1988) NaCl Induced a Na+/H+ Antiport in Tonoplast Vesicles from Barley Roots. Plant Physiology, 86, 231-236.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.86.1.231

[55]   Blumwald, E. and Poole, R.J. (1988) Salt Tolerance in Suspension Cultures of Sugar Beet. Induction of Na+/H+ Antiport Activity at the Tonoplast by Growth in Salt. Plant Physiology, 83, 884-887.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.83.4.884

[56]   Matoh, T., Ishikawa, T. and Takahashi, E. (1989) Collapse of ATP-Induced H Gradient by Sodium Ions in Microsomal Membrane Vesicles Prepared from Atriplex gmelini Leaves: Possibility of Na+/H+ Antiport. Plant Physiology, 89, 180- 183.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.89.1.180

[57]   Gaxiola, R.A., Rao, R., Sherman, A., Grisafi, P., Alper, S.L. and Fink, G.R. (1999) The Arabidopsis thaliana Proton Transporters, AtNhx1and Avp1, Can Function in Cation Detoxification in Yeast. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 1480-1485.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.4.1480

[58]   Macfarlane, G.R. and Burchett, M.D. (2001) Photosynthetic Pigments and Peroxidase Activity as Indicators of Heavy Metal Stress in the Grey Mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 233-240.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(00)00147-8

[59]   Parida, A.K., Das, A.B. and Mohanty, P. (2004) Defense Potentials to NaCl in a Mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora: Differential Changes of Isoforms of Some Antioxidative Enzymes. Journal of Plant Physiology, 161, 531-542.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/0176-1617-01084

[60]   Parida, A.K., Das, A.B. and Mohanty, P. (2004) Investigations on the Antioxidative Defense Responses to NaCl Stress in a Mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora: Differential Regulations of Isoforms of Some Antioxidative Enzymes. Plant Growth Regulator, 42, 213-226.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:GROW.0000026508.63288.39

[61]   Dasgupta, N., Nandy, P., Tiwari, C. and Das, S. (2010) Salinity-Imposed Changes of Some Isozymes and Total Leaf Protein Expression in Five Mangroves from Two Different Habitats. Journal of Plant Interactions, 5, 211-221.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17429140903438076

[62]   Sharma, P., Jha, A.B., Dubey, R.S. and Pessarakli, M. (2012) Reactive Oxygen Species, Oxidative Damage, and Antioxidative Defense Mechanism in Plants under Stressful Conditions. Journal of Botany, 2012, 1-26.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/217037

[63]   Hasegawa, P.M., Bressan, R.A., Zhu, J.K. and Bohnert, H.J. (2000) Plant Cellular and Molecular Responses to High Salinity. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 51, 463-499.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.51.1.463

[64]   Asada, K. (2006) Production and Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species in Chloroplasts and Their Functions. Plant Physiology, 141, 391-396.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.106.082040

[65]   Kavitha, K., Venkataraman, G. and Parida, A. (2008) An Oxidative and Salinity Stress Induced Peroxisomal Ascorbate Peroxidase from Avicennia marina: Molecular and Functional Characterization. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 46, 794-804.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2008.05.008

[66]   Ye, Y., Tam Nora, F.Y., Wong, Y.S. and Lu, C.Y. (2003) Growth and Physiological Responses of Two Mangrove Species (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Kandelia candel) to Water Logging. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 49, 209-221.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0098-8472(02)00071-0

[67]   Abogadallah, G.M. (2010) Insights into the Significance of Antioxidative Defense under Salt Stress. Plant Signaling & Behavior, 5, 369-374.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/psb.5.4.10873

[68]   Mohamed, A.A., Mohamed, A.M. and Mahmoud, M.S. (2010) Effect of Salt Stress on Some Defense Mechanisms of Transgenic and Wild Potato Clones (Solanum tuberosum L.) Grown in Vitro. Natural Science, 8, 181-193.

[69]   Jayaramana, J. (1999) Laboratory Manual in Biochemistry. New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, 61-67.

[70]   Huda-Faujan, N., Noriham, A., Norrakiah, A.S. and Babji, A.S. (2009) Antioxidant Activity of Plants Methanolic Extracts Containing Phenolic Compounds. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8, 484-489.

[71]   Singleton, V.L. and Rossi, A. (1965) Colorimetry of Total Phenolics with Phosphomolybdic Phosphotungstic Acid Reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16, 144-158.

[72]   Jia, Z.S., Tang, M.C. and Wu, J.M. (1999) The Determination of Flavonoid Contents in Mulberry and Their Scavenging Effects on Superoxide Radicals. Food Chemistry, 64, 555-559.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00102-2

[73]   Blois, M.S. (1958) Antioxidant Determinations by the Use of a Stable Free Radical. Nature, 26, 1199-1200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/1811199a0

[74]   Re, R.N., Pellegrini, A., Proteggente, A., Pannala, M., Yang, C. and Evans, R. (1999) Antioxidant Activity Applying an Improved ABTS Radical Cation Decolorization Assay. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 26, 1231-1237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00315-3

[75]   Haro-Vicente, J.F., Martínez-Graciá, C. and Ros, G. (2006) Optimization of in Vitro Measurement of Available Iron from Different Fortificants in Citric Fruit Juices. Food Chemistry, 98, 639-648.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.06.040

[76]   Das, S. and Mukherjee, K.K. (1997) Morphological and Biochemical Investigations on Ipomea Seedlings and Their Species Interrelationships. Annals of Botany, 79, 565-571.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1996.0384

[77]   Shannon, L.M., Key, E. and Lew, J.Y. (1966) Peroxidase Isozyme from Horseraddish Root. I. Isolation and Physical Properties. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 249, 2166-2172.

[78]   Keith, H., Emmanuelle, V., Hélène, B. and Charistian, A. (1983) Superoxide Dismutase Assay Using Alkaline Dimethyl Sulfoxide as Superoxide Anion-Generating System. Analytical Biochemistry, 135, 280-287.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(83)90684-X

[79]   Hamilton, E.W. and Heckathorn, S.A. (2001) Mitochondrial Adaptations to NaCl Complex I Is Protected by Anti- Oxidants and Small Heat Shock Proteins, Whereas Complex II Is Protected by Proline and Betaine. Plant Physiology, 126, 1266-1274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.126.3.1266

[80]   Munns, R. (2002) Comparative Physiology of Salt and Water Stress. Plant, Cell & Environment, 25, 239-250.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0016-8025.2001.00808.x

[81]   Lea, P.J., Robinson, S.A. and Stewart, G.R. (1990) The Enzymology and Metabolism of Glutamine, Glutamate and Asparagine. In: Miflin, B.J., Ed., The Biochemistry of Plants, Academic Press, New York, 121-169.

[82]   Robinson, S.A., Stewart, G.R. and Philips, R. (1992) Regulation of Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activity in Relation to Carbon Limitation and Protein Catabolism in Carrot Cell Suspension Culture. Plant Physiology, 98, 1190-1195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.98.3.1190

[83]   DiMartino, C. and Fuggi, A. (2001) Pattern of Free Amino Acids in Leaves of Salt Stressed Plants of Spinach. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Inorganic Nitrogen Assimilation Congress, European Nitrate Ammonium Assimilation Group, Reims, 3-13.

[84]   Gaspar, R.Z., Males, Z. and Vestermajer, G. (2004) TLC Analysis of Free Amino Acids in Althaeae Radix, Treated with Different γ-Irradiation Doses. Farmaceutski Glasnik, 60, 1-6.

[85]   Arshi, A., Abdin, M.Z. and Iqbal, M. (2005) Ameliorative Effects of CaCl2 on Growth, Ionic Relations, and Proline Content of Senna under Salinity Stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 28, 101-125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/PLN-200042185

[86]   Bartels, D. and Sunkar, R. (2005) Drought and Salt Tolerance in Plants. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 24, 23-58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07352680590910410

[87]   Ebrahimzadeh, M.A., Pourmorad, F. and Bekhradnia, A.R. (2008) Iron Chelating Activity, Phenol and Flavonoid Content of Some Medicinal Plants from Iran. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7, 3188-3192.

[88]   Mishra, S. and Das, A.B. (2004) Effect of Short-Term Exposure to NaCl on Photochemical Activity and Antioxidant Enzymes in Bruguiera parviflora, a Non-Secretor Mangrove. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 26, 317-326.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11738-004-0022-y

[89]   Jithesh, M.N., Prashanth, S.R., Sivaprakash, K.R. and Parida, A.K. (2006) Antioxidative Response Mechanisms in Halophytes: Their Role in Stress Defence. Journal of Genetics, 85, 237-254.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02935340

[90]   Mallik, S., Nayak, M., Sahu, B.B., Panigrahi, A.K. and Shaw, B.P. (2011) Response of Antioxidant Enzymes to High NaCl Concentration in Different Salt-Tolerant Plant. Biologia Plantarum, 55, 191-195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10535-011-0029-3

[91]   Turkan, I., Demiral, T. and Sekmen, A.H. (2013) The Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes in Two Plantago Species Differing in Salinity Tolerance under Combination of Waterlogging and Salinity. Functional Plant Biology, 40, 484-493.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP12147

[92]   Del Río, L.A., Sandalio, L.M., Corpas, F.J., Palma, J.M. and Barroso, J.B. (2013) Reactive Oxygen Species and Reactive Nitrogen Species in Peroxisomes Production, Scavenging, and Role in Cell Signaling. Plant Physiology, 141, 330- 335.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.106.078204

[93]   Blokhina, O. and Fagerstedt, K.V. (2010) Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide in Plant Mitochondria: Origin and Redundant Regulatory Systems. Physiologia Plantarum, 138, 447-462.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2009.01340.x

[94]   Heyno, E., Mary, V., Schopfer, P. and Krieger-Liszkay, A. (2011) Oxygen Activation at the Plasma Membrane: Relation between Superoxide and Hydroxyl Radical Production by Isolated Membranes. Planta, 234, 35-45.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-011-1379-y

[95]   Shah, K., Kumar, R.G., Verma, S. and Dubey, R.S. (2001) Effect of Cadmium on Lipid Peroxidation, Superoxide Anion Generation and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Growing Rice Seedlings. Plant Science, 161, 1135-1144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(01)00517-9

[96]   Sharma, P. and Dubey, R.S. (2007) Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Role of Antioxidative Defense System in Growing Rice Seedlings Exposed to Toxic Concentrations of Aluminum. Plant Cell Reports, 26, 2027-2038.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-007-0416-6

 
 
Top