ABSTRACT Background: Cerebral blood vessels are mainly supplied by sympathetic nerves arising from the superior cervical ganglia and cerebral blood volume may be influenced by bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCG). Various stages of cerebral blood volume changes depended on the time following bilateral excision of SCG. In this study, we emphasize the subacute effect (two weeks) on the local cerebral blood flow (LCBF). Material and Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250 ~ 400 gm (n = 20) were selected into two groups. Under the ambient temperature 20oC, the first group animals (n = 10) received sham operation and the other group animals (n = 10) underwent bilateral SCG. The LCBF and O2 delivery of 14 brain struc-tures were measured for each animal by the use of 14C-iodoantipyrine technique two weeks after the opera-tion. Results: The average of LCBF was decreased from 150 ml/100 gm/min to 129 ml/100 gm/min after bi-lateral SCG. Only the LCBF at basal ganglia was increased from 108 ml/min/100 g in the sham-operated group to 118 ml/min/100g in the SCG group. A mean of 14% reduction of LCBF was estimated. In 14 brain structures, the delivery amount of O2 was all decreased, except in basal ganglia. However, these changes of LCBF and the delivery amount of O2 at these 14 brain structures did not reach the significant differences. Conclusions: The present results show that chronic effect (two weeks) of bilateral SCG on LCBF was not only in a decrease of the LCBF, but also a decrease of local cerebral O2 delivery. However, the changes didn’t show the significant differences.
Cite this paper
nullC. Hsieh, S. Lin and M. Liu, "Role of the Peripheral Sympathetic Innervations in Controlling Cerebral Blood Flow after the Transection of Bilateral Superior Cervical Sympathetic Ganglia Two Weeks Later," Surgical Science, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2011, pp. 188-192. doi: 10.4236/ss.2011.24041.
 Sohn YH, “Cerebral hemodynamic changes induced by sympathetic stimulation tests”, Yonsei Med J, Vol. 39, No. (4), 1998, pp. 322-327.
 Busija DW, “Sustained cerebral vasoconstriction during bilateral sympathetic stimulation in anesthetized rabbits”, Brain Res, Vol. 345, No. (2), 1985, pp. 341-344.
 Edvinsson L, “Neurogenic mechanisms in the cerebrovascular bed. Autonomic nerves, amine receptors and their effects on cerebral blood flow”, Acta Physiol Scand Suppl, Vol. 427, No., 1975, pp. 1-35.
 Sadoshima S, Fujii K, Kusuda K, Shiokawa O, Yao H, Ibayashi S, “Importance of bilateral sympathetic innervation on cerebral blood flow autoregulation in the thalamus”, Brain Res, Vol. 413, No. (2), 1987, pp. 297-301.
 Wei HM, Sinha AK, Weiss HR, “Cervical sympathectomy reduces the heterogeneity of oxygen saturation in small cerebrocortical veins”, J Appl Physiol, Vol. 74, No. (4), 1993, pp. 1911-1915.
 Wei HM, Chen WY, Sinha AK, Weiss HR, “Effect of cervical sympathectomy and hypoxia on the heterogeneity of O2 saturation of small cerebrocortical veins”, J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, Vol. 13, No. (2), 1993, pp. 269-275.
 Sakurada O, Kennedy C, Jehle J, Brown JD, Carbin GL, Sokoloff L, “Measurement of local cerebral blood flow with iodo [14C] antipyrine”, Am J Physiol, Vol. 234, No. (1), 1978, pp. H59-66.
 Otsuka T, Wei L, Acuff VR, Shimizu A, Pettigrew KD, Patlak CS, “Variation in local cerebral blood flow response to high-dose pentobarbital sodium in the rat”, Am J Physiol, Vol. 261, No. (1 Pt 2), 1991, pp. H110-120.
 Kadekaro M, Savaki HE, Kutyna FA, Davidsen L, Sokoloff L, “Metabolic mapping in the sympathetic ganglia and brain of the spontaneously hypertensive rat”, J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, Vol. 3, No. (4), 1983, pp. 460-467.
 Lin SZ, Sposito N, Pettersen S, Rybacki L, McKenna E, Pettigrew K, “Cerebral capillary bed structure of normotensive and chronically hypertensive rats”, Microvasc Res, Vol. 40, No. (3), 1990, pp. 341-357.
 Lin MT, Lin SZ, “Decentralization of superior cervical ganglia attenuates heat stroke formation in rabbits”, Chin J Physiol, Vol. 33, No. (3), 1990, pp. 247-253.
 Edvinsson L, Nielsen KC, Owman C, West KA, “Evidence of vasoconstrictor sympathetic nerves in brain vessels of mice”, Neurology, Vol. 23, No. (1), 1973, pp. 73-77.
 Raichle ME, Hartman BK, Eichling JO, Sharpe LG, “Central noradrenergic regulation of cerebral blood flow and vascular permeability”, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, Vol. 72, No. (9), 1975, pp. 3726-3730.
 Eklof B, Ingvar DH, Kagstrom E, Olin T, “Persistence of cerebral blood flow autoregulation following chronic bilateral cervical sympathectomy in the monkey”, Acta Physiol Scand, Vol. 82, No. (2), 1971, pp. 172-176.
 Waltz AG, Yamaguchi T, Regli F, “Regulatory responses of cerebral vasculature after sympathetic denervation”, Am J Physiol, Vol. 221, No. (1), 1971, pp. 298-302.
 Edvinsson L, Nielsen KC, Owman C, West KA, “Sympathetic adrenergic influence on brain vessels as studied by changes in cerebral blood volume of mice”, Eur Neurol, Vol. 6, No. (1), 1971, pp. 193-202.
 Tsai SH, Lin SZ, Shih CJ, “Effects of pre-ganglionic decentralization or post-ganglionic excision of the superior cervical ganglia on brain edema and heat stroke in rats”, Proc Natl Sci Counc Repub China B, Vol. 8, No. (4), 1984, pp. 335-340.
 Aubineau P, Reynier-Rebuffel AM, Bouchaud C, Jousseaume O, Seylaz J, “Long-term effects of superior cervical ganglionectomy on cortical blood flow of non- anesthetized rabbits in resting and hypertensive conditions”, Brain Res, Vol. 338, No. (1), 1985, pp. 13-23.
 Bevan RD, Tsuru H, Bevan JA, “Cerebral artery mass in the rabbit is reduced by chronic sympathetic denervation”, Stroke, Vol. 14, No. (3), 1983, pp. 393-396.
 Aprigliano O, “Neural influences and norepinephrine sensitivity in the rat portal vein”, Fed Proc, Vol. 42, No. (2), 1983, pp. 257-262.
 Luchelli-Fortis MA, Stefano FJ, Perec CJ, “Degeneration activity of the pineal gland after sympathetic denervation”, Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, Vol. 321, No. (4), 1982, pp. 298-301.
 Cardinali DP, Vacas MI, Gejman PV, Pisarev MA, Barontini M, Boado RJ, “The sympathetic superior cervical ganglia as “little neuroendocrine brains”, Acta Physiol Lat Am, Vol. 33, No. (3), 1983, pp. 205-221.
 Koizumi K, Sato A, “Influence of sympathetic innervation on carotid sinus baroreceptor activity”, Am J Physiol, Vol. 216, No. (2), 1969, pp. 321-329.