NS  Vol.6 No.17 , December 2014
Mortality by Parasitization in the Association between Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) under Field-Cage Conditions
Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is one of the major pests currently affecting world fruit production. In Argentina’s northern Citrus-producing regions, C. capitata is actively multiplying in large exotic host fruits, such as Citrus paradisi Macfadyen (grapefruit), Citrus aurantium L. (sour orange) and Citrus sinensis L. (Osbeck) (sweet orange). Faced with this situation, the use of parasitoids as biocontrol agents is currently receiving renewed attention as a new biological tool for controlling pestiferous fruit flies within the Argentinean National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (ProCEM). Consequently, a viable approach to controlling C. capitata involves the use of exotic parasitoids such as Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron). In this study, the effectiveness of D. tryoni females to find and successfully parasitize C. capitata larvae infesting all Citrus species mentioned earlier was assessed. Parasitoids were allowed to forage for 8 h on grapefruits and oranges artificially infested with laboratory-reared C. capitata larvae under natural environmental conditions (field cage). Parasitoid emergence, parasitism, overall effectiveness, and sex ratio of parasitoid offspring were estimated as response variables. The higher effectiveness of D. tryoni females recorded from C. sinensis would be mainly a result of both increased host density per unit of fruit surface area and fruit physical features. The study provides evidence that D. tryoni contributed to C. capitata mortality in all Citrus species assessed. However, the mortality values recorded from C. sinensis, C. aurantium, and C. paradisi did not exceed 10%, 1.5%, and 1.7%, respectively. Nonetheless, D. tryoni might be selected to forage under both high and low host density conditions.

Cite this paper
Medina, P. , Bezdjian, L. , Bezdjian, L. , Schliserman, P. , Fidelis-Marinho, C. and Ovruski, S. (2014) Mortality by Parasitization in the Association between Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) under Field-Cage Conditions. Natural Science, 6, 1267-1274. doi: 10.4236/ns.2014.617116.
[1]   Guillén, D. and Sánchez, R. (2007) Expansion of the National Fruit Fly Control Programme in Argentina. In: Vreysen, M.J.B., Robinson, A.S. and Hendrichs, J., Eds., Area-Wide Control of Insects Pests: From Research to Field Implementation, Springer, Dordrecht, 653-660.

[2]   Ovruski, S.M., Van Nieuwenhove, G.A., Bezdjian, L.P., Albornoz-Medina, P. and Schliserman, P. (2012) Evaluation of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a Mortality Factor of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Infesting Citrus Species under Laboratory and Field-Cage Conditions. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 22, 187-202.

[3]   Ovruski, S.M., Schliserman, P. and Aluja, M. (2003) Native and Introduced Host Plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Northwestern Argentina. Journal of Economic Entomology, 96, 1108-1118.

[4]   Suárez, L., Van Nieuwenhove, G.A., Murúa, F.A., Bezdjian, L.P., Schliserman, P., Lara, N., Escobar, J. and Ovruski, S.M. (2012) Offspring Production in Response to Host Exposure Times in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Reared on the Genetic Sexing Strain Vienna 8 of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Florida Entomologist, 95, 991-999.

[5]   Ovruski, S.M. and Schliserman, P. (2012) Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program. Insects, 3, 870-888.

[6]   Ovruski, S.M., Colin, C., Soria, A., Oroño, L. and Schliserman, P. (2003) Introducción y establecimiento en laboratorio de Diachasmimorpha tryoni y Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Opiinae) para el control biológico de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae, Dacinae) en la Argentina. Revista Sociedad Entomológica Argentina, 62, 49-59.

[7]   Ovruski, S.M., Aluja, M., Sivinski, J. and Wharton, R.A. (2000) Hymenopteran Parasitoids on Fruit-Infesting Tephritidae (Diptera) in Latin America and the Southern United States: Diversity, Distribution, Taxonomic Status and Their Use in Fruit Fly Biological Control. Integrated Pest Management Reviews, 5, 81-107.

[8]   Suárez, L., Murúa, F.A., Lara, N., Escobar, J., Taret, G., Rubio, J.L., Van Nieuwenhove, G.A., Bezdjian, L.P., Schliserman, P. and Ovruski, S.M. (2014) Biological Control of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina: Releases of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Fruit-Producing Semi-Arid Areas of San Juan. Natural Science, 6, 664-675.

[9]   Wharton, R.A. (1989) Classical Biological Control of Fruit-Infesting Tephritidae. In: Robinson, A.S. and Hooper, G., Eds., World Crop Pests. Fruit Flies, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control, Vol. 3B, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 303-313.

[10]   Purcell, M.F. (1998) Contribution of Biological Control to Integrated Pest Management of Tephritid Fruit Flies in the Tropics and Subtropics. Integrated Pest Management Reviews, 3, 63-83.

[11]   Sivinski, J., Jeronimo, F. and Holler, T. (2000) Development of Aerial Releases of Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid That Attacks the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in the Guatemalan Highlands. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 10, 15-25.

[12]   García-Medel, D., Sivinski, J., Díaz-Fleischer, F., Ramirez-Romero, R. and Aluja, M. (2007) Foraging Behavior by Six Fruit Fly Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Released as Single- or Multiple-Species Cohorts in Field Cages: Influence of Fruit Location and Host Density. Biological Control, 43, 12-22.

[13]   Montoya, P., Cancino, J. and Ruiz, L. (2012) Packing of Fruit Fly Parasitoids for Augmentative Releases. Insects, 3, 889-899.

[14]   Vargas, R.I., Leblanc, L., Harris, E.J. and Manoukis, N.C. (2012) Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World. Insects, 3, 727-742.

[15]   Wong, T.T.Y., Ramadan, M.M., McInnis, D.O., Mochizuki, N., Nishimoto, J.I. and Herr, J.C. (1991) Augmentative Releases of Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to Suppress a Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Population in Kula Maui, Hawaii. Biological Control, 1, 2-7.

[16]   Wong, T.T.Y., Ramadan, M.M., Herr, J.C. and McInnis, D.O. (1992) Suppression of a Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Population with Concurrent Parasitoid and Sterile Fly Release in Kula Maui. Journal of Economical Entomology, 85, 1671-1681.

[17]   Vargas, R.I., Ramadan, M., Hussain, T., Mochizuki, N., Bautista, R.C. and Strak, J.D. (2002) Comparative Demography of Six Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Biological Control, 25, 30-40.

[18]   Rosenheim, J.A. and Hoy, M.A. (1989) Confidence Intervals for the Abbott’s Formula Correction of Bioassay Data for Control Response. Journal of Economical Entomology, 82, 331-335.

[19]   Zar, J.H. (1999) Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.

[20]   Wong, T.T.Y. and Ramadan, M.M. (1987) Parasitization of the Mediterranean and Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Kula Area of Maui, Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology, 80, 77-80.

[21]   Wang, X.-G., Johnson, M.W., Daane, K.M. and Yokoyama, V.Y. (2009) Larger Olive Fruit Size Reduces the Efficiency of Psyttalia concolor as a Parasitoid of the Olive Fruit Fly. Biological Control, 49, 45-51.

[22]   Wang, X., Nadel, H., Johnson, M.W., Daane, K.M., Hoelmer, K., Pickett, C.H. and Sime, K.R. (2009) Crop Domestication Relaxes Both Top-Down and Bottom-Up Effects on a Specialist Herbivore. Basic and Applied Ecology, 10, 216-227.

[23]   Leyva, J.L., Browning, H.W. and Gilstrap, F.E. (1991) Effect of Host Fruit Species, Size, and Color on Parasitization of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environmental Entomology, 20, 1470-1474.

[24]   Sivinski, J., Vulinec, K. and Aluja, M. (2001) Ovipositor Length in a Guild of Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Attacking Anastrepha spp. Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Southern Mexico. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 94, 886-895.

[25]   Sivinski, J. and Aluja, M. (2003) The Evolution of Ovipositor Length in the Parasitic Hymenoptera and the Search for Predictability in Biological Control. Florida Entomologist, 86, 143-150.

[26]   Duan, J.J. and Messing, R.H. (2000) Effects of Host Substrate and Vibration Cues on Ovipositor-Probing Behavior in Two Larval Parasitoids of Tephritid Fruit Flies. Journal of Insect Behavior, 13, 175-186.

[27]   Aluja, M. and Rull, J. (2009) Managing Pestiferous Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through Environmental Manipulation. In: Aluja, M., Leskey, T.C. and Vincent, C., Eds., Biorational Tree Fruit Pest Management, CABI, Oxford, 171-213.

[28]   Rendón, P., Sivinski, J., Holler, T., Bloem, K., López, M., Martínez, A. and Aluja, M. (2006) The Effects of Sterile Males and Two Braconid Parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha krausii (Fullaway) (Hymenoptera), on Caged Populations of Mediterranean Fruit Flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) at Various Sites in Guatemala. Biological Control, 36, 224-231.