LCE  Vol.5 No.3 , September 2014
Institutional Barriers of Low Carbon Development Planning in Indonesian Small Cities
ABSTRACT
Recently, building low carbon development pathway becomes a mandatory task for many big cities through spatial planning. For a small city that still has many green areas, it assumed that the mainstreaming process of low carbon development into spatial planning is easier. However, studies that explore planning challenges of small cities in building a pathway of low carbon development is still limited. This study aims to examine the mainstreaming process of low carbon development strategies into the spatial planning through three case studies of Indonesian small cities. The quantitative and qualitative data collected from the fieldwork in three small cities: Kasongan, fromJuneto December 2010; Merauke, fromJuneto December 2011; and Sendawar, from January to June 2013. We argue that the small cities, which assumed have main potential carbon storage, in fact, have also the extensive carbon emission. They have the institutional barriers, including the limited knowledge on the economic opportunities of low carbon development, the lack of technicalcapacity of local government in implementing low carbon planning process, and the inadequate data to support the planning method. The leadership of Mayor is crucial in opening the barriers, but not to create the pathway yet. Therefore, we suggest that providing technical support of low carbon development, strengthening institutional capacity, and empowering the local community would optimize the mainstreaming process.
Cite this paper
Simarmata, H. , Dimastanto, A. , Santoso, S. and Kalsuma, D. (2014) Institutional Barriers of Low Carbon Development Planning in Indonesian Small Cities. Low Carbon Economy, 5, 105-116. doi: 10.4236/lce.2014.53011.
References
[1]   Wei, T. (2011) Building Low-Carbon Cities through Local Land Use Planning: Towards an Appropriate Urban Development Model for Sustainability. University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 7.

[2]   UN Habitat (2011) Global Report on Human Settlements (GRHS): Cities and Climate Change. Earthscan, London.

[3]   UNFCCC (2011) Outcome of the Work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action under the Convention Durban Climate Change Conference. Draft Decison [-/CP.17].
http://mitigationpartnership.net/sites/default/files/l04.pdf

[4]   van Tilburg, X., Würtenberger, L., de Coninck, H. and Bakker, S. (2011) Paving the Way for Low-Carbon Development Strategies. Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN).
http://www.ecn.nl/docs/library/report/2011/e11059.pdf

[5]   Hedger, M., Moench, M., Dixit, A., Kaur, N. and Anderson, S. (2011) Approaches to Planning for Climate Change: Bridging Concepts and Practice for Low Carbon Climate Resilient Development. Learning Hub, Brighton, 30, 32.

[6]   Japan (2010) Low Carbon City Development Guideline: Outline. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan. https://www.mlit.go.jp/common/000996971.pdf

[7]   Clapp, C., Briner, G. and Karousakis, B. (2010) Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS): Technical, Institutional and Policy Lessons. OECD COM/ENV/EPOC/IEA/SLT.
http://www.oecd.org/environment/cc/climatechangeexpertgroupccxg.htm

[8]   ICLEI (2013) Urban Low Carbon Development Strategy at Glance. ICLEI.
http://urbanleds.iclei.org/index.php?id=108

[9]   Widiantono, D.J. and Soepriadi, I. (2009) Menakar Kinerja Kota-Kota di Indonesia. Buletin Tata Ruang Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum Edisi Januari-Februari 2009, Jakarta.
http://penataanruang.pu.go.id/bulletin/index.asp?mod=_fullart&idart=120

[10]   Indonesia (2011) Presidential Regulation No 61 Year 2011 of National Action Plan on GHGs Emissions Reduction, Government of Indonesia, Jakarta.

[11]   Indonesia (2007) The Act No. 26 of 2007 Regarding the Spatial Management, Ministry of Public Work. Government of Indonesia, Jakarta.

[12]   Indonesia (2011) The Green City Development Guide, Directorate General of Spatial Planning, Ministry of Public Work. Government of Indonesia, Jakarta.

[13]   Indonesia (2013) Realizing the Smart City through Green City in Indonesia Center for Public Communication, Ministry of Public Works. Government of Indonesia, Jakarta.
http://www.pu.go.id/m/main/view/9086

[14]   Rieley, J.O., Wüst, R.A.J., Jauhiainen, J., Page, S.E., Westen, H., Hooijer, A., Siegert, F., Limin, S.H., Vasander, H. and Stahlhut, M. (2008) Tropical Peatsland: Carbon Stores, Carbon Gas Emissions and Contribution to Climate Change Processes. Peatsland and Climate Change, 148-180.
http://edepot.wur.nl/41970

[15]   Merauke (2010) Merauke dalam Angka 2009. Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten, Government of Merauke District, Merauke.

[16]   Katingan (2010) Katingan dalam Angka 2009. Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten, Government of Katingan District, Katingan.

[17]   Kutai Barat (2005) Government Regulation of Kutai Barat District Number 37 Year 2005 Regarding Kutai Barat District Area. Government of Kutai Barat District, Kutai Barat.

[18]   Kutai Barat (2010) Kutai Barat dalam Angka 2010. Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten, Government of Kutai Barat District, Kutai Barat.

[19]   Swift, R.S. (2001) Sequestration of Carbon by Soil. Soil Science, 166, 858-871.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-200111000-00010

[20]   IPCC-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2010) Climate Design: Design and Planning or the Age of Climate Change. IPCC Forth Assessment Report, ORO Editions, Gordon Goff Publisher, Novato, California, United States.

[21]   Merauke (2011) The Detail Spatial Plan of City of Merauke: Final Report. Dinas Tata Ruang, Government of Merauke District, Merauke.

[22]   Katingan (2010) The Detail Spatial Plan of City of Kasongan: Final Report. Dinas Pekerjaan Umum, Government of Katingan District, Katingan.

[23]   Kutai Barat (2013) The Spatial Planning of Kutai Barat 2010-2030: Final Report. Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah, Government of Kutai Barat District, Kutai Barat.

[24]   WWF Indonesia (2013) Initial Draft of Document of Land Based Green Economy Programme, Kutai Barat and Mahakam Ulu. Unpublished Paper.

[25]   Project Catalyst Brief (2009) Low Carbon Growth Plans: Advancing Good Practices. Working Draft 7 June 2009, Climate Works and European Climate Foundation, 5. http://www.project-catalyst.info/ images/3.%20Low%20carbon%20growth%20planning/Publications/Advancing%20good%20practice/ 091205%20LCGP%20Summary.pdf

 
 
Top