NS  Vol.6 No.9 , May 2014
Antidermatophytic Activity of Essential Oils against Locally Isolated Microsporum canis—Gaza Strip
ABSTRACT

There is a need for new antimicrobial drugs due to the continuous development of resistance. Natural antimicrobials are of utmost importance due to safety issue and availability. The antifungal activity of four essential oils (Mentha piperta, Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Oreganum majoranum oils) against locally isolated Microsporum canis was determined by disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using broth dilution method. Mentha piperta oil showed the highest antifungal activity among tested oils in this study. The total inhibition attached when 0.046% was used with M. piperta, the total inhibition obtained with the 0.133% of C. citratus oil, which is accounted as the second essential oils, also T. vulgaris and O. majoranum oils achieved reductions at 0.133%. The present work has revealed that all oils have been used in low concentrations and produced promising results in comparison to the positive control (Clotrimazole).


Cite this paper
Elkhair, E. (2014) Antidermatophytic Activity of Essential Oils against Locally Isolated Microsporum canis—Gaza Strip. Natural Science, 6, 676-684. doi: 10.4236/ns.2014.69067.
References
[1]   Ullah, M., Khurram, M.; Amin, U.A., Afridi, H.H., Khan, F.A., Umar Khayam, S.M., Ullah, S. Najeeb, U., Hussain, J. and Asif Khan, M. (2011) Comparison of Phytochemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activities of Mentha spicata from Four Northern Districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 1, 81-84.

[2]   Adam, K., Sivropoulou, A., Kokkini, S., Lanaras, T. and Arsenakis, M. (1998) Antifungal activities of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, Mentha spicata, Lavandula angustifolia and Salvia fruticosa Essential Oils against Human Pathogenic Fungi. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46, 1738-1745. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf9708296

[3]   Edeogo, H.O., Okwn, D.F. and Mbaebie, B.O. (2005) Phytochemical Constituents of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plants. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4, 685-688.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB2005.000-3127

[4]   Bisset, N.G. and Wichl, M. (1994) Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[5]   Dobrowolska, A., Staczek, P., Kaszuba, A. and Kozlowska, M. (2004) PCR-RFLP Analysis of the Dermatophytes Isolated from Patients in Central Poland. Journal of Dermatological Science, 42, 71-74.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2006.01.001

[6]   Gonzàlez, U., Seaton, T., Bergus, G., Torres, J.M. and Jacobson, J. (1993) Staphylococcal and Streptococcal Pyodermas. Seminars in Dermatology, 12, 331-335.

[7]   Summerbell, R.C., Weitzman, I. and Padhye, A.A. (2007) Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Agents of Superficial Mycoses. In: Murray, P.R., Baro, E.J., Jorgensen, J.H., Landry, M.L. and Pfaller, M.A., Eds., Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th Edition, ASM Press, Washington, 1874-1897.

[8]   Gulcin, I., Kufrevioglu, O.I., Oktay, M. and Buyukokuroglu, M.E. (2004) Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Antiulcer and Analgesic Activities of Nettle (Urtica dioica L.). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 90, 205-215.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2003.09.028

[9]   Senthilkumar, C.S., Suresh Kumar, M. and Rajasekara Pandian, M. (2010) In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Crude Leaf Extracts from Tecoma stans (L) Juss. et Kunth, Coleus Forskohlii and Pogostemon Patchouli against Human Pathogenic Bacteria. International Journal of PharmTech Research, 2, 438-442.

[10]   Byika, W., Szaufe-Hajdrych, M., Matalawska, I. and Goslinka, O. (2004) Antimicrobial Activity of Isocytisoside and Extracts of Aquilegia vulgaris L. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 39, 93-97.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2004.01553.x

[11]   Benkeblia, N. (2004) Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil Extracts of various Onions (Allium cepa) and Garlic (Allium satvum). LWT-Food Science and Technology, 37, 263-268.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2003.09.001

[12]   Fraternale, D., Giamperi, L. and Ricci, D. (2003) Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil Obtained from in Vitro Plants of Thymus Mastichina L. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 15, 278-281.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2003.9712142

[13]   Iraj, R.B., Mohammad, H.F., Davod, Y., Latif, G., Abdolamir, A. and Mohammad, B.R. (2008) Antimycotoxigenic Characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. Essential Oils. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 122, 135-139.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.11.048

[14]   Inouye, S., Tsuruoka, T., Watanabe, M., Takeo, K., Akao, M., Nishiyama, Y. and Yamaguchi, H. (2000) Inhibitory Effect of Essential Oils on Spicla Growth of Aspergillus fumigatus by Vapour Contact. Mycoses, 43, 17-23.

[15]   Hammer, K.A., Carson, C.F. and Riley, T.V. (1999) Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils and Other Plant Extracts. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 86, 987-990.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00780.x

[16]   Dorman, H.J.D. and Deans, S.G. (2000) Antimicrobial Agents from Plants: Antibacterial Activity of Plant Volatile Oils. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 88, 308-316.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.00969.x

[17]   Mimica-Dukic, N., Kujundzic, S., Sokovic, M. and Couladis, M. (2003) Essential Oil Composition and Antifungal Activity of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Obtained by Different Distillation Conditions. Phytotherapy Research, 17, 368-371.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1159

[18]   Yadegarinia, D., Gachkar, L., Rezaei, M.B., Taghizadeh, M., Astaneh, S.A. and Rasooli, I. (2006) Biochemical Activities of Iranian Mentha piperita L. and Myrtus communis L. Essential Oils. Phytochemistry, 67, 1249-1255.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.04.025

[19]   Iscan, G., Kirimer, N., Kürkcüoglu, M., Baser, K.H.C. and Demirci, F. (2002) Antimicrobial Screening of Mentha piperita Essential Oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 3943-3946.

[20]   Griffin, G.S., Markham, L.J. and Leach, N.D. (2000) An Agar Dilution Method for the Determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Essential Oils. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 12, 149-255.

[21]   Eloff, J.N. (2004) Quantification the Bioactivity of Plant Extracts during Screening and Bioassay Guided Fractionation. Phytomedicine, 11, 370-371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/0944711041495218

[22]   Rosatoa, A., Vitalia, C., De Laurentisa, N., Armenisea, D. and Milillob, M.A. (2007) Antibacterial Effect of Some Essential Oils Administered Alone or in Combination with Norfloxacin. Phytomedicine, 14, 727-732.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2007.01.005

[23]   Sokovic, M.D., Vukojevic, J.M., Petar, P.D., Brkic, D., Vajs, V. and Van Griensven, L.J.L.D. (2009) Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Thymus and Mentha Species and Their Antifungal Activities. Molecules, 14, 238-249.

[24]   Mahanta, J.J, Chutia, M., BordoloiM., Pathak, M.G, Adhikary, R.K., Sarma, T.C. (2007) Cymbopogon citratus L. Essential Oil as a Potential Antifungal Agent against Key Weed Moulds of Pleurotus spp. Spawns. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 22, 525-530.

[25]   Piper, P., Calderon, C.O., Hatzixanthis, K. and Mollapour, M. (2001) Weak Acid Adaptation: The Stress Response That Confers Yeasts with Resistance to Organic Acid Food Preservatives. Microbiology, 147, 2635-2642.

[26]   Abe, S., Sato,Y., Inoue, S., Ishibashi, H., Maruyama, N., Takizawa, T., Oshima, H., et al. (2003) Anti-Candida Albicans Activity of Essential Oils Including Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Oil and Its Component, Citral. Japanese Journal of Medical Mycology, 44, 285-291.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3314/jjmm.44.285

[27]   Manohar, V., Ingram, C., Gray, J., Talpur, N.A., Echard, B.W., Bagchi, D. and Preuss, H.G. (2001) Antifungal Activities of Origanum Oil against Candida albicans. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 228, 111-117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013311632207

[28]   Inouye, S., Takizawa, T. and Yamaguchi, H. (2001) Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Major Constituents against Respiratory Tract Pathogens by Gaseous Contact. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 47, 565-573.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/47.5.565

[29]   Zaika, L.L. (1988) Spices and Herbs: Their Antimicrobial Activity and Its Determination. Journal of Food Safety, 9, 97-118.

[30]   Sivropoulou, A., Papanikolaou, E., Nikolaou, C., Kokkini, S., Lanaras, T. and Arsenakis, M. (1996) Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Origanum Essential Oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44, 1202-1205.

[31]   Mangena, T. and Muyima, N.Y.O. (1999) Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Artemisia afra, Pteronia incana and Rosmarinus officinalis on Selected Bacteria and Yeast Strains. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 28, 291-296.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00525.x

[32]   Consentino, S., Tuberosa, C.I.G., Satta, M., Mascia, V., Arzedi, E., Palmas, F. and Pisano, B. (1999) In-Vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Sardinian Thymus Essential Oils. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 29, 130-135.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1472-765X.1999.00605.x

[33]   Ozcan, M. and Boyraz, N. (2000) Antifungal Properties of Some Herb Decoctions. European Food Research and Technology, 212, 86-88.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002170000249

[34]   Hili, P., Evans, C.S. and Veness, R.G. (1997) Antimicrobial Action of Essential Oils: The Effect of Dimethylsulphoxide on the Activity of Cinnamon Oil. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 24, 269-275.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1472-765X.1997.00073.x

[35]   Smith, M.D. and Navilliat, P.L. (1997) A New Protocol for Antimicrobial Testing of Oils. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 28, 21-24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7012(96)00958-X

[36]   Fernández-Torres, B., Carrillo-Munoz, A., Ortoneda, M., Pujol, I., Pastor, F.J. and Guarro, J. (2003) Interlaboratory Evaluation of the E. Test for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes. Medical Mycology, 41,125-130.

[37]   Esteban, A., Abarca, M.L. and Cabanes, F.J. (2005) Comparison of Disk Diffusion Method and Broth Microdilution Method for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes. Medical Mycology, 43, 61-66.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13693780410001711972

 
 
Top