FNS  Vol.2 No.2 , April 2011
Comparison between Hydroponically and Conventionally and Organically Grown Lettuces for Taste, Odor, Visual Quality and Texture: A Pilot Study
Hydroponic production of vegetables is becoming more common. In this study hydroponic lettuce, grown by a local distributor, and conventionally and organically field-grown lettuce, purchased at local retail stores were compared by descriptive analysis for taste, odor, visual quality and texture. Five lettuce varieties were compared; Romaine, Green Leaf, Red Leaf, Butter, and Common lettuce. A twenty-three member sensory panel randomly rated the lettuce using a 5 point scale or a 3 point scale for taste, odor, visual quality and texture. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for each lettuce variety with comparison between those hydroponically, organically or conventionally grown. Overall, panel members equally like the different lettuce samples. The results showed that for each of the five varieties of let-tuces, all lettuces were perceived to be equal in their sensory evaluation for locally grown hydroponic lettuce or pur-chased from local grocery outlets as organically or conventionally grown.

Cite this paper
nullM. Murphy, F. Zhang, Y. Nakamura and S. Omaye, "Comparison between Hydroponically and Conventionally and Organically Grown Lettuces for Taste, Odor, Visual Quality and Texture: A Pilot Study," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2011, pp. 124-127. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.22017.
[1]   S. T. Mayne, “Beta-carotene, Carotenoids and Disease Prevention in Humans,” The FASEB Journal, Vol. 10, No. 7, 1996, pp. 690-701.

[2]   S. T. Omaye and P. Zhang, “Phytochemical Interactions: Beta-carotene, Tocopherol and Ascorbic Acid,” In: Phy-tochemicals: A New Paradigm. W. R. Bidlack, S. T. Omaye, M. S. Meskin and D. Jahner, Eds., Technomic Publishing Co., 1996, pp. 53-76.

[3]   M. A. Dubick and S. T. Omaye, “Evidence for Grape, Wine and Tea Polyphenols as Modulators of Arterioscle-rosis and Ischemic Heart Disease in Humans,” Nutraceu-ticals, Functional & Medical Foods, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2001, pp. 67-93.

[4]   E. Giovannucci, “A Review of Epidemiologic Studies of Tomatoes, Lycopene, and Prostate Cancer,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol. 227, No. 10, 2002, pp. 852-859.

[5]   E. Giovannucci, E. Rimm, Y. Liu, M. Stampfer and W. A. Willett, “A Prospective Study of Tomato Products, Ly-copene, and Prostate Cancer Risk,” Journal of the Na-tional Cancer Institute, Vol. 94, No. 5, 2002, pp. 391-398.

[6]   M. Dorais, D. L. Ehret and A. P. Papadopoulos, “Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) Health Components: From Seed to the Consumer,” Phytochemistry Reviews, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2008, pp. 231-250. doi:10.1007/s11101-007-9085-x

[7]   A. K. Thybo, M. Edelenbos, L. P. Christensen, J. Soren-sen and K. Thorup-Kristensen, “Effect of Organic Grow-ing Systems on Sensory Quality and Chemical Composi-tion of Tomatoes,” Food Science and Technology, Vol. 39, No. 8, 2005, pp. 835-843.

[8]   G. Ronen, L. Carmel-Goren, D. Zamir and J. Hirschberg, “An Alternative Pathway to Beta-Carotene Formation in Plant Chromoplast Discovered by Map-Based Cloning of Beta (B) and Old-Gold (Or) Color Mutations in Tomato,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 97, No. 20, 2000, pp. 11102-11107. doi:10.1073/pnas.190177497

[9]   E. G. Schijlen, C. H. Ric de Vos, A. J. Van Tunen and A. G. Bovy, “Modification of Flavonoid Biosynthesis in Crop Plants,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 65, No. 19, 2004, pp. 2631-2648. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.07.028

[10]   C. M. Jones, P. Mes and J. R. Myers, “Characterization and Inheritance of the Antocyanin Fruit (Aft) Tomato,” Journal of Heredity, Vol. 94, No. 6, 2003, pp 449-456. doi:10.1093/jhered/esg093

[11]   G. Hochmuth and R. C. Hochmuth, “Nutrient Solution Formulation for Hydroponic (Perlite, Rockwood, NFT) Tomatoes in Florida,” University o Florida IFAS Exten-sion, Report 1996, # HS796.

[12]   H. R. Moskowitz, J. H. Beckley and A. V. A. Resurrec-cion, “Sensory and Consumer Research in Food Product Design and Development,” Blackwell Publishing, 2006. doi:10.1002/9780470277706

[13]   J. P. McCollum, “Effects of Light on the Formation of Carotenoids in Tomato Fruit,” Food Research, Vol. 19, 1954, pp. 182-189.

[14]   K. S. Lee and A. A. Kader, “Preharvest and Postharvest Factors Influencing Vitamin C Content of Horticultural Crops,” Postharvest Biology and Technology, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2000, pp. 207-220. doi:10.1016/S0925-5214(00)00133-2

[15]   J. T. Amiot, F. Tourniaire and A. Margotat, “Flavonoids in Food and Wine,” Acta Horticulture, Vol. 744, 2007, pp. 107-116.