The foundation of the theory of the universe dark energy and its nature

Author(s)
Murad Shibli

ABSTRACT

Surprisingly recent astronomical observations have provided strong evidence that our universe is not only expanding, but also is expanding at an accelerating rate. This paper pre- sents a basis of the theory of universe space- time dark energy, a solution of Einstein’s cosmological constant problem, physical interpretation of universe dark energy and Einstein’s cosmological constant Lambda and its value ( = 0.29447 × 10-52 m-2), values of universe dark energy density 1.2622 × 10-26 kg/m3 = 6.8023 GeV, universe critical density 1.8069 × 10-26 kg/m3 = 9.7378 GeV, universe matter density 0.54207 × 10-26 kg/m3 = 2.9213 GeV, and universe radiation density 2.7103 × 10-31 kg/m3 = 1.455 MeV. The interpretation in this paper is based on geometric modeling of space-time as a perfect four- dimensional continuum cosmic fluid and the momentum generated by the time. In this modeling time is considered as a mechanical variable along with other variables and treated on an equal footing. In such a modeling, time is considered to have a mechanical nature so that the momentum associated with it is equal to the negative of the universe total energy. Since the momentum associated with the time as a mechanical variable is equal to the negative system total energy, the coupling in the time and its momentum leads to maximum increase in the space-time field with 70.7% of the total energy. Moreover, a null paraboloid is obtained and interpreted as a function of the momentum generated by time. This paper presents also an interpretation of space-time tri-dipoles, gravity field waves, and gravity carriers (the gravitons). This model suggests that the space-time has a polarity and is composed of dipoles which are responsible for forming the orbits and storing the space-time energy-momentum. The tri-di- poles can be unified into a solo space-time dipole with an angle of 45 degrees. Such a result shows that the space-time is not void, on the contrary, it is full of conserved and dynamic energy-momentum structure. Furthermore, the gravity field waves is modeled and assumed to be carried by the gravitons which move in the speed of light. The equivalent mass of the graviton (rest mass) is found to be equal to 0.707 of the equivalent mass of the light photons. Such a result indicates that the lightest particle (up to the author’s knowledge) in the nature is the graviton and has an equivalent mass equals to 2.5119 x 10-52 kg. Based on the fluidic nature of dark energy, a fourth law of thermodynamics is proposed and a new physical interpretation of Kepler’s Laws are presented. Additionally, based on the fact that what we are observing is just the history of our universe, on the Big Bang Theory, Einstein’s General Relativity, Hubble Parameter, cosmic inflation theory and on NASA’s observation of supernova 1a, then a second-order (parabolic) parametric model is obtained in this proposed paper to describe the accelerated ex- pansion of the universe. This model shows that the universe is approaching the universe cosmic horizon line and will pass through a critical point that will influence significantly its fate. Considering the breaking symmetry model and the variational principle of mechanics, then the universe will witness an infinitesimally stationary state and a symmetry breaking. As result of that, our universe will experience in the near future, a very massive impulse force in the order 1083 N. Subsequently, the universe will collapse. Finally, simulation results are demonstrated to verify the analytical results.

Surprisingly recent astronomical observations have provided strong evidence that our universe is not only expanding, but also is expanding at an accelerating rate. This paper pre- sents a basis of the theory of universe space- time dark energy, a solution of Einstein’s cosmological constant problem, physical interpretation of universe dark energy and Einstein’s cosmological constant Lambda and its value ( = 0.29447 × 10-52 m-2), values of universe dark energy density 1.2622 × 10-26 kg/m3 = 6.8023 GeV, universe critical density 1.8069 × 10-26 kg/m3 = 9.7378 GeV, universe matter density 0.54207 × 10-26 kg/m3 = 2.9213 GeV, and universe radiation density 2.7103 × 10-31 kg/m3 = 1.455 MeV. The interpretation in this paper is based on geometric modeling of space-time as a perfect four- dimensional continuum cosmic fluid and the momentum generated by the time. In this modeling time is considered as a mechanical variable along with other variables and treated on an equal footing. In such a modeling, time is considered to have a mechanical nature so that the momentum associated with it is equal to the negative of the universe total energy. Since the momentum associated with the time as a mechanical variable is equal to the negative system total energy, the coupling in the time and its momentum leads to maximum increase in the space-time field with 70.7% of the total energy. Moreover, a null paraboloid is obtained and interpreted as a function of the momentum generated by time. This paper presents also an interpretation of space-time tri-dipoles, gravity field waves, and gravity carriers (the gravitons). This model suggests that the space-time has a polarity and is composed of dipoles which are responsible for forming the orbits and storing the space-time energy-momentum. The tri-di- poles can be unified into a solo space-time dipole with an angle of 45 degrees. Such a result shows that the space-time is not void, on the contrary, it is full of conserved and dynamic energy-momentum structure. Furthermore, the gravity field waves is modeled and assumed to be carried by the gravitons which move in the speed of light. The equivalent mass of the graviton (rest mass) is found to be equal to 0.707 of the equivalent mass of the light photons. Such a result indicates that the lightest particle (up to the author’s knowledge) in the nature is the graviton and has an equivalent mass equals to 2.5119 x 10-52 kg. Based on the fluidic nature of dark energy, a fourth law of thermodynamics is proposed and a new physical interpretation of Kepler’s Laws are presented. Additionally, based on the fact that what we are observing is just the history of our universe, on the Big Bang Theory, Einstein’s General Relativity, Hubble Parameter, cosmic inflation theory and on NASA’s observation of supernova 1a, then a second-order (parabolic) parametric model is obtained in this proposed paper to describe the accelerated ex- pansion of the universe. This model shows that the universe is approaching the universe cosmic horizon line and will pass through a critical point that will influence significantly its fate. Considering the breaking symmetry model and the variational principle of mechanics, then the universe will witness an infinitesimally stationary state and a symmetry breaking. As result of that, our universe will experience in the near future, a very massive impulse force in the order 1083 N. Subsequently, the universe will collapse. Finally, simulation results are demonstrated to verify the analytical results.

Cite this paper

Shibli, M. (2011) The foundation of the theory of the universe dark energy and its nature.*Natural Science*, **3**, 165-185. doi: 10.4236/ns.2011.33023.

Shibli, M. (2011) The foundation of the theory of the universe dark energy and its nature.

References

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[2] Knop, R.A., Aldering, G., Amanullah, R. et al. (Sep 12, 2003) New constraints on , , and from an independent set of eleven high-redshift supernovae observed with HST1. The Astrophysical Journal. http://sonic.net/~rknop/php/astronomy/papers/knop2003/knopetal2003.pdf

[3] Permutter, S. et al. (1999) Measurements of omega and lambda from 42 high redshift supernovae. Astrophysical Journal, 516, 565-586.

[4] Riess, A.G. et al. (1998) Observational evidence from supernovae for an accelerating universe and cosmological constant. Astronomical Journal, 116, 1009-1038.

[5] Maartens, R. and Majerotto, E. (June 14, 2006) Observational Constraints on Self-Accelerating Cosmology. Journal of Astrophysics. arXiv:astro-ph/0603353v4

[6] Perlmutter, S., Turner, M.S. and White, M. (Jan 15, 1999) Constraining dark energy with SNe Ia and large-scale structure. Journal of Astrophysics. arXiv:astro-ph/9901052v2

[7] Freedman, W.L. et al. (Dec 18, 2000) Final results from the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project to measure the Hubble Constant. Journal of Astrophysics, 553, 47-72.

[8] Tonry, J.L. et al. (May 1, 2003) Cosmological results from High-z Supernovae. Journal of Astrophysics, 594, 1-24.

[9] Carroll, S.M. Sawicki, I. Silvestri, A. and Trodden, M. (July 19, 2006) Modified-source gravity and cosmological structure formation. Journal of Astrophysics, 8.

[10] Cengel, Y.A. Boles, M.A. (2006) Thermodynamics: an engineering approach. 5th Ed., McGraw Hill, Columbus.

[11] E. Noether, “Inavariante Variationsprobeleme,” Goett. Nochr., pp. 235-257, 1918.

[12] D. N. Spergel et al., “Willkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three years results: implications for cosmology,” NASA publications, March 2006.

[13] M. S. Turner, “Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe,” The Third Astro. Symposium: The Galactic Halo ASP Conference Series, Vol. 666, 1999.

[14] D. Huterer and M. S. Turner, “Prospects for probing the dark energy via supernova distance measurements,” Physical Review D, Vol. 60, 1999.

[15] S. M. Carroll, Mark Hoffman, Mark Trodden, “Can the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w be less than -1?,” Physical Review D 68, 2003.

[16] D. Huterer and Michael S. Turner, “Probing dark energy: Methods and strategies,” Phys. Review D, Vol. 64, 2001.

[17] P. J. E. Peebles and Bharat Ratra, “The cosmological constant and dark energy,” Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 75, April, 2003.

[18] E. J. Copeland, M. Sami, and S. Tsujikawa, “Dynamics of Dark Energy,” International Journal of Modern Physics, 16 June, 2006.

[19] G. E. Volovik, “Vcauum Energy: Myths and Reality,” International Journal of Modern Physics A, 2006.

[20] S. M. Carroll, “Why is the Universe Accelerating?,” Jour- nal of Astrophysics, Nov. 18, 2003.

[21] S. M. Carroll, “The Cosmological Constant” Living Reviews of Relativity, 2001, retrieved on 2006.

[22] M. Shibli, “The Foundation of the Fourth Law of Thermodynamics: universe Dark Energy and Its nature Can Dark Energy be Generated?,” to be presented at International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’07), Spain, March 26-28, 2007.

[23] N. Jarosik, et al., “ Three-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations,” Astrophysics Journal, in press, January 5, 2007

[24] G. Dvali and M. Turner, “Dark Energy as a Modifications of the Friedmann Equation,” Journal of Astrophysics, Jan. 25, 2003.

[25] Murad Shibli, “Canonical Modeling Approach of a Micro/Nano Free-Flying Space Robot: A Proposal towards Detecting the Nature of Space-Time,” 1st IEEE ISSCAA, Co-sponsored by AIAA, Harbin, China, Jan. 19-21, 2006.

[26] Murad Shibli, “Physical Insight of Universe Dark Energy: the Space Mission,” 1st IEEE International Symposium on Systems and Control in Aerospace and Astronautics (ISSCAA 2006), Co-sponsored by AIAA, Harbin, China, Jan. 19-21, 2006.

[27] D. N. Spergel et al. “Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three year results: implications for cosmology”, (WMAP collaboration) (March 2006)

[28] Zhurkin, V. B. (1983) Specific alignment of nucleosomes on DNA correlates with periodic distribution of purine- pyrimidine and pyrimidine-purine dimers. FEBS Letters, 158 (2), 293-297.

[29] H. Goldstien, Classical Mechanics, 2nd ed., Addison- Wesley, 1980.

[30] Murad Shibli, “Physical Insight of Space-Time and Modeling of Space-Time Dipoles, Gravity Waves and Gravitons: A Micro Space Antenna to Detect the Nature of Gravity Waves”, 1st IEEE International Conference on Advances in Space Technologies (ICAST2006), Pakistan, Sep 2nd-4th, 2006.

[31] C. Lanczos, The Variational Principle of Mechanics, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1966.

[1] Einstein, A. (1997) The foundation of the general Theory of Relativity. In: English Translation Edited by A. J. Kox, M. J. Klien, and R. Schulmann, The Collected Papers of Einstein, 6, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, pp. 146-200.

[2] Knop, R.A., Aldering, G., Amanullah, R. et al. (Sep 12, 2003) New constraints on , , and from an independent set of eleven high-redshift supernovae observed with HST1. The Astrophysical Journal. http://sonic.net/~rknop/php/astronomy/papers/knop2003/knopetal2003.pdf

[3] Permutter, S. et al. (1999) Measurements of omega and lambda from 42 high redshift supernovae. Astrophysical Journal, 516, 565-586.

[4] Riess, A.G. et al. (1998) Observational evidence from supernovae for an accelerating universe and cosmological constant. Astronomical Journal, 116, 1009-1038.

[5] Maartens, R. and Majerotto, E. (June 14, 2006) Observational Constraints on Self-Accelerating Cosmology. Journal of Astrophysics. arXiv:astro-ph/0603353v4

[6] Perlmutter, S., Turner, M.S. and White, M. (Jan 15, 1999) Constraining dark energy with SNe Ia and large-scale structure. Journal of Astrophysics. arXiv:astro-ph/9901052v2

[7] Freedman, W.L. et al. (Dec 18, 2000) Final results from the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project to measure the Hubble Constant. Journal of Astrophysics, 553, 47-72.

[8] Tonry, J.L. et al. (May 1, 2003) Cosmological results from High-z Supernovae. Journal of Astrophysics, 594, 1-24.

[9] Carroll, S.M. Sawicki, I. Silvestri, A. and Trodden, M. (July 19, 2006) Modified-source gravity and cosmological structure formation. Journal of Astrophysics, 8.

[10] Cengel, Y.A. Boles, M.A. (2006) Thermodynamics: an engineering approach. 5th Ed., McGraw Hill, Columbus.

[11] E. Noether, “Inavariante Variationsprobeleme,” Goett. Nochr., pp. 235-257, 1918.

[12] D. N. Spergel et al., “Willkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three years results: implications for cosmology,” NASA publications, March 2006.

[13] M. S. Turner, “Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe,” The Third Astro. Symposium: The Galactic Halo ASP Conference Series, Vol. 666, 1999.

[14] D. Huterer and M. S. Turner, “Prospects for probing the dark energy via supernova distance measurements,” Physical Review D, Vol. 60, 1999.

[15] S. M. Carroll, Mark Hoffman, Mark Trodden, “Can the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w be less than -1?,” Physical Review D 68, 2003.

[16] D. Huterer and Michael S. Turner, “Probing dark energy: Methods and strategies,” Phys. Review D, Vol. 64, 2001.

[17] P. J. E. Peebles and Bharat Ratra, “The cosmological constant and dark energy,” Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 75, April, 2003.

[18] E. J. Copeland, M. Sami, and S. Tsujikawa, “Dynamics of Dark Energy,” International Journal of Modern Physics, 16 June, 2006.

[19] G. E. Volovik, “Vcauum Energy: Myths and Reality,” International Journal of Modern Physics A, 2006.

[20] S. M. Carroll, “Why is the Universe Accelerating?,” Jour- nal of Astrophysics, Nov. 18, 2003.

[21] S. M. Carroll, “The Cosmological Constant” Living Reviews of Relativity, 2001, retrieved on 2006.

[22] M. Shibli, “The Foundation of the Fourth Law of Thermodynamics: universe Dark Energy and Its nature Can Dark Energy be Generated?,” to be presented at International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’07), Spain, March 26-28, 2007.

[23] N. Jarosik, et al., “ Three-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations,” Astrophysics Journal, in press, January 5, 2007

[24] G. Dvali and M. Turner, “Dark Energy as a Modifications of the Friedmann Equation,” Journal of Astrophysics, Jan. 25, 2003.

[25] Murad Shibli, “Canonical Modeling Approach of a Micro/Nano Free-Flying Space Robot: A Proposal towards Detecting the Nature of Space-Time,” 1st IEEE ISSCAA, Co-sponsored by AIAA, Harbin, China, Jan. 19-21, 2006.

[26] Murad Shibli, “Physical Insight of Universe Dark Energy: the Space Mission,” 1st IEEE International Symposium on Systems and Control in Aerospace and Astronautics (ISSCAA 2006), Co-sponsored by AIAA, Harbin, China, Jan. 19-21, 2006.

[27] D. N. Spergel et al. “Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three year results: implications for cosmology”, (WMAP collaboration) (March 2006)

[28] Zhurkin, V. B. (1983) Specific alignment of nucleosomes on DNA correlates with periodic distribution of purine- pyrimidine and pyrimidine-purine dimers. FEBS Letters, 158 (2), 293-297.

[29] H. Goldstien, Classical Mechanics, 2nd ed., Addison- Wesley, 1980.

[30] Murad Shibli, “Physical Insight of Space-Time and Modeling of Space-Time Dipoles, Gravity Waves and Gravitons: A Micro Space Antenna to Detect the Nature of Gravity Waves”, 1st IEEE International Conference on Advances in Space Technologies (ICAST2006), Pakistan, Sep 2nd-4th, 2006.

[31] C. Lanczos, The Variational Principle of Mechanics, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1966.