NS  Vol.3 No.1 , January 2011
Hydrochemical characteristics of the major water springs in the Yarmouk Basin, north Jordan
Author(s) Awni T. Batayneh
ABSTRACT
The water quality of major springs in the Yar-mouk Basin (north Jordan) experienced degra-dation due to rapid urbanization and industri-alization. In order to check their suitability for irrigation, drinking and industrial purposes, a research work was conducted to assess the degree of ionic toxicity in these water sources. Thirty-six water samples were analyzed for dif-ferent elements of dominant cations and anions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, and HCO3 together with other minor ions P, B, NO3, SO4, and Cl. To classify water quality, parameters such as so-dium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP) and residual sodium carbon-ate (RSC) were calculated. Concentrations of major cations and anions are low compared to their permissible levels in potable water. The total dissolved solids is 617 mg/l or below, which indicates the presence of fresh water. The fresh water condition is also verified by low to mod-erate electrical conductivity (347-1234 ?S/cm) and lower than 8.09 pH values. The concentra-tion of total iron (0.0-0.09 mg/l) falls below the maximum permissible limit of 1 mg/l. The low SAR (0.5 to 1.34) coupled with low electrical conductivity, gives the water medium salinity hazard and low sodium hazard. Thus, the water is general of suitable chemical quality for do-mestic, agricultural and most industrial uses.

Cite this paper
Batayneh, A. (2011) Hydrochemical characteristics of the major water springs in the Yarmouk Basin, north Jordan. Natural Science, 3, 28-35. doi: 10.4236/ns.2011.31003.
References
[1]   Al-Jayyousi, O. and Shatanawi, M. (1995) An analysis of future water policies in Jordan using decision support systems. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 11, 315-330. doi:10.1080/07900629550042263

[2]   Abu-Awwad, A. and Shatanawi, M. (1997) Water harvesting and infiltration in arid areas affected by surface crust: examples from Jordan. Journal of Arid Environments, 37, 443-452. doi:10.1006/jare.1997.0301

[3]   Abu-Zreig, M., Attom, M. and Hamasha, N. (2000) Rainfall harvesting using sand ditches in Jordan. Agricultural Water Management, 46, 183-192. doi:10.1016/S0378-3774(00)00082-2

[4]   Jaber, J. and Mohsen, M. (2001) Evaluation of nonconventional water resources supply in Jordan. Desalination, 136, 83-92. doi:10.1016/S0011-9164(01)00168-0

[5]   Mohsen, M. and Jaber, J. (2002) Potential of industrial wastewater reuse. Desalination, 152, 281-289. doi:10.1016/S0011-9164(02)01075-5

[6]   Jaffe, M. and Al-Jayyousi, O. (2002) Planning models for sustainable water resources development. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 45, 309-322. doi:10.1080/09640560220133379

[7]   Mohsen, M. (2007) Water strategies and potential of desalination in Jordan. Desalination, 203, 27-46. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2006.03.524

[8]   Hadadin, N. and Tarawneh, Z. (2007) Environmental issues in Jordan, solutions and recommendations. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3, 30-36. doi:10.3844/ajessp.2007.30.36

[9]   Rimawi, O., El-Naqa, A. and Salameh, E. (1992) Hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater resources in northeastern part of the Jordan Valley/Jordan. Dirasat, 19, 87-117.

[10]   Abderahman, N. and Awad, M. (2002) Hydrochemical characteristics of the major springs in the Maqarin dam site on the Yarmouk River (northern Jordan). Environmental Geosciences, 9, 127-138. doi:10.1046/j.1526-0984.2002.93001.x

[11]   Makhlouf, I., Abu-Azzam, H. and Al-Hiayri, A. (1996) Surface and subsurface lithostratigraphic relationships of the Cretaceous Ajlun Group in Jordan. Natural Resources Authority, Subsurface Geology Division, Bulletin, 8.

[12]   Moh’d, B. (2000) The geology of Irbid and Ash Shuna Ash Shamaliyya (Waqqas). Map Sheet No. 3154-II and 3154-III. Natural Resources Authority, Geological Mapping Division, Bulletin, 46.

[13]   Todd, D. (1980) Groundwater hydrology. 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons. Inc., New York.

[14]   US Salinity Laboratory Staff (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. US Department of Agriculture Handbook 60, Washington, DC.

[15]   Wilcox, L. (1955) Classification and uses of irrigation waters. USDA Circular No. 969, Washington, DC.

[16]   WHO (World Health Organization) (2003) Guidelines for drinking water quality, health criteria and other supporting information, Geneva.

[17]   Davis, S. and De Wiest, R. (1996) Hydrogeology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

[18]   Clesceri, L., Greenberg, A. and Trussell, R. (1989) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. 17th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.

[19]   Richard, L. (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. Agricultural Handbook 60, Washington, DC.

 
 
Top