AJPS  Vol.4 No.9 , September 2013
Influence of Fly Ash and Growth Regulator with Soil for Determination of Chlorophyll in Arachis hypogaea L.
ABSTRACT

The present investigation was conducted to find out the effect of varying levels of fly ash and growth hormones on the determination of chlorophylls. The experiments were conducted in pots during 2009-2010 with Arachis hypogaea L. (groundnut) grown with different levels of fly ash concentration, and soil was used (various combinations) at Guru ghasidas University, Bilaspur (CG.) India. In fresh leaf, chlorophylls content varies in the plain soil from 0.29 to 0.64 mg g-1, which is less for photosynthetic activities. Arachis hypogaea L. showed maximum germination percentage, increasing leaf area, enhancement of root & shoot length, whereas Fly ash, bio fertilizers with growth hormone showed minimum values in all parameters. Results showed that, for combination of A to E, the value of chlorophyll ranged from 0.270 mg g-1 to 0.395 mg g-1, and chlorophyll b ranged from 0.400 mg g-1 to 0.489 mg g-1, whereas fro total chloro- phyll ranged from 0.67 to 0.85 mg g-1. In the present work, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b & total chlorophyll content in fresh leaf, after 45 days, were recorded as 0.395 mg g-1, 0.489 mg g-1 and 0.851 mg g-1 while in 90 days were recorded as 10.38 mg g-1, 0.48 mg g-1 and 0.86 mg g-1 respectively, in less amount combination of fly ash, soil content with application of growth hormone.


Cite this paper
S. Sao and P. Sahu, "Influence of Fly Ash and Growth Regulator with Soil for Determination of Chlorophyll in Arachis hypogaea L.," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 9, 2013, pp. 1744-1749. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.49214.
References
[1]   F. Ahmad and K. H. Ton, “Effect of Lime and Organic Matter on Soil with AI Toxicity,” Soil Science Society of America, Vol. 50, 1986, pp. 605-661. doi:10.2136/sssaj1986.03615995005000030023x

[2]   R. W. Millar and R. R. Donahue, “H+ and [Al(OH)2]+ Toxicity in Soil in ‘Soil in Our Environment’,” Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 1997, pp. 241-251.

[3]   V. H. Rai, D. K. Gupta, Akhtar and A. Pal, “Performance of Seed Germination and Growth in Victoria Coal Fly Ash Amended Soil,” Journal of Environmental Biology, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2003, pp. 9-15.

[4]   P. K. Sarangi and P. G. Mishra, “Soil Metabolic Activities and Yield in Ground Nut in Fly Ash Amended Soil,” Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1998, pp. 117-119.

[5]   L. P. Singh and A. Siddhiqui, “Effect of Fly Ash on Growth and Yield Three Cultivars of Rice,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 86, No. 1, 2003, pp. 73-78. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00111-6

[6]   A. C. Change, L. J. Lund, A. L. Page and J. E. Warneke, “Physical Properties of Fly Ash Amended Soil,” Journal Environment Quality, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1979, pp. 267-270. doi:10.2134/jeq1977.00472425000600030007x

[7]   G. B. Dreiher and J. A. Schleicher, “Trace Elements in Coal by Optical Emission Spectroscopy,” Advances in Chemistry, Vol. 35, 1975, p. 141.

[8]   C. O. Plank and D. C. Mortens, “Boron Availability as Influenced by Application of Fly Ash to Soil,” Soil Science Society of America Proceeding, Vol. 38, 1974, pp. 974-977. doi:10.2136/sssaj1974.03615995003800060038x

[9]   J. R. Still and W. G. Pill, “Germination, Emergence and Seedlings Growth of Tomato and Impatiens in Response to Seed Treatment with Aclobutrazol,” Horticultural Science, Vol. 38, 2003, pp. 1201-1204.

[10]   K. Bhandari, “Studies on the Effect of Fly Ash and Plant Hormones Treated Soil in the Increased Protein and Amino Acid Content in the Seeds Ground Nut,” Asian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 20, 2006, p. 15.

[11]   M. A. Bozkurt and I. Karacal, “Quantitative Relationship between Nutrient Contents and Oil Quality of Sunflower Seed,” Journal of Food & Science Technology, Vol. 38, No. 6, 2001, pp. 635-638.

[12]   Y. R. Chadha, “Lime Requirement for Proper Growth of Ground Nut, Wealth of India,” CSIR Publication, New Delhi, 1998, pp. 90-102.

[13]   Y. R. Chadha, “Poorly Developed Seed Kernels in Ground Nut Due to Ca Deficiency. Wealth of India,” CSIR Publication, New Delhi, 1998, pp. 103-109.

[14]   V. Goyel, M. R. Augar and D. K. Shrivastava, “Studies on the Effect of Fly Ash Treated Soil on the Increased Protein on the Effect Increased Protein Content in the Seeds of Glycine max (Soybean),” Asian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 14, pp. 180-182.

[15]   A. M. Farmer, “The Effect of Dust on Vegetation—A Review,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 79, No. 1, 1993, pp. 63-75. doi:10.1016/0269-7491(93)90179-R

[16]   R. N. Sato, H. K. Kene, R. V. Nalamwar and R. B. Ulemale, “Effect of Cement Dust Pollution on Growth and Yield of Cotton,” Annals of Plant Physiology, Vol. 7, 1993, pp. 73-77.

[17]   D. Raajasubramanian, P. Sundaramoorthy, L. Baskaran, K. Sankar Ganesh, A. L. A. Chidambaram and M. JegaNathan, “Cement Dust Pollution on growth and Yield Attributes of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.),” International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, Vol. 1, No.1, 2011, pp. 31-36.

[18]   T. Baszynski, M. Warchodowa, Z. Krupa, A. Tukendorf, M. Krol and D. Z. Wolinska, “The Effect of Magnesium Deficiency on Photochemical Activities of Rape and Buckwheat Chloroplasts,” Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenphysiologie, Vol. 99, 1980, p. 295.

[19]   J. S. Kanwar, H. L. Nijhawan and S. K. Raheja, “Groundnut Nutrition and Fertilizer Responses in India,” ICAR, New Delhi, 1983.

[20]   V. V. Angadi, S. V. Patil, M. N. Shilvantar and B. M. Chittapur, “Effect of NPK Levels and Split Application of N on Growth and Yield of bunch Groundnut in Vertisol under Irrigation System,” Karnataka Journal of Agriculture Science, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, 1980, pp. 9-14.

[21]   S. Sadashivam and Manickchand, “Biochemical Methods: Estimation of Fatty Acids and Oils,” New Age International Publication Limited, New Delhi, 1996, pp. 102-107.

[22]   S. Sunitha, M. R. Perras, D. E. Falk, R. Zhang, P. Pharis and R. A. Fletcher, “Relationship between Gibberellins, Height and Stress Tolerance on Barley Seedlings,” Plant Growth Regulation, Vol. 42, No. 2, 2004, pp. 125-135. doi:10.1023/B:GROW.0000017492.56792.64

[23]   R. Gopi, C. A. Jaleel, R. Sairam, G. M. A. Lakshmanan, M. Gomathinayagam and R. Pannerselvam, “Differential Effects of Hexaconazole and Paclobutrazol on Biomass, Electrolyte Leakage, Lipid per Oxidation and Antioxidant Potential of Daucus carota L.,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Vol. 60, 2007, p. 180. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2007.06.003

[24]   T. Tekalign, S. Hammes and J. Robbertse, “Paclobutrazol Induced Leaf, Stem and Root Anatomical Modifications in Potato,” Horticulture Science, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2005, pp. 1343-1346

[25]   C. Kaya, A. Levent Tuna, A. Alfredo and C. Alves, “Gibberellic Acid Improves Water Deficit Tolerance in Maize Plants,” Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2006, pp. 331-337. doi:10.1007/s11738-006-0029-7

[26]   A. L. Tuna, K. Cengiz, M. Dikilitas and D. Higgs, “The Combined Effect of Gibberellic Acid and Salinity on Same Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, Plant Growth Parameter and Nutritional Status in Maize Plants,” Environmental and Experimental Botany, Vol. 62, 2008, p. 19. doi:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2007.06.007

[27]   J. C. Sadhna and B. M. Khan, “Nitrogen Fixation,” Journal of Science Industrial Research, Vol. 36, 1977, pp. 495-533.

[28]   J. C. Sadhna and B. M. Khan, “Nitrogen Fixation in Ground Nut (Arachis hypogaea),” Journal of Science Industrial Research, Vol. 36, 1977, pp. 515-516.

[29]   D. L. Purich and H. J. Fromm, “Studies on Factors Influencing Enzyme Responses,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 31, 1972, pp. 247-255.

[30]   E. J. Hawitt and T. A. Smith, “Plant Mineral Nutrition,” English University, London, 1974, pp. 131-133.

[31]   J. M. Whatley, “Ultra Structural Changes in Chloroplast of Phaseolus vulgaris,” New Phytology, Vol. 70, 1971, pp. 725-742. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1971.tb02573.x

[32]   O. T. G. Johns, “Ferro Cheletase of Spinich Chloroplast,” Journal of Biochemistry, Vol. 107, No. 1, 1968, pp. 113-119.

[33]   P. Veeramani and K. Subrahmaniy, “Nutrient Management for Sustainable Groundnut Productivity in India—A Review,” International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 11, 2011, pp. 41-45.

[34]   K. Bhandari,”Effect of Fly Ash on Growth and Yield of Linseed Crop,” Ph.D. Thesis, G.G.D. University, Bilaspur, 2004.

[35]   K. Rao and S. Gideron, “Use of Plant Hormones on Germination,” Indian Journal of Oil Seed, Vol. 1, 1957, p. 247.

[36]   A. Bawaria, “Oil Analysis of Sunflower, Mustard Seed, Ground Nut, Grown in Ameliorated Acidic Soil,” Ph.D. Thesis, G. G. D. University, Bilaspur C.G, 2006.

[37]   P. J. Davies, “The Plant Hormones: Their Nature, Occurrence and Function,” In: P. J. Davis, Ed., Plant Hormones: Physiology, Biochemistry and Biology, Kluwer Acadamic Publisher, Drodrecht, 1995, pp. 1-12.

[38]   G. M. A. Lakshmanan, C. A. Jaleel, M. Gomathinayagam and R. Panneerselvam, “Changes in Antioxidant Potential and Sink Organ Dry Matter with Pigment Accumulation Induced by Hexaconazole in Plectranthus forskholii Briq,” Comptes Rendus Biologies, Vol. 330, No. 11, 2007, pp. 814-820. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2007.08.008

[39]   M. Gomathinayagam, C. A. Jaleel, G. M. A. Lakshmanan and R. Panneerselvam, “Change in Carbohydrate Metabolism by Triazole Growth Regulators in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz); Effects on Tuber Production and Quality,” Comptes Rendus Biologies, Vol. 330, No. 9, 2007, pp. 644-655. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2007.06.002

[40]   C. A. Jaleel, R. Gopi, P. Manivannan, M. Gomathinayagam, P. V. Murali and R. Panneerselvam, “Soil Applied Propiconazole Alleviates the Impact of Salinity on Catharanthus roseus by Improving Antioxidant Status,” Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, Vol. 90, No. 2, 2008, pp. 135-139. doi:10.1016/j.pestbp.2007.11.003

[41]   S. M. Swain and D. P. Singh, “Tale Tales from Sly Dwarves: Novel Functions of Gibberellins Plant Development,” Trends of Plant Science, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2005, pp. 123-129. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2005.01.007

[42]   C. V. Patil, N. A. Yaledahalli and S. S. Prakash, “Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Productivity of Groundnut in India,” National Workshop on Groundnut Seed Technology, Raichur, 2003.

[43]   S. S. Mondal and S. B. Goswami, “Effect of Split Application of Potassium on Rainfed Groundnut,” Journal of Potassium Research, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1991, pp. 304-308.

[44]   P. Parasuraman, M. N. Budher, P. Manickasundaram and M. Nandanam, “Response of Sorghum, Finger Millet and Groundnut to the Silt Application and Combined Use of Organic Matter and Inorganic Fertilizer under Rainfed Conditions,” Indian Journal of Agronomy, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1998, pp. 528-532.

[45]   D. S. Thorave and M. B. Dhonde, “Morphological Indices and Yield Attributes as Influenced by Integrated Nutrient Management in Summer Groundnut,” Annals of Plant Physiology, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007, pp. 186-188.

[46]   V. Kumar, B. C. Ghose, B. Ravi and S. Karmakar, “Effect of Irrigation and Fertilizer on Yield, Water-Use Efficiency and Nutrient Uptake of Summer Groundnut,” Indian Journal Agronomy, Vol. 45, No. 4, 2000, pp. 756-760.

[47]   T. Chitdeshwari and S. Poongathai, “Yield of Groundnut and Nutrient Uptake as Influenced by Zn, B, and S,” Agricultural Science Digest, Vol. 23, 2003, pp. 263-265.

 
 
Top