OJAppS  Vol.3 No.4 , August 2013
Turning Research into Action: Using Factor Analysis to Enhance Program Evaluation
ABSTRACT

Purpose: Sexual activity among adolescents in the United States remains high. Nearly 46% of students grades 9-12 have engaged in sexual intercourse. One of the more recent statistical tools employed in evaluation efforts includes factor analysis. The objective of this study was to investigate the underlying dimensions of a survey instrument that assesses a youth character development program, which focuses on avoiding high-risk behaviors. Method: The 76-item survey instrument was administered to adolescents (age 12-18). During the 2009-2010 school year, 652 participants in the intervention group and 1110 participants in the comparison group completed the pre-, post-, and 6-month follow-up survey. Results: Using Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior groupings, 27 survey items were selected. Through iterative principal axis factoring, four factors were extracted and rotated. A visual scree plot was generated to determine the number of acceptable factors. The extracted factors accounted for 52.53% of the total variance. Factors were subjected to Equimax rotation with Kaiser normalization and converged after six iterations. Variables with patterned weights less than 0.44 were excluded. A reliability analysis demonstrated internal consistency. Conclusions: Identified factors included: 1) Teenagers’ attitudes toward sexual health behaviors; 2) Teenagers’ perceptions of the consequences of sexual health behaviors; 3) Parental or guardian expectations; and 4) Teenagers’ relationships with parents or guardians. This study’s results indicated that all factors can be described within Ajzen’s theoretical framework consistent with previous research findings. Results may be used to enhance delivery of the intervention.


Cite this paper
R. Wetta, L. Jacobson and F. Dong, "Turning Research into Action: Using Factor Analysis to Enhance Program Evaluation," Open Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 298-307. doi: 10.4236/ojapps.2013.34038.
References
[1]   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report,” DHHS Publication No. 2010-623-026/41246, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 2010.

[2]   H. Weinstock, S. Berman and W. Cates, “Sexually Trans mitted Diseases among American Youth: Incidence and Prevalence Estimates, 2000,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2004, pp. 6-10. doi:10.1363/3600604

[3]   S. E. Forhan, S. L. Gottlieb, M. R. Sternberg, F. Xu, S. D. Datta, G. M. McQuillian and L. E. Markowitz, “Preva lence of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Adolescents Aged 14 to 19 in the United States,” Pediat rics, Vol. 124, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1505-1512. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-0674

[4]   H. W. Chesson, J. M. Blandford, T. L. Gift, G. Tao and K. L. Irwin, “The Estimated Direct Medical Cost of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among American Youth, 2000,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2004, pp. 11-19. doi:10.1363/3601104

[5]   B. E. Hamilton, J. A. Martin and S. J. Ventura, “Births: Preliminary Data for 2008,” National Vital Statistics Re ports, Vol. 58, No. 16, 2012, 20 Pages.

[6]   E. K. Adams, N. I. Gavin, M. F. Ayadi, J. Santelli and C. Raskind-Hood, “The Costs of Public Services for Teen age Mothers Post-Welfare Reform: A Ten-State Study,” Journal of Health Care Finance, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2009, pp. 44-58.

[7]   S. Jaffee, A. Caspi, T. E. Moffitt, J. Belsky and P. Silva, “Why Are Children Born to Teen Mothers at Risk for Adverse Outcomes in Young Adulthood? Results from a 20-Year Longitudinal Study,” Development and Psycho pathology, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2001, pp. 377-397. doi:10.1017/S0954579401002103

[8]   D. P. Jutte, N. P. Roos, M. D. Brownell, G. Briggs, L. MacWilliam and L. L. Roos, “The Ripples of Adolescent Motherhood: Social, Educational, and Medical Outcomes for Children of Teen and Prior Teen Mothers,” Academic Pediatrics, Vol. 10, No. 5, 2010, pp. 293-301. doi:10.1016/j.acap.2010.06.008

[9]   B. R. Flay, S. Graumlich, E. Segawa, J. L. Burns and M. Y. Holliday, “Effects of 2 Prevention Programs on High Risk Behaviors among African American Youth: A Ran domized Trial,” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 158, No. 4, 2004, pp. 377-384. doi:10.1001/archpedi.158.4.377

[10]   P. W. Greenwood, “Cost-Effective Violence Prevention through Targeted Family Interventions,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 1036, 2004, pp. 201-214. doi:10.1196/annals.1330.013

[11]   J. B. Jemmott, L. S. Jemmott and G. T. Fong, “Absti nence and Safer Sex HIV Risk-Reduction Interventions for African American Adolescents,” Journal of the Ameri can Medical Association, Vol. 279, No. 19, 1998, pp. 1529-1536. doi:10.1001/jama.279.19.1529

[12]   J. B. Jemmott, L. S. Jemmott and G. T. Fong, “Efficacy of a Theory-Based Abstinence-Only Intervention over 24 Months,” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 164, No. 2, 2010, pp. 152-159. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.267

[13]   K. L. Kumpfer, R. Alvarado, P. Smith and N. Bellamy, “Cultural Sensitivity and Adaptation in Family-Based Prevention Interventions,” Prevention Science, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2002, pp. 241-246. doi:10.1023/A:1019902902119

[14]   C. E. Collins, D. L. Whiters and R. Braithwaite, “The Saved Sista Project: A Faith-Based HIV Prevention Pro gram for Black Women in Addition Recovery,” American Journal of Health Studies, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2007, pp. 76-82.

[15]   S. E. Pickert, R. Wetta-Hall, A. Chesser, T. A. Hart, R. E. Crowe and L. M. Theis, “Criteria-Based Development of a Teen-Directed Abstinence-Centered Curriculum,” Ameri can Journal of Health Studies, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2009, pp. 386-400.

[16]   D. E. Clemons, R. Wetta-Hall, L. T. Jacobson, A. Chesser and A. Moss, “Does One Size Fit All: Culturally Appro priate Teen Curriculum for Risk Behaviors,” American Journal of Health Studies, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2011, pp. 45-56.

[17]   E. R. Buhi and P. Goodson, “Predictors of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Intention: A Theory-Guided Sys tematic Review,” Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2007, pp. 4-21. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.09.027

[18]   E. S. Cha, W. M. Doswell, K. H. Kim, D. Charron-Pro chownik and T. E. Patrick, “Evaluating the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Intention to Engage in Pre marital Sex amongst Korean College Students: A Ques tionnaire Survey,” International Journal of Nursing Studies, Vol. 44, No. 7, 2007, pp. 1147-1157. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.04.015

[19]   C. L. Thomas and D. M. Dimitrov, “Effects of a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program on Teens’ Attitudes to ward Sexuality: A Latent Trait Modeling Approach,” Developmental Psychology, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2007, pp. 173-185. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.43.1.173

[20]   J. J. Cuffee, D. D. Hallfors and M. W. Waller, “Racial and Gender Differences in Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Longitudinal Associations with Coital Debut,” Jour nal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2007, pp. 19-26. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.02.012

[21]   M. Foster Cox, T. K. Fasolino and A. S. Tavakoli, “Fac tor Analysis and Psychometric Properties of the Mother Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) Instrument for Sexual Risk Behavior,” Journal of Nursing Measure ment, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2008, pp. 171-183. doi:10.1891/1061-3749.16.3.171

[22]   D. Helitzer, C. Hollis, B. Urquieta de Hernandez, M. Sanders, S. Roybal and I. Van Deusen, “Evaluation for Community-Based Programs: The Integration of Logic Models and Factor Analysis,” Evaluation and Program Planning, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2010, pp. 223-233. doi:10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2009.08.005

[23]   N. H. Busen and K. Kouzekanani, “Perspectives in Ado lescent Risk-Taking through Instrument Development,” Journal of Professional Nursing, Vol. 16, No. 6, 2000, pp. 345-353. doi:10.1053/jpnu.2000.18174

[24]   I. Ajzen, “From Intentions to Actions: The Theory of Planned Behavior,” In: J. Kuhl and J. Beckmann, Eds., Action-Control: From Cognition to Behavior, Springer, Berlin, 1985, pp. 11-39.

[25]   I. Ajzen, “The Theory of Planned Behavior,” Organiza tional Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 50, 1991, pp. 179-211. doi:10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T

[26]   I. Ajzen and M. Fishbein, “Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior,” Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 1980.

[27]   M. Fishbein and I. Ajzen, “Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research,” Ad dison Wesley, Boston, 1975.

[28]   T. J. Madden, P. S. Ellen and I. Ajzen, “A Comparison of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Theory of Rea soned Action,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulle tin, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1992, pp. 3-9. doi:10.1177/0146167292181001

[29]   R. L. Seufert, “Ohio Department of Health Abstinence Education Program Survey,” Applied Research Center of Miami University, Middletown, 2004.

[30]   R. L. Gorsuch, “Factor Analysis,” Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc., Mahwah, 1983.

[31]   L. S. Jemmott, J. B. Jemmott and M. K. Hutchinson, “HIV/AIDS: Prevention Needs and Strategies for a Public Health Emergency,” In: R. Braithwaite, Ed., Health Is sues in the Black Community, 2nd Edition, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 2001, pp. 309-346.

[32]   C. Dilorio, W. N. Dudley, J. E. Soet and F. McCarty, “Sexual Possibility Situations and Sexual Behaviors among Young Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Pro tective Factors,” Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 35, No. 6, 2004, pp. 528-537.

[33]   L. Blinn-Pike, “Why Abstinent Adolescents Report They Have Not Had Sex: Understanding Sexually Resilient Youth,” Family Relations, Vol. 48, No. 3, 1999, pp. 295-301. doi:10.2307/585640

[34]   L. Blinn-Pike, T. J. Berger, J. Hewett and J. Oleson, “Sexually Abstinent Adolescents: An 18-Month Follow Up,” Journal of Adolescent Research, Vol. 19, No. 5, 2004, pp. 495-511. doi:10.1177/0743558403259987

[35]   E. R. Buhi, P. Goodson, T. B. Neilands and H. Blunt, “Adolescent Sexual Abstinence: A Test of an Integrative Theoretical Framework,” Health Education & Behavior, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2011, pp. 63-79. doi:10.1177/1090198110375036

[36]   N. T. Masters, B. A. Beadnell, D. M. Morrison, M. J. Hoppe and M. Rogers Gillmore, “The Opposite of Sex? Adolescents’ Thoughts about Abstinence and Sex, and Their Sexual Behavior,” Perspectives on Sexual and Re productive Health, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2008, pp. 87-93. doi:10.1363/4008708

[37]   G. F. Watts and S. Nagy, “Sociodemographic Factors, Attitudes, and Expectations toward Adolescent Coitus,” American Journal of Health Behavior, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2000, pp. 309-317. doi:10.5993/AJHB.24.4.7

[38]   P. J. Dittus and J. Jaccard, “Adolescents’ Perceptions of Maternal Disapproval of Sex: Relationship to Sexual Outcomes,” Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 26, No. 4, 2000, pp. 268-278. doi:10.1016/S1054-139X(99)00096-8

[39]   C. B. Aspy, S. K. Vesely, R. F. Oman, S. Rodine, L. Marshall and K. McLeroy, “Parental Communication and Youth Sexual Behaviour,” Journal of Adolescence, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2007, pp. 449-466. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2006.04.007

[40]   D. P. Deptula, D. B. Henry and M. E. Schoeny, “How Can Parents Make a Difference? Longitudinal Associa tions with Adolescent Sexual Behavior,” Journal of Fam ily Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 6, 2010, pp. 731-739. doi:10.1037/a0021760

 
 
Top